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August 25, 1991

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This file shared with KeelyNet courtesy of Woody Moffitt.
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Charge Fluctuations as a Possible
Origin of Biefeld-Brown Effects
by Darrell Moffitt

The Biefeld-Brown effect,   if   it   is  not  ionic,  presents  the
phenomenon of a highly charged electrical  condenser  moving  in the
direction of its  positive  pole when suspended in  a  gravitational
field.

A possible explanation for this behavior might be found by
invoking statistical mechanics.    A  fundamental  theorem  of  this
discipline states that the maximum  fluctuations  of  a given system
are directly proportional to the square root of the particle number.

Given this result, it is illuminating to consider the role played by
charge fluctuations in a Biefeld-Brown device.  A simple calculation
reveals a curious fact.

One gram of matter contains

proton-electron combinations.  Thus, a maximum fluctuation  in  this
system corresponds to a particle number of approximately

7.7604*10^11 "neutral" charge pairs.

(The pairing is  not completely neutral, as virtual fluctuations and
polarization effects are always present.)

If one takes a value of

2.3071*10^-19 (gm*cm^3/t^2) for the proton-electron interaction,

and multiplies it by the fluctuation  particle number, the resulting
quantity,

1.7037*10^-7(gm*cm^3/t^2),

represents the (maximal) fluctuation charge product  in  a  gram  of
matter.  (All units are in the cgs system.)

Page 1

Recent measurements of  Newton's  constant yield a figure of roughly
6.6732*10^-8(cm^3/gm*t^2).

Therefore, the magnitude of gravitational  interaction  between  two
grams of matter is just slightly less than that produced  by  charge
fluctuations within the sample.  Let's look at this more closely.

Statistical systems are  usually  described in terms of distribution
functions. One of these, the Gaussian distribution,

(exp(-x ^2)/2pi)^(1/2),

often appears in studies of statistical  systems,  and  is  used  to
generate the first-order wave functions of quantum mechanics.

Simple fluctuation waves  then,  are specified by equations  of  the
form

(N*exp(-x^2)/2pi)^(1/2).

This function, however,  describes  a  total  distribution,  not the
steady-state, equilibrium behavior of the system.

That is better described by limit-point  equations,  i.e., iterative
equations whose output  is  fed  back  until it reaches  a  singular
value.

Iterative equations possess  many  remarkable  properties, one being
that of self-similar  (fractal  solution)   structure.    They  also
demonstrate limit-point, oscillatory,    or    chaotic    behaviors,
depending upon the nature of the function and its parameters.

The function of  interest  here  is  the Gaussian distribution.  Its
equilibrium value is given by the equation

(exp(-x^2)/(2pi))^(1/2))-x=0, where x=.3722.

Multiplying "x" by the figure given  above  for  total  fluctuations
(per gram) yields a value of roughly

6.6639*10^-8(gm*cm^3/t^2)(1/gm)^2

which agrees with Newton's constant to within 99.86%.

This coincidence, if  that  is  what  it  is,  suggests  a  probable
relation between Biefeld-Brown effects and gravitation, but fails to
relate more than a quantitative agreement of amplitudes.

Extending the analysis  requires  treatment of such topics as charge
screening, non-equilibrium thermodynamics,   and   plasma   physics,
notably the physics of wave propagation in cold plasmas.

Extensive studies by  this  author  and  others indicate  that  true
gravitation is an    electromagnetic   phenomenon   described   most
accurately by equations related to the Casimir potentials of quantum
mechanics, and predicated upon the  existence  of  a  vacuum  ground
state (zero point energy).

This approach has to date yielded numerous relations whose

Page 2

predictions agree with  measured  gravitation  to an accuracy on par
with that of quantum electrodynamics,  based  upon  a  treatment  of
scalar mass potentials in the context of stochastic  electrodynamics
(unpublished).

Therefore, it is  the  author's  belief  that  Biefeld-Brown effects
originate in mass-bound charge fluctuations  of bulk matter, whereas
vacuum, or "true" gravitation must be described theoretically  at  a
single-particle level, a  process  qualitatively  distinct from that
suggested by the previous study.

If this is true,it should be possible  to  derive  a theory based on
interactions of mass-bound charge fluctuations with  virtual  states
of the quantum vacuum.

1974 paper "Spontaneous  Breaking  of  Translational  Invariance  in
Quantum Electrodynamics".

is noteworthy for its description of "spontaneous"  charged particle
currents propagating at lightspeed, i.e., in massless form.

longitudinal) wave vectors which  couple  to  produce the tranverse,
luminal photons normally observed.

In conclusion, the physics of mass-bound charge fluctuations  is (to
this author's knowledge)  an  unexplored  but highly useful field of
inquiry. In time  it  may  yield  a  deeper  comprehension  of  both
Biefeld-Brown effects and the virtual phenomenon of quantum
vacuum physics.

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Author's Note: Some preceeding statements were made on the basis
of unpublished proprietary work, without elaboration,
in the hope of encouraging new lines  of  inquiry and
discourse related to alternative research.  Competent
readers will at once recognize its unfinished nature.

Note 2       : The paper referred to above, "Spontaneous Breaking
of Translational      Invariance      in      Quantum
Electrodynamics",  may  be  found  in "Proceedings of
P.N.  Lebedev Institute of Physics,  Vol.57",  p.223-
243, published  by  Consultants Bureau in conjunction
with Plenum Publishing.

A good introduction  to  Casimir  potentials  will be
found in   the   Nov   1986   edition   of   "Physics
Today",p.37-45, titled  "Retarded,  or Casimir, long-
range potentials", by Larry Spruch.

This includes a brief  description  of  the  "Casimir
force", (pi*hc/480),  and  a calculation  of  Van  de
Waals forces in polarizable systems.

Page 3

Readers may also  wish  to  consult  bibliographies contained in the
KeelyNet files "ZPE1" and "ZPE2",  specifically  the  papers by H.E.
Puthoff and A.E.Sakharov.

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Jerry W. Decker.........Ron Barker...........Chuck Henderson
Vangard Sciences/KeelyNet

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