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The Dimensional Evolution of Time: A Novel Synthesis from First Principles
THE DIMENSIONAL EVOLUTION OF TIME:
A NOVEL SYNTHESIS FROM FIRST PRINCIPLES
Shannon D. Smith, R. A.
Institute for Basic Research, Palm Harbor Florida
Submitted August 1, 1995
Revised Oct. 1, 1995
** ABSTRACT **
A new theory has been discovered in which time plays a central,
fundamental role as the 'substance' of all of physical reality.
From this unusual frame-of-reference, many physical paradoxes can
be logically resolved. Much work is needed to determine if this can
produce a viable grand unification of the laws of physics.
Two postulates are assumed: first, that time exists *a priori* to
infinity; second, that this process generates a new superimposed
space-time dimension. Santilli's hypertime appears promising as a
basis for systematic modeling of dimensional evolution.
The present theory makes numerous qualitative predictions,
including derivations of relativity and quantum theory,
cosmological models and computer science applications. Quantitative
results, including the origins of mass and fundamental constants,
are currently being pursued. The most surprising of the discoveries
has been a point-like model for absolute reality, generating a
global interconnectedness that exists within a singular real point,
containing multiple intertwined dimensions of time.
Basic assumptions: In this paper, I have adopted two postulates.
The first is the definition of time as a real, absolute dimension,
a 'primeval' time which existed a priori, before any creation or
cosmic expansion. A conventional, 'logical' time dimension can then
be defined that points in the future direction of cosmic expansion,
which may or may not correspond to absolute time directions. The
usual approach to cosmological modeling has been one of
reversed-time analysis leading back almost to the initial moment
of creation. The insurmountable theoretical difficulties
subsequently encountered are neatly bypassed with the new approach.
The second postulate follows directly from the logical analysis of
this time-based universe. Without space, energy or matter in the
universe, there is no action possible. Therefore, any point in time
is identical to any other future point, and this state can persist
to infinity. This implies that it must be the act of absolute time
approaching or reaching infinity that generates new relative
A corollary to the second postulate increases the complexity of the
universe by establishing a long-term cyclic process of expansion,
whereby dimensions evolve consecutively. Currently at the third
stage, this means there should be multiple symmetries evident in
space-time, predicting the basic character of fundamental forces
and the properties of families of particles.
Implications: This new view of absolute temporal reality requires
abandonment of the idea that space, matter, and energy are truly
fundamental. Instead, to achieve a reasonable comprehension of this
new paradigm, one needs to adopt a difficult, existential shift of
perspective, to a view of an absolute point-like world containing
only dimensions of time. We can visualize a model of this theory
only through a projection into an imaginary or virtual space.
However, the rewards of adopting this seemingly paradoxical
frame-of-reference are tremendous, promising a comprehensive grand
unification and simplification of all physical laws.
In this theory, a successful approach is the use of a
reality-inverted frame of reference, similar to an isominkowskian
frame. A complete picture of reality is obtained by overlaying this
view with the complementary one, which produces a complex view as
well as a complex viewpoint.
Verifications: Theoretical considerations seem to agree with
nearly all well-established physical theories, experiments, and
observations that have been considered so far. The theory is
thoroughly testable from numerous predictions of physical
phenomena. A promising correlation also seems evident in the
isodual and hypertime physics suggested recently by Prof. Ruggero
Maria Santilli. In these terms, the original pre-creation time
structure is repeatedly generalized to a multidirectional,
Historical: The dream of discovering a grand unified theory of
physical reality, or 'theory of everything', has been a goal of
many, from Einstein's search for the unified field to Bohm's
implicate and explicate forms of reality, the inflationary
cosmology of Guth, Santilli's isodual universes, and others. I
leave it to the reader to review the monumental literature on this
One of the major achievements of modern cosmology has been the
development of the "big bang" theory of the origin of the universe.
The vast majority of its predictions have borne out, from the
discovery of the cosmic microwave background of the 60's to the
1994 COBE measure of background structure, the cosmic abundance of
hydrogen and the recent verification of intergalactic primordial
helium nuclei. Another triumph has been the Standard Model of
particle physics. From here also have come the precision of QED and
the apparent fundamentality of symmetries in group analysis that
has given us several families of particles.
All these aspects of fundamental theories and more seem to arise
naturally from the dimensional evolution approach. This paper
presents only the briefest of these ideas in a conceptual,
qualitative manner, and awaits a thorough investigation that should
be able to either establish or disprove the accuracy of its claims.
Einstein's relativity showed characteristics of a space-time more
like a projection, and there are also the current non-local
interpretations of quantum theory,,,. The failure of the grand
unified field theories and the wave-particle duality to provide a
complete picture can be ascribed to the absence of an absolute
spatial component in this view of reality.
Recent ideas of the nature of time in reality range from multiple
dimensions of time to speculations of cyclic and linear time
coexisting. Other writers have proposed that information is of
itself some fundamental substance,, and in this respect many
writers have postulated that our universe works much like a
computer. An apparent clue that this is so, are the remarkable
parallels of information theory and quantum structure. These would
include such things as the equivalence of entropy and information,
and the bilateral symmetries of time, space, energy and matter
analogous to the binary nature of computer memory.
SYNTHESIS OF THE DIMENSIONAL EVOLUTION THEORY
I. FIRST POSTULATE:
THE FUNDAMENTAL EXISTENCE OF TIME
Two fundamental postulates are assumed in this paper. The first is
the definition of a pre-existent time: time exists absolutely and
without beginning or ending. Since there is no space, matter, or
energy here, action is not possible in this proto-universe, and the
measurement of time is also impossible. This condition of zero
action is hypothetically equivalent to that at any future point,
so in effect lasts to infinity. At this infinity (or singularity),
time seems to form a type of resonance or fluctuation, which may
cause the transformation of one hypertime component into a space
component, producing new properties.
IIA. SECOND POSTULATE:
THE 1ST DIMENSIONAL EVOLUTION OF TIME
A primitive 'big bang' occurs at infinite time and generates an
expanding circular, linear space-time. Thus, the logical
consequence of time going to infinity caused the evolution of the
first space-time continuum and all it contained. These new
secondary properties of the universe must have become manifest as
some anti-absolute forms of space, energy, and matter. However,
because there was only a single dimension of time that had reached
infinity, it would have produced only a single dimension of
space-time, along with new associated types of primitive energy and
This creation of secondary properties provided the new universe
with the characteristic of action and the potential for evolution,
keeping in mind the totally relative, projective nature of the
reality. Additionally, a new dimension of time appeared along with
a primitive force of gravity derived from the geometry of the
space-time continuum (Fig.1 at end of paper).
IIB. COROLLARY TO THE 2ND POSTULATE:
THE 2ND AND 3RD EVOLUTIONARY EPOCHS
Eventually, this new time dimension also approached infinity. This
might have occurred in the form of a quantum heat death for the
whole linear universe, or perhaps at local cessations of action
(i.e. black holes). Therefore, as time again approached infinity,
the second big bang occurred, and a real 'flatland' universe was
With each new universe, a new dimension of time and space, and a
new form of energy and matter appeared. The energy and matter that
initially formed appeared in a chaotic arrangement, perhaps because
the direction of absolute time is indeterminate. For the third
approach of time to infinity, the last big bang occurred, expanding
from a two into a three dimensional space. Through this evolution
of the fundamental dimension of time itself, the universe
subsequently accumulated more symmetries and complex qualities. An
open problem at present is the exact solution to the matter and
energy structures created at each evolutionary epoch.
The third big bang has previously been interpreted as a single
event, but in this theory, the expansion began from all previously
existing points in the precursor planar universe. The common
reversed-time analysis used in cosmology may have created the false
impression that the expansion began from a single point.
In our present observed universe, then, we would expect to see four
fundamental forces (strong and weak nuclear, electromagnetic, and
gravitational) to correspond with the four fundamental dimensions
of space and time. The 'zeroth' dimension, time, would be expected
to correspond to the (apparently) most fundamental force, gravity.
The origin of the universe and its source for initial energy, as
well as at each epochal step, proceeds along a non-equilibrium
pathway which arises naturally from the evolution of dimensions.
A minimum energy density in two spatial dimensions becomes a
maximum density when a new, third space is generated and begins its
expansion. In essence, time reaching infinity creates a 'pressure'
which is relieved through creation of a new expanding space.
In the pre-creation epoch, a fundamental uncertainty of direction
of time is apparent, since time could approach either infinity or
negative infinity. There is no absolute direction of time, but only
a relative direction. This provides a bipolar value for fundamental
units which is very similar to the isodual units of Santilli. A
continuous logical time dimension continues to exist, but an
additional discrete-alternating time hyperdimension might produce
the evolutionary quantum structure of matter and energy. One
mechanism would be the recording of binary 'quanta' of information
upon waves in the continuum of time itself, with the uncertainty
of an absolute '+' or '-' orientation. An analogy would be the
question of whether time proceeds along a continuous 'D.C.', direct
current, flow or rather in a discrete or 'A.C.', alternating
current, manner. Preliminary results suggest both mechanisms are
in operation here.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
As primal time somehow approached or reached infinity, a
non-equilibrium or low entropy resonant state occurred, and time
evolved into a new space-time universe through the first big bang.
This process that formed the first linear dimension continued on
an expanding cyclic basis, eventually creating a second and third
universe, each acquiring a new space-time dimension, new form of
energy, and new form of matter.
We are presently living in this third phase, and will undoubtedly
achieve a fourth some day. An interesting possibility would be if
the units of time we perceive as humans actually consist of
fractions of infinity. Time could conceivably 'run down' and stop
like an unwound clock. From our previous viewpoint within primeval
time, this moment would correspond to the resonance of time at
infinity that subsequently metamorphoses into a new dimension of
space and time.
It would seem that there is no overall collapse of space-time,
since the dimensional characteristics accumulate from epoch to
epoch, and various patterns seem to also survive previous stages.
These artifacts would be expected to occur on many scales, from
subnuclear structures all the way to the largest structures in the
What this means for our reality is a realization that the universe
is in essence a virtual reality. It came from nothingness, and
still exists as an absolute nothingness, except for the
multiple-folded dimension of time. A true real view of everything
would have to be just a point, with several interacting dimensions
of time functioning as the recording medium of our software
universe, virtually indistinguishable from a huge computer program.
However, it is important to remember that the same, identically
real point exists at every point in space and moment in time.
This view has the advantage of deriving a universe model in which
all motion is relative and the submicroscopic (information)
structure is quantized. Motion is relative because in the inverted
frame-of-reference all spatial factors (distances) are imaginary,
and only time and patterns in time are real. The nature of
information, of which all energy and matter are composed, requires
a complex, quantized form to exist where there is no real space.
Whether time is itself quantized or continuous, or both, is still
an open question.
PREDICTIONS OF THE THEORY
There are two main classes of predictions:
1. The universe, on all scales of structure, should show a
fundamental symmetry from the nature of time itself, with further
levels of primary, secondary, and tertiary symmetry
characteristics, from evolution through three distinct dimensional
2. Everything observable in our universe should be exactly
reproducible in the form of computerized software, since both
realms are essentially virtual realities.
Testing the Theoretical Logic: The consequences of this theory
applied to the universe at large, produce a tremendous array of
predictions, and many of these agree with modern astronomical
observations and experiments in quantum physics. This gives promise
of a 'theory of everything', and subsequent mathematical studies
may indeed yield fundamental universal constants and other
Since absolute reality is essentially a mere point, containing
multiple dimensions of time, all points in the universe of time are
fundamentally interconnected. The apparent dual nature of matter
arises from the fact that no frame-of-reference with real absolute
distance factors is possible.
While seeming at first to be disadvantaged by the lack of such a
concrete structure, the unexpected advantages of interconnectedness
and simplification of physical laws more than make up for the loss
of absoluteness. It also gives a fully 'bootstrapped' theory by
virtue of this 'creation from nothingness', continuing to a present
state of absolute nothingness, reality being seen here as a totally
projected and quantized relative cosmology. Finally, there are the
predictions for computer science, of equivalence in virtual
electronic reality with everything found in nature.
Testing through observation: In astronomy there would be a strong
probability of finding structures and artifacts resulting from
three separate dimensional expansions, and might range from the
structure of the nucleus to galactic and even cosmic structures
such as attractors, galactic super clusters and voids. Previous
theories have dealt with the disparateness of structure on vast
scales by invoking inflation or other scenarios.
Other possible verifications would be evidence of a differential
structure of black holes, wherein each spatial dimension would
collapse separately, and in distant observations in the universe,
things like quasars, isotopic abundance, and background radiation,
might reasonably be expected to show older one- and two-dimensional
characteristics, as well as younger, three-dimensional attributes.
Testing through Modeling: In quantum physics, we find the world
closely parallels the realm of computers, so it should be possible
to create a sophisticated program that would exactly duplicate the
structure and evolution of the universe. Self-contained, it would
allow for a virtual reality of multiple expanding dimensions,
forces, energy and matter forms and sets of fundamental constants.
If the two worlds are indeed equivalent except in scale, then
anything that exists in the real world would theoretically be
possible to recreate in the virtual world. The question of
cybernetic life forms within this microcosm remains an open and
Testing through Experiment: Experimental verification of the theory
primarily requires derivation of predictions for fundamental
constants, followed by comparison with observed values.
Observational confirmations should be available through predictions
of many characteristic evidences of discrete dimensional epochs.
This would include survival of many levels of patterns through the
dimensional expansions, and include artifacts of hadronic, nuclear,
and atomic structural evolution up through large-scale structural
artifacts expected to be found via astronomical observations.
Much work remains to be done in the total evaluation of predicted
versus observed astronomical and quantum structures and events.
Other approaches as suggested by Santilli should uncover parallel
verifications of the dimensional evolution hypothesis. This appears
to be a sound basis for modeling the dimensional evolution
described herein, and presents a promising avenue to this open
IMPACT OF THE DISCOVERY
Although this study is still in its beginning stages, this
synthesis cannot be left without emphasizing the tremendous scope
of the implications. The generalization to multivalued temporal
reality seems to yield a unification of natural science that can
derive fundamental qualities and quantities of physical reality.
While no theory is ever final, it is hoped that this promise of a
first step toward a 'theory of everything' will benefit from the
expert assistance at this international workshop, and perhaps help
to illuminate this next step in our fundamental understanding of
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