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Free Energy Review by T. Grotz and P.G. Bailey
*--* 10-10-93 - 15:31:23 *--*
Article #330 (330 is last):
From: Senthil Ramas Kumar <SRK106@psuvm.psu.edu>
Subject: Free Energy Review
Date: Fri Oct 8 22:13:46 1993
A Critical Review of the Available Information Regarding Claims of
Zero-Point Energy, Free-Energy, and Over-Unity Experiments and Devices
Patrick G. Bailey
P.O. Box 201
Los Altos, CA 94023-0201
760 Prairie Avenue
Craig, CO 81625-1346
A summary review is presented of the experiments, motors, generators,
devices, and demonstrations that have been reported in the past few
years to produce near-unity or over-unity operation. The concepts of
free-energy, zero-point energy, and over-unity devices are not new, and
many examples of such devices have been built within the last 100 years.
26 researchers are reviewed and 11 are selected for immediate interest
and support. Whether a new form of potential energy can be demonstrated
and successfully utilized within the near future for the ultimate
benefit of the human race remains to be seen.
'Energy' cannot be created nor destroyed - it exists throughout space
and within matter. 'Perpetual Motion' does not exist - long lasting
motion is easily observable, such as planetary orbits. 'Stupidity' is
not hereditary - and it is not a survival trait.
'Zero-Point Energy' (ZPE) is known as an energy that fills the fabric of
all space. Technically the ZPE results from an electric flux that flows
orthogonally to our perceived dimension or reality. The mass
equivalence of this energy has been calculated by physicists to be on
the order of 1093 gms/cm3. Henry T. Moray, Walter Russell, and Nikola
Tesla described the nature of the ZPE and designed and built equipment
to engineer its properties. It may be possible to build devices to
cohere this energy. This would result in a non-polluting, unlimited
supply of virtually free energy.
'Free Energy' is a term that can have two meanings: either the
additional energy that can be obtained from a device at little or no
additional cost, so the additional energy is essentially free; or more
output energy that appears to be available than input energy, such as in
the case of detonating an atomic bomb.
'Over-unity Devices' are those systems which appear to produce more
energy than they use. In analyzing such systems, a box is drawn around
the device and energy balances are formulated to measure the amounts of
energy coming into and out of that box. Whether or not the device is
termed an 'over-unity' device will depend upon the size of the box.
When the box is drawn large enough, all systems or devices will have a
net energy transfer of zero. On the other hand, when the box is drawn
just small enough, the device can be said to be an 'over-unity' device,
and an intelligent physicist will know better.
From this point of view, examples of existing so-called free-energy
devices abound: such as Hoover Dam. So then is any generator, or any
nuclear reactor. More energy certainly comes out of a dam than went in
to making it (by us, at least). And any dam engineer will tell you that
it will produce more energy than it cost to build and that it will last
forever (or at least until his kids get out of college). So it is seen
that these generators can be thought of as free-energy devices, while
they are really only energy conversion devices, and obviously not
perpetual motion machines. People who insist that they actually are,
are either very ignorant or very devious. In such cases, examine the
person's true motives. [Another 'free-energy' device of increasingly
note-worthy attention is the Federal Reserve, which is not an agency of
the US government. (Figgie 1992)]
Sources of Information and Data
Ultimately, the sources for all information in these areas come from the
inventors, researchers, or investigators themselves. The US and foreign
patent offices provide some information into new developments in these
areas, yet the actual patents reveal very little useful information and
almost no experimental results. Patent law does not require complete
disclosure of all data, and patents are held nationally. An interesting
area of big business today is the international transfer of patents at
Other sources of information and data include papers, reports, books,
and conference proceedings. Papers and books that are of special
interest are those by Hans Coler (1946), the Gravity Research Group (GRG
1956), Stefan Marinov (1992), Hans Nieper (1984), and Shinichi Seike
(1992). Conferences that have been recently held to collect and
summarize information in these areas include the 26th and 27th
Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conferences (1991 and 1992)
and the more recent International Symposium on New Energy (ISNE) (April
1993). All of these materials are available from the sources identified
in the references section. As a result of a 1993 ISNE working group,
the working devices were categorized into four distinct areas: (1)
Solid-State Space-Energy Generators, (2) Rotating Space-Energy Machines,
(3) Fusion Conversion Devices, and (4) Hydrogen Energy.
Summary of Interesting Theories, Experiments, and Devices
"Some things have to be believed to be seen." 
There are several societies and conferences world-wide that present and
sometimes document the results of research in these areas. As this work
is not considered as mainstream science within the US, much of the
results of these researchers goes by unnoticed. The 26th IECEC (1991)
provided a forum for researchers in these areas to voluntarily come
forward and present their ideas, theories, and results to the mainstream
scientific community. They were met with interest ranging from mistrust
to awe, and from feelings ranging from friendship to outright anger.
The ranges of these attitudes will likely depend upon the emotional
stability of the listeners.
The 26th IECEC created international interest that stimulated further
review papers to be published in the later IECECs. A growing group of
organizations is networking on a world-wide basis to support and
organize this on-going research. Some of these organizations are listed
in the references (AREI, AFS, GRI, IASA, INE, ITS, JPI, SEA, TI, and
USP). "New Energy News" is the new monthly newsletter of Institute for
New Energy (INE), a recently formed US technical society, created in
April 1993, that is committed to researching these technical areas.
Note that the references include complete and accurate address and cost
information, so that serious investigators have no excuse to not
This review includes all of the information that was made available to
the 1991 IECEC, the 1992 IECEC, the 1993 International Symposium on New
Energy (ISNE), and other contributed personal source information and
documents. Our focus here is on actual data and results - not on ideas
or mathematical theories. Our emphasis here is on repeatable
experimental evidence - or on the documented testimony of multiple
reliable witnesses that have been willing to stand-up, testify, and
document a description of what they witnessed.
Just because you don't see it doesn't mean that it's not real!
The list of the researchers, experiments, devices, and results that were
addressed in this review are listed in Table 1. The reference
corresponding to each researcher is also listed. Videotapes were made
of all ref. speakers at the 1991 IECEC and the 1993 ISNE.
Possible Misleading Results
"But goodness alone is never enough. A hard, cold wisdom is required
for goodness to accomplish good." 
We feel that the interpretation of anyone's results can fall into one of
four categories: (1) Lying for attention; (2) Lying for money
(funding, stock options, etc.); (3) Inaccurate measurement or
misinterpretation of the data or results; and (4) Accurate
representation of the physical phenomena. In our reviews, we found
absolutely no evidence that any one of the researchers we studied in
Table 1 belonged specifically in categories (1) or (2) (although so far
as we know three of these researchers have not been able to replicate
their initial published results). Frauds are quickly discovered, if
encouraged to reproduce their results and to provide detailed
information. So, we were left to carefully analyze the results from
each researcher and to carefully draw our own conclusions.
Table 1. A Listing of Researchers and their Experiments and/or Devices
of Current Interest
Researcher(s) Experiments, Devices, and Demonstrations References
Adams, Robert Adams Pulsed Motor Generator and Replication Adams 1993
Baumann, Paul Methernitha Swiss M-L Converter Device
et. al. Demonstrations IECEC 1991
Bedini, John Bedini Free Energy Generator Plans and
Demonstrations IECEC 1991
Binder, Timothy Russell's Nuclear-Magnetic Transmutation ISNE 1993
Brown, Paul Nuclear Resonant Generators and Demonstrations IECEC 1991
Coler, Hans Magnetstromapparat and Stromerzeuger Coler 1946
Devices / Demos.
Grotz, Toby Russell's Power Multiplication Principle IECEC 1992,
Experiments ISNE 1993
Hathaway, nipolar Dynamo of Novel Construction IECEC 1991,
George Experiments ISNE 1993
Hickox, Barbara Electric Dynamo Patent IECEC 1991
Johnson, Gary Electrically Induced Explosions in IECEC 1992
Kelly, Don Electromagnetic Antigravity Drop Tests ISNE 1993,
Lambertson, WIN Process IECEC 1991
Marinov, Stefan Venetin Coliu Generator Demonstrations ISNE 1993
McKie, Richard Power On Demand Module Concept (PODMOD) IECEC 1991
Meyer, Stanley Water Fuel Cell Demonstrations ISNE 1993
Moray, John T. Henry Moray's Radiant Energy Device IECEC 1991
Muller, William Muller Motor/Generator IECEC 1991
Newman, Joseph Magnetic Fields Utilization Energy Machine Newman 1993
dePalma, Bruce N-Machine Experiments IECEC 1991
Pappas, Panos Energy Creation in Sparks and IECEC 1991
Reed, Troy Reed Magnetic Motor Experiments IECEC 1991,
and Evelyn ISNE 1993
Seike, Shinichi Negative Energy and Landau Oscillator Seike 1992
Storms, Edmund Established Cold Fusion and Reproducible IECEC 1993
Sweet, Floyd Vacuum Triode Assembly Device Demonstrations IECEC 1991
Tewari, Space Power Generator Experiments ISNE 1993
Valone, Thomas Homopolar Generator Experiments IECEC 1991,
While on one hand some researchers may possibly be overstating the
capabilities and results of their experiments and devices, on the other
hand many so-called 'scientific experts' are very active in discounting
all of the research results in these areas without investigating the
details of any of them. "The Nobel chemist Irving Langmuir (1881-1957)
used to give a cautionary talk on pathological science, and ... told a
number of stories of pathological science and listed the features they
have in common." (Cromer, Skeptical Inquirer, 1993). In his eight page
article, Cromer states that there are many lessons from this: "(1)
Scientists themselves are often poor judges of the scientific process;
(2) Scientific research is very difficult. Anything that can go wrong
will go wrong; (3) Science isn't dependent on the honesty or wisdom of
scientists. (4) Real discoveries of phenomena contrary to all previous
scientific experience are very rare, while fraud, fakery, foolishness,
and error resulting from overenthusiasm and delusion are all too common.
Thus, Glashow's closed-minded 'I don't believe a word of it' is going to
be correct far more often than not." Cromer also cites Langmuir as
saying (Langmuir 1989): "There are cases where there is no dishonesty
involved, but where people are tricked into false results by a lack of
understanding about what human beings can do to themselves in the way of
being led astray by subjective effects, wishful thinking, or threshold
interactions. These are examples of pathological science. These are
things that attracted a great deal of attention. ... [But] the critics
can't reproduce the effects. Only the supporters could do that. In the
end, nothing was salvaged. Why should there be? There isn't anything
there. There never was."
Our sincere response to you is: If there is no initial interest - then
there will be no investigation. If there is no investigation, there
will be no research to replicate. Your interest will spark the urge to
replicate. If there is interest, research, and no replication, then
that fact should be published and disseminated with integrity. If there
are witnesses to the results and the results were or are repeatable,
then we feel the fault and blame lies with the critic and not with the
researcher. Therefore, given the experiments and devices referenced in
this paper: Demand that they be tested with an open mind! One success
out of all of the failures is more than worth the effort!
Devices of Great Interest
"Grant shook his head. It's been discussed, in the field. Many people
imagined it was coming. But not so soon." "Story of our species,
Malcolm said laughing. Everybody knows it's coming, but not so soon."
Table 2. A Listing of Promising Devices of Great Interest with
Researcher(s) Effects Observed Yrs Cat Doc MWs RDs Res Eff
Baumann, Over-Unity, Rotating, 1984+ 2 Y Y Y N N
Paul et. al. Self-Sustaining
Binder, Chemical Dependency 1927+ 1 Y Y Y Y N
Timothy on E-M
Coler, Hans Gravitational Field 1942+ 1 Y Y Y N N
Grotz, Toby Over-Unity, 1961+ 1 Y Y N Y N
Kelly, Don E-M Field Drop Tests 1992+ 1 Y N Y Y N
Marinov, Anti-Lenz Effect 1988+ 1 Y Y Y Y N
Meyer, Stanley Energy from Water, 1980s 4 Y Y Y Y N
Moray, John Over-Unity, 1930s 1 Y Y Y N N
and Kevin Self-Sustaining Device
Storms, Edmund Over-Unity Thermal, 1990s 3 Y Y Y Y N
Sweet, Floyd Over-Unity, 1990s 1 Y Y Y N N
Tewari, Over-Unity Rotational 1993 2 Y N Y Y N
Yrs Years the Effects were observed.
Cat Categories 1 through 4, as defined under 'Sources of Information
Doc Documentation Exists (Yes or No) (Y/N).
MWs Multiple Witnesses Testimony (Y/N).
RDs Repeated Demonstrations (Y/N).
Res Currently Being Researched (Y/N).
Eff Large Research Effort (Y/N).
The researchers and the works that we feel are worthy of great attention
in the near future are those that are listed in Table 2. It should be
noted that some researchers have been omitted from Table 2 only because
either their work is of a proprietary or confidential nature, or because
we could not obtain the required data or documentation from witnesses.
Such researchers include: Paul Brown, Bruce dePalma, and the Reeds.
All of the researchers listed in Table 1 and not listed in Table 2 have
provided and we trust will continue to provide important contributions
to and documentation of their work. In fact, some of this work may be
turn out to be more important than those currently listed in Table 2.
However, at the present moment of time as this paper is being written,
we considered those devices listed in Table 2 to be of the greatest
interest to us.
Summary Information and Data
The Methernitha Swiss M-L Converter developed by Paul Baumann and the
Methernitha spiritual community in Switzerland has been repeatedly
demonstrated to many scientists upon request (26th IECEC, Nieper 1984,
SEA). Its three foot counter-rotating disks and specially designed
energy storage system are reported to generate a steady output power of
about 3 to 5 kilo-Watts (kW) indefinitely - while sitting on top of a
table. A videotape has been produced and its narration has been
Tim Binder and his team have replicated the 1927 experiments of Walter
Russell and have created fluorine from pure water vapor using complex E-
M field arrangements. This work validates Russell's theories about
nuclear structure and the proper arrangement of the Periodic Table of
Hans Coler demonstrated two major devices to many amazed witnesses and
officials in Germany during 1925-1945. A 60 kW device was built in
1937, and the war bombings ended further research in 1944. A complete
32 page report declassified by the British Intelligence Objectives Sub-
Committee is available. (Coler 1946, Nieper 1984) The theories
expressed are very similar to those presented in a comprehensive report
(GRG 1956) (the latest one we could find so far) on electrogravitics
systems, interactions of E-M with gravity, or counterbary control
Toby Grotz and his team are planning to replicate the energy experiments
of Walter Russell. In the fall of 1959, General Chapman, Colonel Fry,
Major Sargent, Major Cripe, and others from NORAD in Colorado Springs,
attended a meeting at Swannanoa, Virginia (University Of Science And
Philosophy) at the invitation of Walter Russell. At this meeting
Russell explained the workings of a device he proposed to build to take
advantage of the vacuum state energy, and the two directional movement
of energy from gravitation, (generation), to radiation, (degeneration).
During the following year Russell, his wife, Lao, and their assistants
built the device. The prototype that was built consisted of two sets of
dual and magnetically-sexed coils. On September 10, 1961, Walter and
Lao Russell reported to their contacts at NORAD, that the coils had
worked and that the President of the United States could announce to the
world that a "greater, safer power than atomic energy" could be provided
for industry and transportation.
Don Kelly is the editor of the Space Energy Newsletter (SEA) and has
been conducting and reporting results of E-M to gravity drop tests. He
finds that energized coil assemblies have a 40% lag in drop time over
about five feet. Other related research world-wide verifies that
spinning masses appear to lose weight at high rotational speeds.
Stefan Marinov is the editor of Deutsche Physik in Germany and has
demonstrated many experiments that confound conventional E-M theory.
His recent paper describes devices that create anti-Lenz effects, thus
increasing the generator's efficiency.
Stanley Meyer has obtained over 28 patents in both the US and other
countries that document his water fuel cell and hydrogen fracturing
process technology. He began this work in 1980 and has spent over $1.6
million. Although he has been approached to sell the technology, he
says he has no intention to do so and plans to retain control to make
sure his invention is brought to the public for the good of mankind. An
informative and recommended videotape of his 1993 ISNE presentation is
available through the INE.
John and Kevin Moray are pursuing the technology that was repeatedly
demonstrated to the press in the 1930s by T. Henry Moray. One device
was reported to generate 50 kW for long periods of time by itself.
Edmund Storms has reviewed much of the work done internationally in the
so-called area of 'cold fusion' and has documented the results and
repeated results of the now world-wide research in this area.
Floyd Sweet demonstrated his vacuum triode device to at least two expert
electronics technicians that have documented their observations in sworn
affidavits. A videotape was also made during a demonstration. From a
nine volt battery starter unit, nearly continuous output powers of 500 W
to 50 kW have been reported to be observed. Experimentation is still in
progress to further refine the device and to improve its operational
Paramahamsa Tewari has been doing experiments with a N-Machine and has
reported over-unity operation from instrument readings. He is currently
performing new experiments to feed the output of the device back into
the input to obtain a 'free-running' condition. Many researchers have
performed experiments with these devices, also called, homo-polar
generators, or unipolar dynamos. They usually consist of a rotating
magnetic disk where electrical current is passed from the center of the
disk to its edge. Small increases in the motor input power result in
large increases of output power, thus encouraging the idea of an over-
unity cross-over point. Regardless of all of the theory and reasons pro
and con, it will be exciting to see the results of Tewari's forthcoming
experiments and videotapes.
It appears that all serious research and development activities in the
energy conversion technologies will continue to be closely monitored and
guarded by the existing oil, transportation, and economics industries.
Serious researchers in these new areas (Meyer, Methernitha, Sweet) are
not allowing "the establishment" to buy them out. At the same time,
there is strong evidence of aggressive suppression. The German company
Becocraft specializing in the development of "new energy devices" was
forcibly shut down and its president quickly imprisoned on investment
fraud charges in a court case that had only one plaintiff: the Utility
Company of Cologne! (Marinov 1992). All of the investors of Becocraft
fought the case to no avail. Closer to home, the US Patent Office has
classified over 3,000 patent devices or applications under the secrecy
order, Title 35, U.S. Code (1952) Sections 181-188. Where did that
technology go? These patents would be a great place to start for a new
company involved with defense conversion technologies for environmental
"Woe to you, you blind leaders of a hoard of blind, who say: 'This
should be done and that should not be left undone.' You only represent
a false teaching and ignore the laws of Creation." 
"It has been said that science is man's futile attempt to understand
Nature. While it becomes important to learn, understand, and apply
science in our everyday lives, it is equally important to continue the
pursuit of unraveling the secrets of Nature." (ISNE 1993, from Forward
If ignorance was a good enough reason to not try, the light bulb would
have never been invented and the Earth would still be flat. Let us be
judged by our work and repeatable results, and not by hasty words. If
some of these works turn out to be not valid: So Be It; Let it Be
Known; and Let's Move Forward with Integrity! We are all desperately
looking for the next big breakthrough in modern physics to assist us in
solving the escalating energy and environment crises! Do something to
promote and encourage the continuation of these researchers and these
works! If you don't do it, who will? If not now, when?
26th IECEC, Proceedings of the 26th IECEC, Volume 4, pp 329-492, August
1991: American Nuclear Society, 555 North Kensington Avenue, La Grange
Park, IL 60525, $275.00.
27th IECEC, Proceedings of the 27th IECEC, Volume, pp 4.357-4.295,
August 1992: Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth Drive,
Warrendale, PA 15096-0001, Order No. P-259, $350.00.
28th IECEC, Proceedings of the 28th IECEC, August 1993: American
Chemical Society, Meetings Department, 1155 Sixteenth Street N.W.,
Washington D.C. 20036, $310.00.
Adams, R. "The Adams Pulsed Motor Generator Manual," Jan. 1993: Nexus
New Times Magazine, PO Box 30, Mapleton Qld 4560, Australia, $50.00.
AERI, Advanced Energy Research Institute, 14 Devonshire Mews West,
London W1N 1FP, Great Britain.
AFS, Academy for Future Sciences, PO Box FE, Los Gatos, CA 95031.
Coler, H., "The Invention of Hans Coler, Relating to an Alleged New
Source of Power," British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee report
No. 1043 Item 31, 32 pp, Now Unclassified, Summer 1946. (Available from
the authors for $5.00)
Cromer, A., "Pathological Science: An Update," Skeptical Inquirer, Vol.
17, pp 400-407, 1993.
Figgie, H. E. Jr., Bankruptcy 1995: The Coming Collapse of America and
How to Stop It, Little, Brown and Company, US and Canada, 1992.
GRG, Gravity Research Group, "Electrogravitics Systems: An Examination
of Electrostatic Motion, Dynamic Counterbary, and Barycentric Control,"
Feb. 1956: Gravity Research Group report GRG-013/56, Wright Patterson
AFB Technical Library, Catalog No. TL 565 A9, WPAFB, Ohio 45433.
GRI, Group Research Institute, PO Box 438, Nelson, New Zealand.
IASA, Institute for Advanced Studies at Austin, 4030 Braker Lane W.,
Suite 300, Austin, TX 78759.
INE, Institute for New Energy, 1304 South College Avenue, Fort Collins,
CO 80524, $40.00/yr.
ITS, International Tesla Society, PO Box 5636, Colorado Springs, CO
ISNE, Proceedings of the International Symposium on New Energy, April
16-18, 1993: International Association for New Science (IANS), 1304
South College Avenue, Fort Collins, CO 80524,(303) 482-3731,
$45.00 for both the IANS and INE. IANS supports the INE.
JPI, Japan Psychrotronic Institute, c/o Shiuji Inomata, Electrotechnical
Laboratory, 1-1-4 Umezono, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305, Japan.
Langmuir, I., "Pathological Science," Physics Today, 42: 36-48, October
Marinov, S., "Regarding Becocraft - Letter to Mr. Richard von
Weizsacker, President of the German Federal Republic, 10 October 1992" ,
Deutsche Physik, No. 7, East-West Publishers, Morellenfeldgasse 16, A-
8010 Graz, Austria.
Meyer, S. Water Fuel Cell Technical Brief, July 1991: Stanley A. Meyer,
3792 Grove City, OH 43123, $25.00.
"New Energy News", PO Box 58639, Salt Lake City, UT 84158-8639: monthly
newsletter free to INE members.
Newman, J., The Energy Machine of Joseph Newman, July 1993: Joseph
Westley Newman, Route 1, Box 52, Lucedale, Miss. 39452, $60.00.
Nieper, H. A., Revolution in Technology, Medicine and Society, MIT
Verlag, Germany, 1984 (In English): Tesla Book Company, PO Box 121873,
Chula Vista, CA 91912, $27.00.
SEA, Space Energy Association, PO Box 11422, Clearwater, FL 34616.
Seike, S., The Principles of Ultra Relativity, 11th Ed., 1992: Space
Research Institute, Box 33, Uwajima, Ehime (798), Japan, $70.00.
Storms, E., "The Status of 'Cold Fusion'," 28th IECEC paper, August
TI, Tesl Incorporated, 820 Bridger Circle, Craig, CO 81625.
USP, Univ. of Science and Philosophy, Swannanoa Place, Box 520,
Waynesboro, VA 22980.
The authors gratefully acknowledge these and many other researchers,
scientists, and skeptics that have contributed serious open research and
documentation to boldly advance science and technology for the benefit
of the human race.
1. Poltergeist, Screenplay to the MGM/UA film production and VHS
2. Heinlein, Robert A., Stranger in a Strange Land, Berkley Books,
3. Crichton, Michael, Jurassic Park, Ballantine Books, 1990.
4. Rashid, Isa; Meier, Eduard. The Talmud of Jmmanuel, 24:29-30,
1990: Wild Flower Press, PO Box 230893, Tigard, Oregon, 97224,
5. Complete addresses and total prices are given.
This Paper Was Presented and Published at the:
28th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference
August 8-13, 1993, in Atlanta, GA.
Proceedings Pages 2.905-2.910.
The Proceedings of the Conference are Available:
[See "28th IECEC" in the References]
The paper was also recently published in the New Energy News,
Vol. 1, No. 6, October 1993.
[See "INE" and "IANS" in the References]
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