AOH :: BEARD13.TXT A fax from Tom Bearden to David Jonsson, Upsala University, Sweden

Legend:
_text_ = underlined text
\text\ = italic text
_\text\_ = underlined italic text
B_in = B subscript in
B^2 = B exponent 2
{del} = partial derivative
{pi} = greek letter pi
Delta = Greek letter delta (triangle)
____________________________________________________________________

Fax to David Jonsson, Upsala, Sweden (internet: david@ibg.uu.se)
June 1, 1995

Dear David:

I will prepare a diskette for you with the material (the fax) on
it. Later, I will follow with a diskette of the technical paper,
which will have some dozen or so drawings as well.

In reference to mass as an electromagnetic effect: the equation
E=mc^2 can be taken to state the "EM energy trapped in mass" is
equal to mc^2; since energy can be transformed from one form to
another, we are free to pick EM energy. The problem immediately
rises on the difference between "energy" and "energy density
flow". All EM energy must be in motion at the speed of light, by
Einstein's postulate, with respect to any observer. So how can it
be seen by the external observer as "sitting still" so as to
comprise mass? The answer can be found in E.T. Whittaker, "On
the Partial Differential Equations of Mathematical Physics",
_Mathematische Annalen_, Vol. 57, 1903, p.333-355. Whittaker
mathematically decomposes the scalar potential into a harmonic
series of bidirectional EM wave pairs. Each wavepair consists of
the wave and its phase conjugate. By the distortion correction
theorem of nonlinear optics (which did not exist until the
mid-1970s), in each wavepair the wave and its antiwave (phase
conjugate replica) must \spatially superpose\, though antiphased in
the time dimension. Therefore each wavepair is a special kind of
standing wave; where at each point an E of the wave and -E of the
antiwave simultaneously superpose. In the superposition,
[E + (-E)] \individual\ vectors do not "cancel" and "cease to
exist", just as two elephants straining against each other do not
"cancel" and "disappear" just because the _translation_ of the
\two-elephant system\ is zero. Each elephant is still in there and,
as an individual, he is straining mightily. In the wave/antiwave
case, the waves pass through the same space exactly superposed
\spatially\, as seen by the observer. Now to be "seen by the
observer", actually a little observation time is required. In
other words, what is detected by observation is not E or -E, but
Et or -Et. The observation time-differentiates, to get rid of
the t. So the "observer" will "see" a zero net E-field, composed
of E + (-E) = 0. The scalar \field energy densities\ add at any
point, however, while their observed "resultant vector summation"
E-field is a zero vector. All the zero vector means is that the
system of "seemingly trapped" superposed EM energy at that point
is not translating. The energy is not really trapped, in the same
way that the water flowing through a steady whirlpool in a river
is not static. The whirlpool form (the "collection" form of the
water flow) seems static. The flow continues. So it is with
so-called "trapped" EM energy.

Thus a pure _gravitational standing wave_ is nothing in the world
but an ordinary EM wave plus its superposed true phase conjugate
replica wave (its time-reversed wave twin). For this reason, all
potentials are gravitational, as is already recognized in
general relativity. As you look along the wave/antiwave pair,
along any radius from the "transmitter", so to speak, you see a
sinusoidal variation of the local trapped EM energy density of
the vacuum, as a function of the radius. So you see
\electromagnetics turned into gravitation.\

We now insist on strong phase conjugation. I.e., if the wave is
phase conjugated to form a time-reversed replica or antiwave,
every photon comprising the wave must also be individually
time-reversed, else the antiwave is not a true phase conjugate
replica microscopically.

So in the wave/antiwave Whittaker pair comprising the potential,
the wavepair is made of photon/antiphoton pairs. These are spin-2
entities, hence they are \gravitons.\ So the electrostatic scalar
potential is formed of gravitons, not individual photons. (Cooper

Any electric dipole will separate the two waves comprising the
Whittaker pair. That is, one end (the negative end) of the dipole
is time-forward. The positive end is time-reversed. So in each
wavepair, the two waves "split" due to their difference in the
time dimension. The wave interacts with the negative end of the
dipole, giving us our familiar EM interaction. The antiwave
interacts with the positive (time-reversed) end of the dipole,
giving us the familiar "Newtonian third law reaction". In an
atom, one can choose an electron in the orbital shells, and a
corresponding positive charge in the nucleus, and call that a
dipole. The atom then becomes a complex arrangement of dynamic
electrical dipoles, for this model. When the wavepair (wave plus
its antiwave) comes in, a dipole receives it. The wave interacts
with the orbital electron, giving us the familiar "photon"
interaction. At the same time, the antiwave is split off and
interacts with the other end of the dipole in the nucleus, giving
us the familiar nuclear recoil. Since the nucleus is much more
massive than the electron, we normally (in antennas and receivers)
do not even take it into account.

However, we have (in other places) shown that the wave in the
vacuum is never a transverse EM wave anyway. Maxwell simply
assumed the transverse string wave. In fact, it is simple to prove
that the wave in the vacuum is a longitudinal "sound" type wave.
A spinning electron in the free electron gas in a receiving wire
antenna, e.g., is longitudinally restrained by the repulsion of
myriads of electrons beyond it in the gas. It is also spinning.
Consequenly, it must act as a gyro, where its spin axis is
longitudinally restrained (it can only "drift" at electron drift
velocity down the wire; the disturbing force moves down the wire
at lightspeed). Since the spinning electron is a gyro, it will
precess when a disturbing force is impressed. Specifically, it
will precess at right angles to that disturbing force, by the
theory of gyroscopes. So simply see which way the electrons moves,
and the disturbing force that came in from the vacuum had to be at
right angles to that electron movement. Voilą! The electron does
indeed move laterally (transversally). Hence the vacuum disturbance
is longitudinal. QED.

EM waves in vacuum have always been longitudinal waves. Again,
Maxwell assumed the plucked string transverse wave. [Note that
the wave in a plucked string is the wave in the string only, it
never leaves the string, and it is not the wave that launches
into the air]. In deriving this plucked string transverse wave,
the old boys assumed infinitely rigid endholders for the taut
string. No such thing exists in nature. What really exists is a
fairly rigid endholder. However, the body of the instrument
produces a wave of equal and opposite energy, but highly damped
in magnitude because of the denser medium of the endholders and
the instrumental body of the instrument. Nonetheless, an antiwave
is produced in the body of the instrument \equal in energy to the
string wave.\ This is still missing from the standard sophomore's
derivation of the wave equation from the taut string example. The
string then imparts its energy density to the air medium, \as does
the body of the instrument.\ The two (wave and antiwave) are of
equal energy. Now that they are in the same medium, they again
become the same magnitude because of their equal energy. Voilą!
One has two antiphased transverse waves, moving in the same
direction, which thus forms a longitudinal wave of compression
and rarefaction.

The same thing is true of an EM wave. When the wave we have in
our textbooks is created in the electron gas in, say, a long
copper wire antenna, an equal-energy but highly damped antiwave
is created in the atomic nuclei of the copper wire. The nuclei
are positively charged, hence time-reversed. The equal energy
antiwave in the atomic nuclei thus is a phase conjugate replica
of the wave in the electron gas, and of equal energy through
highly damped in magnitude. When the "transverse" EM wave energy
is impressed upon the vacuum medium by the oscillating electron
gas of the copper wire, and equal energy phase conjugate replica
wave is impressed upon the same vacuum medium by the oscillating
nuclei. Once in the vacuum medium, the damping is the same for
both waves, so they now suddenly assume equal magnitudes. Voilą!
One has a wavepair, of two transverse waves, one timeforward and
the other time-reversed, just as one of the pairs in Whittaker's
decomposition of the scalar potential.

In short, we have a longitudinal wave, because at each point in
space the wave's Et and the antiwave's corresponding -Et cancel
\in the 4th dimension.\ They do not cancel in 3-space, but add.
Thus the energies of the wave add at each point. We have already
described how this wave is detected and received by an atom in a
receiving antenna.

I hope this convinces you that EM and G are already linked
closely, and that EM theory is seriously flawed.

We can further prove it this way. A phase conjugate mirror (PCM)
material "tricks" the antiphoton into going out of the atom
instead of going into the nucleus to interact. It does this, no
matter how powerfully pumped. So it follows that a PCM must not
exhibit Newtonian third law recoil! And it doesn't.
Experimentally, a pumped phase conjugate mirror does not recoil,
no matter how powerfully it is pumped! The mechanism to
generate Newton's third law is prevented from occuring in the
material. The emitted phase conjugate replica wave (the
time-reversed wave) contains all the antiphotons that would
normally have interacted in the nuclei to produce 3rd law recoil.

Note that a PPCM proves conclusively that it is perfectly
possible to directly engineer Newton's third law. I hope you can
see that this proves that unidirectional forces can be created,
by applying such engineering. It also proves that back emf's etc.
can also be engineered.

In short, it proves that overunity electrical machines and
antigravity devices are perfectly possible.

Now for the mass being an EM effect. Presently, in physics there
exists no adequate definition of either force or mass. Each is
defined circularly, in terms of the other. Essentially, mass is
defined as "resistance to a disturbing force", while force is
defined as "overcoming the resistance of mass and giving it
acceleration and/or change in mass". That's it. No physicist knows
any more than that.

However, in 1973, I succeeded in defining the mass in a completly
different manner. We slightly update that first crude paper. One
kilogram of mass equals 17.053E50 "action switches" per seconds,
where an action switch is the creation or dissolution of a
"smallest quantum" defined as Planck's constant divided by 4{pi}.
The mass m is defined as

M =  | Delta A_i |   | Delta A_o |  =  | dn_i   dn_o |
|-----------| + |-----------|  =  |----- + -----|k
| Delta t   |   | Delta t   |     | dt     dt   |
where

Delta t = operation time (one operation, essentially one
quantum change)

M = 	perceived mass

Delta A_i = action in to (created in) volumetric region
occupied by the mass, i.e., action created in
that volumetric region from fusing virtual
photons into quanta (photons)

Delta A_o = action lost from volumetric region occupied by
mass, i.e., action lost from that volumetric
region from fissioning of quanta (photons) into
virtual quanta (virtual photons)

dn_i = 	number of k-sized bundles of virtual photons per
----    second fused into quanta, in the mass volumetric
dt	region

dn_o = 	number of quanta per second fissioned into virtual
----	photons, in the mass volumetric region
dt

k = 	Planck's constant divided by 4{pi}

As can be seen, we are simply saying that, in a volumetric region
occupied by a mass, a special fissioning and fusioning of action
quanta are occuring. The mass is simply the \activity rate\ of that
fission/fusion activity, multiplied by some constant of
proportionality to make the constants turn out right.

Mass is assumed to be a high condensation/concentration of energy
in that local volume.

The fundamental notion is that, to produce energy, a quantum must
be fissioned; i.e., one must split the quantum (Delta E)(Delta t)
to produce a piece of energy (Delta E). This (Delta E)/c^2 gives
the degree of condensation/concentration, and hence the "mass" of
this occurence, but that mass is linked to the (Delta t) left from
conversion of the energy, so that no mass M but \masstime\ MT
exists momentarily. In the next instance, the mass M of this
masstime "reconverts" to (Delta E) via E=mc^2, and this (Delta E)
recombines with the (Delta t) portion of the MT, to form a photon
which moves off, leaving behind a 3-space M which is not changing.

Note that mass itself does not exist in time, but only in 3-space.
The emission of the photon "tears off" the time-tail of the
4-space MT, leaving behind only 3-space M. This is why time is not
an observable in quantum mechanics; every mass is continually
absorbing and emitting photons at an incredible rate. The emission
of every photon converts 4-space (L^3T) to 3-space (L^3). The next
absorption of a photon changes the Mass into Masstime momentarily.
Thus a mass is continually "jumping" through time in little jumps,
which are discretized but not quantized. Indeed, any finite mass
is doing this in a fantastic stream of photon absoption/emission
interactions, particularly at the virtual photon level. But every
physical instrument, being made of mass, and being in an
incredible stream of this action fission/fusion exchange with the
surrounding vacuum, imposes a {del}/{del}t operator upon (L^3T)
spacetime \in its measurement process\, leaving (L^3) in the
remaining "observation" or "measurement". This is why "all
measurement/observation is spatial". It also accounts for the
Heisenberg uncertainty principle -- which is a
\detection/measurement\ principle, not an \"existing as"\
principle.

The "rest mass" (motionless) mass of a mass identically is simply
the intensity of this interaction with \virtual\ photons, i.e.
with of the virtual photon flux of the vacuum, of a particular
region of "curved spacetime" that is "occupied" by that mass. When
a mass (i.e., curved ST volumetric region) is in motion with
respect to the observer, the mass meets a greater flux of virtual
photons along its line of travel; hence this activity rate
increases with respect to that direction, hence the "mass" -- which
is just this very activity rate -- is greater in that direction.
This is the mechanism for the so-called "relativistic" increase of
mass with velocity. Note that, at right angles to the direction of
motion, the mass M of the object remains its rest mass.

Note also that, by quantum field theory, all EM and mechanical
forces are due to the exchange of virtual photons. It follows that
any additional force brought to bear upon a mass, or exerted by it
upon another mass, must be due to a change in the local vacuum
flux, and hence in the activity rate comprising the mass. In short,
it alters the local energy density and virtual photon flux of
vacuum, thereby curving spacetime. This "curved spacetime" then
interacts upon the recipient mass. Hence Wheeler's statement of
general relativity that "mass tells spacetime how to curve, and
(curved) spacetime tells mass how to move".

Note also that the same fission/fusion that establishes the mass
in a volumetric region, also establishes the rate at which
Delta t's are produced and reabsorbed in photons. In short, the
same process that creates mass, creates the rate of flow of time
for that mass.

Since the exterior of an atom is the electron shells, the
interactions of the gravitons of the ambient vacuum potential
split into separate photon and antiphoton interactions. The
photons interact with the orbital electrons, are absorbed then
re-emitted. But the orbital motion means that re-emission may be
in a different direction. So the emitted photons are "scattered"
with respect to the "ordering" with which they entered to interact
with the atom. This creates the "entropy" of that demon,
thermodynamics. On the other hand, in the nucleus perfect
reordering (negentropy) always occurs (except for PCMs), but we
just call that "Newton's third law" and ignore it.

The point is, entropy can be directly engineered and reversed or
beaten. E.g., when one performs work, one only "scatters" the
energy (photons) as heat, or changes the form of the energy. No
energy is lost whatsoever. Let us examine a purely heat reaction,
where all the energy (order) is scattered as scattered photons.
Imagine that the scatterer is a heater wire. Simply surround the
scatterer by a phase conjugate mirror material, in the form of a
closed cylinder (with a negligeable little hole in the end through
which the heater wire is inserted) with an internal reflectivity
coefficient of 0.5. Now one half of the emitted photons from the
heater wire in the cylinder will be returned precisely to the
origination point, so one "recovers" one half the energy from
each "snapshot" examined. This gives a series of the energy in
the heater wire being 1 + 1/2 + 1/4 + .... This well-known series
is convergent upon the sum of 2.0. So one eventually has twice
the energy inside the cylinder as one is putting into the wire.
Half this energy is being lost through the walls of the cylinder
and radiated away, so one sees as much radiated away as one sees
himself feeding into the heater. Hey, no overunity here! Now
simply use a material with a cylinder material with a phase
conjugate coefficient of reflectivity slightly greater than 0.5.
The new series is divergent; i.e., energy inside the cylinder
increase without limit, as does the amount of heat emitted by the
outer surface of the cylinder. Hey! After a bit, you are putting
in a certain, steady amount of power, and the power radiated from
the outer cylinder is continually increasing. Now you have an
overunity machine. No violation of the conservation of energy law,
of the laws of physics, or the laws of thermodynamics is occuring.

The point is, \energy which has been "used" in this case is just
scattered energy. It can be continually recovered and "reused"
again and again, by a simple retroreflective operation. This is
one way you really can make a true "Maxwell's demon".\

At any rate, eventually, I simply treated the EM energy
representing the mass as a special kind of scalar electrostatic
potential, of powerful magnitude. In so doing, it can be
mathematically decomposed into bidirectional EM wavepairs,
according to Whittaker. [Whittaker wrote the sum set of waves;
Ziolkowski added the product set as well, which means not only
frequencies but modulations (products of frequencies).] In theory
then, it is possible to take a specific mass, and it will have a
specific patterning of these Whittaker/Ziolkowski waves. In
theory, arrays of dipoles, augmented by nuclear magnetic
detectors, could be developed to detect and portray these
frequencies and their products, say, for a specific element. One
could then take a similar set, say, for an isomer of a
radioactive nucleus [that] one desires to transform into something
with a "delta" potential whose internal W-Z composition was
precisely tailored to accomplish the change along the isomer chain
that is desired. In that manner, after some irradiation, the
harmful nuclei could be transformed into the new, desired, less
harmful nuclei. In this way, direct transmutation of matter could
be accomplished.

Of course, eventually, you could also make gold or platinum from
baser elements if desired. Or one could make some of the highly
valuable and useful radioactive isotopes that are needed in
industry and medicine.

The point is, by deliberately structuring the scalar potential,
one can directly engineer (1) the nucleus, (2) the type element
or mass, (3) gravity and antigravity, (4) transmutation, (5) the
rate of passage of time, including local time reversal, and
(6) overunity energy device of great power. Note that local
time reversal of an object or mass is not time travel. One does
not keep the local identity in its "present", while time
reversing all the rest of the universe! That is what would have
to be done to get the science fiction notion of "travel to the
past". We are not suggesting that! But one local entity
-- including a human cell or an entire body -- can in fact be
time-reversed to a previous state, and the proof is already in
the open literature. E.g., Becker and others have demonstrated
the ability to differentiate and dedifferentiate cells. Note
that if you simply dedifferentiate a diseased cell, such as one
infected by AIDS, back to a former state when it was healthy,
all the DNA etc. are altered also. In this way, infectious
diseases -- such as cancer, AIDS, the Ebola virus, etc. -- could

This also has been experimentally proven in the late 1960s and
1970s by the Priore team in France, under rigorous scientific
protocols, and reported in the open scientific literature. A
complete digest of the Priore affair and the supression of the
magnificient new medical approach is given by Christopher Bird,
"The Case of Antoine Priore and His Therapeutic Machine:
A Scandal in the Politics of Science", Appendix I in T.E. Bearden,
_AIDS: Biological Warfare_, Tesla Book Co., P.O. Box 121873,
Chula Vista, California, 91912. An updated version is Christopher
Bird, "The Case of Antoine Priore and His Therapeutic Machine:
A Scandal in the Politics of Science", _Explore!_, 5(5-6), 1994,
p.97-110. A complete, detailed exposition of the technical
mechanism for the Priore curative therapy is given by Bearden,
T.E. (1995) "Vacuum engines and Priore's methodology: The true
Science of energy-medicine". Part I of II. _Explore!_, 6(1),
p.66-76; Part II of II, _Explore!_, 6(2), 1995, p.50-62.

Again, thanks for including my material on the internet. Good
luck to you, and we will have some disks to you shortly.

Sincerely,

Tom Bearden
June 1, 1995



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