AOH :: HUDSON2A.TXT|
Dave Hudson's July 1995 Portland lecture 1/2 Superconductivity and Modern Alchemy - has the philosopher's stone been found?
| File Name : HUDSON2A.ASC | Online Date : 10/28/95 |
| Contributed by : Anonymous | Dir Category : BIOLOGY |
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The following document was anonymously shared with KeelyNet and is taken as a
transcript of an introductory lecture given by David Hudson at the Northwest
Service Center in Portland, Oregon on July 28, 1995.
It offers additional insights into the researches of David Hudson,
particularly in light of biological and space/time effects.
There are two files in this set : HUDSON2A.ASC - this one
HUDSON2B.ASC - part two
HUDSON2.ZIP - both of the above files in a zipped version
Superconductivity and Modern Alchemy
Has the Philosopher's Stone Been Found?
My name is David Hudson. I'm a third generation native Phoenician from an old
family in the Phoenix area. We are an old family. We are very conservative.
I come from an ultra-conservative right wing background. For those of you
who have heard of the John Birch Society, Barry Goldwater, these ultra right-
wing Rush Limbaugh conservatives; that's the area that I come from. I'm not
saying whether it is right or wrong but that is my background.
I had no concept that I would ever be doing what I'm doing right now when I
began this work. In 1975-76 I was very unhappy with the banking system here
in the United States. I was farming about 70 thousand acres in the Phoenix
area in the Yuma valley. I was a very large, materialistic person. I was
farming this amount of ground. I had a forty man payroll every week. I had a
four million line of credit with the bank. I was driving Mercedes Benz's. I
had a 15,000 square foot home. I was Mr. Material man.
In 1975 I was doing an analysis of natural products here in the area where I
was farming. You have to understand that in agriculture in the state of
Arizona we have a problem with sodium soil. This high sodium soil, which
looks like chocolate ice cream on the ground, is just crunchy black. It
crunches when you walk on it. Water will not penetrate this soil. Water will
not leach the sodium out of the ground. It's called black alkali.
What we were doing was going to the copper mines in the state of Arizona and
buying 93% sulfuric acid. For those of you who don't know, the battery acid
in your car is 40-60% acid. This was 93% sulfuric acid; very, very high
concentration. We were bringing in truck and trailer loads of this sulfuric
acid to my farm and I was injecting thirty tons to the acre into the soil.
We were putting six inch ribbons on the ground that would penetrate about
three or four inches into the ground. When you irrigate (nothing will grow in
Arizona unless you irrigate) the ground would actually froth and foam due to
the action of the sulfuric acid. What it did was convert the black alkali to
white alkali, which was water soluble. So within a year and a half to two
years you would have a field that could actually grow crops.
In the work that I was doing with these soils, it is very important that you
have a lot of calcium in the soil in the form of calcium carbonate. The
calcium carbonate would act as a buffer for all the acid that was being put on
the soil. If you don't have enough calcium the acidity of the soil goes down,
you get a pH of 4-4.5 and it ties up all of your trace nutrients. When you
plant your cotton it will only get so tall then it won't grow any more.
It's very important when you are putting all of these amendments on your soil
that you understand what is in your soil: how much iron is there, how much
calcium is there and so on.
In doing the analysis of these natural products we were coming across
materials that no one seemed to be able to tell us what they were. We began
to trace this material and we found that it seemed to come from a specific
geological feature. Whatever the problem with this material was we felt that
the area where it was in greatest abundance would be the best place to study
We took the material into chemistry and we dissolved it and got a solution
that would be blood red. Yet when we precipitated this material out
chemically by using a reductant of powdered zinc the material would come out
as a black precipitant just like it was supposed to be if it was a noble
element. A noble element if you chemically bring it out of the acid it won't
re-dissolve in the acid.
So we precipitated this material out of the black and we took the material and
dried it. In the drying process we took a large porcelain funnel called a
Butiner funnel about this big it had a filter paper on it. This material was
about a quarter of an inch thick on top of the filter paper. At that time I
didn't have a drying furnace or a drying oven so I just set it out in the
Arizona sunshine which was about 115 degrees at 5% humidity so it really dried
What happened was that after the material dried it exploded. It exploded like
no explosion I had ever seen in my life and I've worked with a lot of
explosive materials. There was no explosion and there was no implosion. It
was as if somebody had detonated about fifty thousand flash bulbs all at one
time just poof. All the material was gone, the filter paper was gone and the
funnel was cracked.
So I took a brand new pencil that had never been sharpened and stood it on end
next to the funnel and started drying another sample. When the material
detonated it burned the pencil about 30% in two but did not knock the pencil
over and all the sample was gone. So this was not an explosion and was not an
implosion. It was like a tremendous release of light.
It was like you set that pencil beside a fire place and after about 20 minutes
you saw it was smoking on one side and burning in two. That's what the pencil
looked like immediately after the flash. Now this just had me baffled. What
ever this stuff is it's wild. We found that if we dried it out of the
sunlight it didn't explode but if we dried it in the sunlight it exploded.
So then we took some of the powder that was dried out of the sunlight and we
decided we were going to put it in what is called a crucible reduction. A
crucible reduction involves taking a crucible (which is like a big drinking
glass made out of porcelain) and you mix your powder with lead and all this
flux and all and you heat it till the lead melts. What happens is the metals
that are heavier than lead stay in the lead and all of those that are lighter
float out. This is the basic premise of your fire assays which have been done
for hundreds of years.
Now supposedly gold and silver will stay in the lead and all your other non
heavy elements will come out of the lead. This is the tried and true way of
doing metals analysis. Well this material settled to the bottom of the lead
just like it was gold and silver. This material seemed to be denser than
lead. When we poured off the slag it would take everything but the noble
elements, then we poured off the lead and this material came off as a
constituency at the bottom of the molten lead. It was separated from it. Yet
when you take this material and put it on a bone ash cupel the lead soaks into
the cupel and it leaves your bead of gold and silver. Well we did this and we
got a bead that should have been gold and silver.
We took this bead for analysis to all the commercial laboratories and they
said Dave there is nothing but gold and silver there. Except I could take
that bead and set it on a table and hit it with a hammer and it shattered like
glass. Now there is no known alloy of gold and silver that is not soft. Gold
and silver dissolve in each other perfectly and they form solid solutions and
they are both very soft elements and so any alloy of gold and silver if that's
all that's there is going to be soft and ductile. You can flatten it out and
make a pancake out of it. Yet this material shattered like glass. I said
something's going on here that we are not understanding. Something unusual is
So what we did is we took these beads of gold and silver and separated them
chemically with the gold and silver out. What we had left is a whole bunch of
black stuff. When I took this black stuff to the commercial laboratories they
told me that it was iron, silica and aluminum. I said this can't be iron,
silica and aluminum. First of all you can't dissolve it in any acids or any
bases once it is totally dry. It doesn't dissolve in fuming sulfuric acid, it
doesn't dissolve in sulfuric nitric acid, it doesn't dissolve in hydrochloric
nitric acid. Even this dissolves gold yet it won't dissolve this black stuff.
I thought this material is really strange. It just has to have an
explanation. No one could tell me what it was.
Basically I went to Cornell University. I said we are just going to have to
throw some money at this problem. So I went and hired a Ph.D. at Cornell who
considered himself an expert on precious elements. I suspected we were
dealing with precious elements. I said I want to know what this is. I paid
him to come out to Arizona. He looked at the problem. He said "we have a
machine back at Cornell that can analyze down to parts per billion". He said
"you let me take this material back to Cornell and I'll tell you exactly what
you have, exactly". Unless it is chlorine, bromine or one of the lighter
elements, then we can't analyze it. But if it is anything above iron we will
find it. When he got back there he told me it was iron silica aluminum.
I said "look doctor do you have a chemistry laboratory around here we could
borrow?" He said "yes." I said "let's go to the chemistry laboratory." We
worked in the chemistry laboratory all the rest of that day and we were able
to remove all the silica, all the iron and all the aluminum. We still had 98%
of the sample and that was pure nothing. I said "look I can hold this in my
hand, I can weigh it, I can performs chemistries with it". "I said that is
something". "I know that is something." "It is not nothing."
He said "the absorption or emissions spectrum does not agree with anything we
have programmed into our instrument." I said "well that is something and I'm
going to find out what." And he said "Mr. Hudson why don't you give us a $35
0,000 dollar grant and we'll put graduate students to looking into it." Well
I had already paid this man about $22,000 because he claimed he could analyze
anything and he hadn't. He didn't offer to pay any of my money back. I said
"sir, I don't know what you pay the people around here but we pay minimum wage
on the farm where I work and I can get a lot more out of $350,000 than you
can." "So I'm going to go back and do the work myself."
I came back to Phoenix totally disillusioned with academia. I was not
impressed with the Ph.D's. I was not impressed with the people I had paid
money to. I found out that it is just a big system where they worked the
graduate students to generate paper but they never say anything but the
government pays them for every paper they write so they get their money based
on the number of papers they turned out. They all say the same thing they
just re-word it and turn out another paper. It really is disillusioning when
you find out what academia is doing right now.
Fortunately I asked around the Phoenix area and I found out about a man who
was a spectroscopist. He had been trained in West Germany at the institute
for spectroscopy. He had been the senior technician for Lab Test company in
Los Angeles which builds spectroscopic equipment. He's the man who blue
printed them, designed them, constructed them then took them to the field and
then made them work. I said here's a good man. This is not just a
technician. Here is a man who knows how the machine works.
I went to him with a Soviet book that the fire assay man had given me. It was
called The Analytical Chemistry of the Platinum Group Elements by Ginsberg.
It was published by the Soviet Academy of Sciences. In this book, according
to the Soviets, you had to do a 300 second burn on these elements to read
Now for those of you who have never done spectroscopy it involves taking a
carbon electrode that is cupped at the top. You put the powder on that
electrode and you bring the other electrode down above it and you strike an
arc. In about fifteen seconds the carbon at this high temperature burns away
and the electrode's gone and your sample's gone. So all the laboratories in
this country are doing fifteen second burns and giving you the results.
According to the Soviet Academy of Sciences the boiling temperature of water
is to the boiling temperature of iron just like the boiling temperature of
iron is to the boiling temperature of these elements.
As you know from driving a car as long as there is water in the motor of your
car the temperature of that car engine will never hotter than the boiling
temperature of water until all the water is gone. If you just heated the
water on the stove in a pan you know that pan never gets hotter than the
boiling temperature of the water till all the water is gone. Once all the
water is gone the temperature skyrockets really fast.
As long as there is iron there the temperature of the sample can never get
hotter than the boiling temperature of the iron until all of the iron is gone
so you can then heat this stuff. Now this is hard to fathom how something
with as high a boiling temperature as iron could be just like water to these
elements but it is. So literally we had to design and build an excitation
chamber where argon gas could be put around this electrode so than no oxygen
or air could get in to the carbon electrode and we could burn it not for
fifteen seconds but for three hundred seconds. According to the Soviet
Academy of Sciences this is the length of time we have to burn the sample.
We set up, we got the [PK blenders?], we got the standards, we modified the
machine, we did all the analysis for results, we did all the spectral lines on
this three and a half meter instrument. That's the spec for how big the prism
is which opens up the line spectrum. For those of you who don't know, most
universities have a one point five meter instrument. This is a three and a
half meter instrument. A huge machine. It took up the whole garage area. It
was about thirty feet long and about eight or nine feet high.
Anyway when we ran this material during the first fifteen seconds we got iron,
silica, aluminum, little traces of calcium, sodium maybe a little titanium now
and then and then it goes quiet and nothing reads. So at the end of fifteen
seconds you are getting nothing. Twenty seconds, twenty five seconds, thirty
seconds, thirty five seconds, forty seconds still got nothing. Forty five
seconds, fifty seconds, fifty five seconds, sixty seconds, sixty five seconds
but if you look in through the colored glass sitting there on the carbon
electrode is this little ball of white material. There's still something in
At seventy seconds, exactly when the Soviet Academy of Science said it would
read, palladium begins to read. And after the palladium platinum begins to
read. And after the platinum I think it was rhodium begins to read. After
rhodium ruthenium begins to read. After ruthenium then iridium begins to read
and after the iridium osmium begins to read.
Now if you're like me I didn't know what these elements were. I had heard of
platinum, platinum jewelry, but what are these other elements. Well there are
six platinum group elements in the periodic table not just platinum. They
didn't find out about them at the same time so they have been added one at a
time. They are all elements just like iron, cobalt and nickel are three
different elements ruthenium, rhodium and palladium are light platinums and
osmium, iridium and platinum are the heavy platinums.
Well we came to find out that rhodium was selling for about three thousand
dollars per ounce. Gold sells for about four hundred dollars an ounce.
Iridium sells for about eight hundred dollars an ounce and ruthenium sells for
one hundred and fifty dollars an ounce.
Then you say gee these are important materials aren't they. They are
important materials because in the world the best known deposit is now being
mined in South Africa. In this deposit you have to go a half mile into the
ground and mine an 18 inch seam of this stuff. When you bring it out it
contains one third of one ounce per ton of all the precious elements.
Our analysis, which we ran for two and a half years and we checked over and
over; we checked every spectral line, we checked every potential on
interference, we checked every aspect of this. We created apples and apples,
oranges and oranges, bananas and bananas. We wanted exact matches.
When we were finished the man was able to do quantitative analysis and he said
"Dave, you have six to eight ounces per ton of palladium, twelve to thirteen
ounces per ton of platinum, one hundred fifty ounces per ton of osmium, two
hundred fifty ounces per ton of ruthenium, six hundred ounces per ton of
iridium, and eight hundred ounces per ton of rhodium. Or a total of about
2400 ounces per ton when the best known deposit in the world is one third of
one ounce per ton.
As you can see this work wasn't an indicator that these elements were there;
these elements were there and they were there in boucoups amounts. They were
saying hey stupid man pay attention we are trying to show you something.
If they had been there in little amounts I probably would have contended with
this. But they were there in such huge amounts I said golly, how can they be
there in these quantities and no one knew it. Now you keep in mind, it wasn't
one spectral analysis it was two and a half years of spectral analysis running
this material every day. And the man actually sent me away when they read
because he couldn't believe it either. And he worked on it another two months
before he called me up and apologized to me and he said "Dave you are right."
That is how skeptical he was about it. He couldn't apologize to me. He is a
German researcher with German pride so he had his wife call and apologize to
He was so impressed that he went back to Germany to the Institute of
Spectroscopy. He was actually written up in the spectroscopic journals as
having proven the existence of these elements in the Southwestern United
States in natural materials. It's not journals that you would ever read but I
actually saw the journals, he was written up.
They had no idea where this stuff was coming from, how we were producing it,
what concentrations we had gone through or anything, they just had analyzed
this small amount of powder. The crazy thing about it is, all we had done is
remove the silica and sent the other stuff in. It was pretty unbelievable
numbers. After we had come at this in every way we know how, to disprove it,
I decided all we have to do is throw money at this problem because money
solves everything, right?
So at 69 seconds I stopped the burn. I let the machine cool down and I took a
pocket knife and dug that little bead out of the top of the electrode. When
you shut off the arc it sort of absorbs down into the carbon and you have to
dig down into the carbon to get it out; this little bead of metal.
So I sent this little bead of metal over to Harlow Laboratories in London.
They made a precious metals analysis on this bead. I get the report back "no
precious element detected". Now this was one second before the palladium was
supposed to start leaving. Yet according to neutron activation, which
analyzes the nucleus itself, there were no precious elements detected.
This made absolutely no sense at all. There had to be an explanation here.
Either this material was converted to another element or it's in a form that
we don't understand yet. So I decided that I just had to get more information
on it. I went to a Ph.D. analytical chemist, a man who was trained at
separating and purifying individual elements out of unknown material. He was
trained at Iowa State University and he had a Ph.D. in metal separation
systems. He's the man that Motorola and Sperry used in the state of Arizona
to handle their waste water problems.
He has worked with every element on the periodic table with the exception of
four. He has worked with all the rare earths, he has worked with all the man
made elements. He has physically separated everything on the periodic table
with the exception of four elements. Coincidentally I came to him to have him
separate six elements. Four of those were the elements he had never worked
on. He said "you know Mr. Hudson, I have heard this story before. All my
life, and I'm a native Arizonan too, I have heard this story about these
precious elements. I am very impressed with the way you have gone about this:
with the systematic way you have approached it. I cannot accept any money
because if I accept money from you I have to write you a written report.
All I have to sell is my reputation. All I have to sell is my credibility.
I'm a certified expert witness in the state of Arizona in metallurgical
separation systems. He said "Dave I will work for you at no charge until I
can show you where you are wrong." "When I can tell you where you are wrong
I'll give you a written report." "Then you will pay me sixty dollars an hour
for the time I spent." This would have come to about twelve to fifteen
thousand dollars. If this gets rid of the curse; if this just gets the thing
answered once and for all it's worth it. It was for me at the time. Do it,
get on with it.
Well, three years later he said "I can tell you it is not any of the other
elements on the periodic table. We are educated; we are taught to do the
chemical separation of the material and then send it for instrumental
The example I use is rhodium because it has a very unique color to the
chloride solution. It is a cranberry color almost like the color of grape
juice. There is no other element that produces the same color in chloride
solution. When my rhodium was separated from all the other elements it
produced that color of chloride. The last procedure you do to separate the
material out is to neutralize the acid solution and it precipitates out of
solution as a red brown dioxide. That is heated under a controlled atmosphere
to 800 degrees for an hour and that creates the anhydrous dioxide. Then you
hydro reduce that under a controlled atmosphere to get the element and then
you anneal away the excess hydrogen.
So when we did that, we neutralized the acid solution and precipitated it out
as a red-brown dioxide. Which is the color it is supposed to precipitate.
Then we filtered that out. We heated it under oxygen for an hour in a tube
furnace then we hydro-reduced it to this gray-white powder: exactly the color
rhodium should be as an element. Then we heated it up to 1400 degrees under
argon to anneal away the material and it turned snow white.
Now this wasn't expected. This just isn't what is supposed to happen. So
what John did was he said "Dave, I'm going to heat it to the anhydrous
dioxide, I'm going to cool it down. I'm going to take one third of the sample
and put it in a sealed vial. I'm going to put the rest of the sample back in
the tube furnace and heat it up under oxygen, cool it back down, purge it with
inert gas, heat it back up under hydrogen to reduce away the oxides and the
hydrogen reacts with oxygen forming water and cleans the metal. I'll cool
that down to the gray-white powder. I'll take half of that and put it in
another sealed vial. I'll take the rest of the powder and put it back in the
furnace. I'm going to oxidize it, and hydro-reduce it and anneal it to the
white powder. Then I will put it into a vial and send all three vials to
Pacific Spectrochem over in Los Angeles, one of the best spectroscopic firms
in the U.S.
The first analysis comes back. The red-brown dioxide is iron oxide. The next
material comes back; silica and aluminum. No iron present. Now just putting
hydrogen on the iron oxide has made the iron quit being iron and now it has
become silica and aluminum. Now this was a big sample. We just made the iron
turn into silica and aluminum. The snow white annealed sample was analyzed as
calcium and silica. Where did the aluminum go? John said "Dave my life was
so simple before I met you." He said "this makes absolutely no sense at all."
He said "what what you are working with is going to cause them to re-write
physics books to re-write chemistry books and come to a complete new
John gave me his bill, it was a hundred and thirty thousand dollars which I
paid. But he said "Dave, I have separated physically and I have checked it
chemically fifty different ways and you have four to six ounces per ton of
palladium, twelve to fourteen ounces per ton of platinum, a hundred fifty
ounces per ton of osmium, two hundred fifty ounces per ton of ruthenium, six
hundred ounces per ton of iridium, and eight hundred ounces per ton of osmium.
The exact same numbers that the spectroscopist had told me were there. It was
such an incredible number that John said "Dave, I've got to go to the natural
place where this stuff comes from and I've got to take my own samples. So he
went up and actually walked the property and took his own samples, put it in a
bag, brought them back to the laboratory, pulverized the entire sample and
then started doing the analysis on what is called the master blend sample
which represented the whole geology and he got the same numbers.
We worked on this from 1983 until 1989. One Ph.D. chemist, three master
chemists, two technicians working full time. Using the Soviet Academy of
Sciences, the U.S. Bureau of Standards-Weights and Measures information as a
starting point we literally learned how to do qualitative and quantitative
separations of all of these elements. We learned how to take commercial
standards and make them disappear. We learned how to buy rhodium tri-chloride
from Johnson, Mathew & Ingelhardt as the metal and we learned how to break all
the metal-metal bonding until it literally was a red solution but no rhodium
detectable. And it was nothing but pure rhodium from Johnson, Mathew &
We learned how to do this with iridium, we learned how to do it with gold, we
learned how to do it with osmium, we learned how to do it with ruthenium. And
what we found when we actually purchased a machine called high pressure liquid
And for your information this person named John [Sycapose?] was the man who
actually wrote his Ph.D. thesis at Iowa State University on how to build this
instrument. He conceptualized building this instrument back in 1963-64.
After he graduated some of the graduate students there took that technology
and developed it and eventually Dow Chemical came in and bought it. Dow went
ahead and commercialized it and now it is the most sophisticated chemical
separation that the world has. It's computer controlled, all high pressure
and you can do very precise separations with it. Because this is the man who
conceptualized, designed it, told them what the limitations would be,
eventually, on it he was the ideal man to take the technology and perfect it.
So we were able to use their basic technology and develop a separation system
for taking the rhodium tri-chloride (we actually separated five different
species in the commercial rhodium tri-chloride). What this is all about is
the word "metal" is like the word "army". You can't have a one man army. The
word metal refers to a conglomerate material. It has certain properties,
electrical conductivity, heat conduction and all these other aspects of it.
When you dissolve the metals in acid you get a solution that is clear without
solids. You assume it's a free ion but when you are dealing with Nobel
elements it's still not a free ion, it's still what is called cluster
Back since the 1950's there has been a whole area of research in colleges
called cluster chemistry; catalytic materials. But what happens is the metal-
metal bonds are still retained by the material. So if you buy rhodium tri-
chloride from Johnson, Matthew and Engelhardt you are actually getting Rh 12
Cl 36 or Rh 15 Cl 45. You really aren't getting RhCl 3. There is a
difference between the metal-metal bonding material and the free ion. And so
what you are buying when you buy it is cluster chemistry; you are not getting
When you put it in for analytical instrumentation to analyze it, it is
actually analyzing the metal-metal bonds of the cluster. It is not really
analyzing the free ions.
I heard that General Electric was building fuel cells using rhodium and
iridium. So I made contacts with their fuel cell people back in Massachusetts
and traveled back there to meet with them. They had three attorneys meet with
us and the GE people were there. The attorneys were there to protect the GE
people because a lot of people say they have technologies and they meet with
them then after the meeting they sue them claiming that GE stole their
technology. Then to defend themselves GE has to divulge what their technology
really is. So GE is very skeptical when you say that you have something new.
They bring in their high faluting attorneys to really screen you.
After about an hour they said "these guys are for real. You attorneys can
leave". Because they had had the explosions also. They knew that when they
buy the commercial rhodium tri-chloride that it analyzes very well. But to
make it ready to go into their fuel cells they have to do effusions on it
using salt effusions where they melt the salt and put the metal in with it to
disperse it further. They know when they do that that the metal doesn't
analyze as well any more.
So when we told them that we had material that didn't analyze at all they
could conceive how this was possible. They had never seen it but they said we
are interested. Now these are the people who build analytical
instrumentation, GE. They said "Dave, why don't you just make a bunch of
rhodium for us and send it to us and we'll mount it in our fuel cell
technology. [What is the mechanism of conversion of monatomic rhodium to
metallic rhodium in these fuel cells?] We'll see if it works in a place where
only rhodium works. No other metal has ever been found which will perform the
catalysis in the hydrogen evolving technology of the fuel cell other than
rhodium and platinum. And rhodium is unique compared to platinum because
rhodium does not poison with carbon monoxide and platinum does.
They said "Dave we will just run it to see if it's a hydrogen evolving
catalyst and if it is then we will see if it is carbon monoxide stable and if
it is then it's rhodium or it's a rhodium alternative. So we worked for about
six months and refined that amount of material and we re-refined it and re-
refined it. We wanted to be absolutely sure that this was really clean stuff.
We didn't want any problems with this. We sent it back to Tony LaConte at GE.
GE by that time had sold their fuel cell technology to United Technologies who
already had a fuel cell technology. So all the GE fuel cell people had to go
work for United Technologies and since United Technologies already had their
in house people the GE people were not integrated into the existing teams. So
all the GE people were junior people. They weren't senior any more. So after
a certain period of months they all quit and left United Technologies. Well
Jose Geener, who was the head of fuel cells at United Technologies, quit also
and went to set up his own firm called Geener Incorporated in Waltham
Massachusetts. Tony and all the GE people went with him.
By the time our material gets there they've their own company set up in
Waltham Massachusetts so we contract with them to build the fuel cells for us.
When our material was sent to them the rhodium, as received, was analyzed to
not have any rhodium in it. Yet when they mounted it on carbon in their fuel
cell technology and ran the fuel cell for several weeks it worked and it did
what only rhodium would do. And it was carbon monoxide stable.
After three weeks they shut the fuel cells down and they take the electrodes
out and sent them back to the same place that said there was no rhodium in the
original sample and now there is over 8% rhodium in the rhodium. What happens
is it begins to nucleate on the carbon. It actually begins to grow metal-
metal bonds. So now there was metallic rhodium showing on the carbon where
before there was no rhodium.
So these GE people said "Dave, if you are the first one to discover this, if
you are the first one to explain how to make it in this form, if you are the
first one to tell the world that it exists, then you can get a patent on
this.'" I said "I'm not interested in patenting this." Then they told me that
if someone else discovered it and patented it, even though I was using it
every day, they could stop me from doing it. I said "well, maybe I should
patent it." So in March of 1988 we filed U.S. and world wide patents on
Orbitally Rearranged Monatomic Elements.
Now that is a mouth full, so to make it short we called it ORMES. You have
ORME gold, ORME palladium, ORME iridium, ORME ruthenium, ORME osmium or ORMES.
When we were doing this patent procedure the patent office said "Dave, we need
more precise data, we need more exact data, we need more information about
this conversion to this white powder state. So one of the problems we had is
when you make this white powder and you bring it out into the atmosphere, it
really starts gaining weight. I'm not talking about a little bit of weight,
I'm talking about 20-30%. [This is not explained elsewhere. What does it
mean?] Now that normally would be called absorbtion of atmospheric gasses;
the air is reacting with it and causing weight gain but not 20 or 30 percent.
But nonetheless we had to answer the patent office. We had to come up with
exact data for the patent office. So what we did is use this machine called
thermo-gravimetric analysis. This is a machine that has total atmospheric
control of the sample. You can oxidize it, hydro-reduce it and anneal it
while continually weighing the sample under a controlled atmosphere.
Everything is all sealed. We were getting short on funding and couldn't
afford to buy one so we leased one from the Bay Area from [Berean]
Corporation. They sent it in to us and we set it up on computer controls.
We heated the material at one point two degrees per minute and cooled it at
two degrees per minute. What we found is when you oxidize the material it
weighs 102%, when you hydro-reduce it it weighs 103%. So far so good. No
problem. But when it turns snow white it weighs 56%. Now that's impossible.
When you anneal it and it turns white it only weighs 56% of the beginning
weight. If you put that on a silica test boat and you weigh it, it weighs
56%. If you heat it to the point that it fuses into the glass, it turns black
and all the weight return. So the material hadn't volitized away. It was
still there; it just couldn't be weighed any more. That's when everybody said
this just isn't right; it can't be.
Do you know that when we heated it and cooled it and heated it and cooled it
and heated it and cooled it under helium or argon that when we cooled it it
would weigh three to four hundred percent of it's beginning weight and when we
heated it it would actually weigh less than nothing. If it wasn't in the pan,
the pan would weigh more than the pan weighs when this stuff is in it.
Keep in mind these are highly trained people running this instrumentation and
they would come in and say take a look at this. This makes no sense at all.
Now this machine is so precisely designed and controlled that they actually
have a magnetic material that you can actually put into this machine that is
non magnetic when it goes in the machine and at 300 degrees it becomes
magnetic. It actually is a strong magnet. Then after you get up to 900
degrees it loses it's magnetism. And you can actually see if the
interreaction of the magnetism with the magnetic field of the heating element
caused any change in weight.
The heating element is bi-filar wound. It goes round and round the sample
then you reverse it and wind it right back up so all the current runs against
itself all the time.
So when a wire flows electricity there is a magnetic field that forms around
it but then you run the wire right next to it going in the other direction it
forms a magnetic field in the other direction and the idea is that the two
fields will cancel. Now this is the kind of wiring that is used in a
television to cancel all magnetic fields.
The designers of this machine wanted to eliminate all magnetic field aspects
to this. When we put the magnetic material in the sample and ran it with the
magnetic material there was no response at all; there was no change in weight
when the material became magnetic or lost it's magnetism. Yet when our
material is put in there and it turns white it goes to 56% of its beginning
weight. If you shut the machine off and let it cool it is exactly 56%. If
you heated it, it would go less than nothing and if you cooled it it would go
three to four hundred percent but it always goes back to a steady 56%.
Now we contacted [Berean] in the Bay Area and said "look this just doesn't
make any sense". There's something wrong with this machine; I mean something
isn't right. Every time we use the machine it works fine unless we make the
pure mono-atomic material and when we do it turns snow white and doesn't work
correctly any more. And [Berean] looked over our results and said "you know
Mr. Hudson if you were working with the cooling of the material we would say
it is superconducting. But inasmuch as you are heating the material we don't
know what you've got."
I decided well, I have had to learn chemistry and I have had to learn physics
and now I've got to learn the physics of superconductors. So I borrowed a
bunch of graduate books on superconductivity and I began to read about
One thing we did is we took our white powder; now if this is a superconductor
we should be able to put this white powder down on the table and should be
able to hook up a volt meter here to it. You know your volt meter has got two
electrodes and you put it on a wire and turn on the battery pack and it tells
you the resistance in the wire.
Well if you touch the powder with one electrode on one end and the other on
the other end and turn on the electricity you just figure the needle is going
to go boing, just like this, right? Perfect conductivity, right? Nothing,
zilch, nothing; no conductivity at all. So we think what's going on here?
So what we found out is that the definition of a superconductor is that it
does not allow any voltage potential or any magnetic field to exist inside the
sample. So by definition a superconductor will not allow any voltage
potential to exist inside the sample. To get electricity off of a wire
requires voltage and to get electricity back on the wire requires a voltage.
So it cannot receive electricity from a wire, it cannot receive the energy of
the superconductor back on the wire without voltage.
(see HUDSON2B.ASC for the rest of this presentation)
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