AOH :: PHOMASS.TXT|
Scientists at the University of Maryland
reported on June 19, 1994, that single photons
trapped in resonant high-Q cavities behaved just like
oversized electrons. These photons possessed
electric charge, inertia, relativistic distortion when
accelerated, and all the other properties generally
associated only with particles of mass.
Quark theory survives on the idea that
particle transfer is the basis for nuclear forces. These
new findings support a very old and very different
James Clerk Maxwell originated it in 1864
and H. A. Lorentz advanced it at the turn of the
twentieth century. Albert Einstein favored it and
predicted that it would replace quantum theory as
the final insight into the workings of the universe.
Einstein never missed an opportunity to explain that
the statistical-probability concepts of quantum
theory were unreasonable. He believed the unified-
field theory would eventually provide the final
A memorable anecdote about this involves a
meeting between Einstein and Niels Bohr wherein
Einstein said, "God does not play dice."
Niels Bohr responded, "Albert, you must
stop telling God what to do."
Dr. Alley presented his findings at the New
York Academy of Sciences conference,
"Fundamental Problems in Quantum Theory," at
UMBC. His experiments were straight forward and
easy to do in any modern laboratory. First, he etched
cavities in a diamond lattice structure. Then, he used
a single-photon generator to beam photons into the
structure. The generator counted each photon it
produced and a photon detector on the far side of
the structure counted photons that passed through.
When a photon went into the structure and did not
come out, it was considered trapped. Scientists then
measured the electric charge, inertia, and other
properties of mass associated with the trapped
photons by vibrating the structure in an
In the unified-field approach that Maxwell
and Einstein favored, nuclear forces were caused by
the interaction of force fields, not by particle transfer
as in Quantum Mechanics. At the turn of the
twentieth century most scientists favored the unified
field concept above all others. They thought that the
final solution was very near, but then the discovery
of the phenomenon of relativity scattered their ideas
like a firecracker in a popcorn bag.
Einstein himself was the culprit. His theory
of relativity showed space and time as variables that
changed to conform to the motion of an inertial
frame of reference. This threw physics into a ninety-
year chasm of error that engulfed even Einstein.
Einstein searched for a solution to the
unified-field concept during the later part of his life,
but could never find it because he was trapped in
this chasm. "Maxwell's equations can not define
charges that originate at points," Einstein
complained, "because such solutions contain a
It is a problem similar to Zeno's paradox of
Achilles and the tortoise where a tortoise and an
athlete get half way to the finish line in one unit of
time and half way again in another unit. This
continues for an infinite number of times and neither
the athlete nor the tortoise can ever reach to the
There was no way to reach a true unified-
field solution while holding on to the variable-space-
time concept. Lorentz and Fitzgerald showed the
correct cause of the phenomenon relativity years
before Einstein's theory, but Einstein was such a
great man and became so popular that the theory
advanced by Lorentz and Fitzgerald could never
gain a lasting foothold in the scientific community.
Lorentz and Fitzgerald showed in their
contraction theory that all the observed relativity
phenomena would result if the basic components of
mass moved at the invariable speed of light. This
was the idea that Einstein needed to complete the
unified-field theory but it was not available to him
because of his theory of relativity which assigned a
different cause to relativity phenomena.
There was a deep philosophical objection
among scientists at the turn of the twentieth century
to ideas that involved "action at a distance." Force
fields without some mediating particle were
considered to be action at a distance and this
damaged the Lorentz-Fitzgerald theory.
There are infinite ways around this problem,
however. The recent findings at UMBC
merely suggest that photons do not mediate the
electromagnetic force. Something else, at present
unknown, that gives the photon its form, does it.
Perhaps it is "virtual photons" many of which
together comprise a real photon. Whatever it is, it
seems to exist, just sitting out there waiting to be
There are many clues to its existence.
Photons, for example, will follow dead center in an
optic cable if the most central strand is surrounded
by a sheath of material in which light speed is
greater than in the most central strand. This suggests
that something to the side of a photon directs its
future position. It could not possibly do this unless
its effects were faster than the speed of light.
Other experiments wherein single photons
are split into two in what are called photon down
converters seem to indicate that some intricate
network exists between photons. Some of the
photons that emerge seem entangled such that what
happens to one may cause change in the other and
the effect seems to reach the other photon at faster-
This lack of knowledge about photon
structure kept Einstein and others from finding the
true nature of their unified field. Since they didn’t
know about the photonic structure of particles
discovered by Dr. Alley, they assumed that charge
originated at points at the center of the particles and
this led to the singularities that plagued them.
These findings at UMBC show that the
electric charges associated with particles of matter
originate at the circumference of the particles and
not at a point in their center. This removes the
singularity problem and Einstein’s unified-field
theory is complete. All that remains is for some
enterprising young soul to plug in the numbers and
collect the prizes.
This insight into the workings of nature
opens new doors into tomorrow’s world of physics.
Myriad questions need answers. Of particular
interest is just exactly what path does a trapped
photon take while in its containing cavity? It does
not seem to remain in a simple loop but seems to
form a composite-loop shell that describes a sphere
inside the cavity.
Experiments now under way at UMBC will
attempt to ascertain this by measuring the
scintillation frequencies of the electric charge given
off by the trapped photon. When the maximum-
amplitude point around the circumference of the
sphere passes a point on the surface it should cause
a peak to form. The frequency of this peak should be
related to the number of times per second the
photon passes a point on the sphere. Scientists can
then use this value to calculate the path of the
photon in the cavity.
Knowing this, they can formulate generalized
structure for all subatomic particles. Valuable new
insight into the workings of the universe will pave
the way for many great discoveries.
For example if this view of nature is real, we
can show a-priori the cause of Planck’s constant and
the cause and source of nuclear interactions.
Planck’s constant is the amount of energy-time that
any photon can deliver to a photon absorber. The
equation is E = hv, where E is energy, h is Planck's
constant and v is the frequency, or rate of change, of
the photon’s electromagnetic fields.
We can restate the equation as h = E/v to get
the two variables on one side and isolate Planck's
constant on the other. Since any change in one of
the variables causes the other to change such that h
remains constant, we know a-priori that no other
variable is loose in the photon that might change the
value of Planck’s constant. Electromagnetic
amplitude does exist in this view of photons, so it
can be no other than a constant.
Now, Planck's constant is an abstract thing
like a ratio such as p while photon amplitude is real.
The abstract must derive from the real. Planck's
constant must derive from the constant amplitude of
While it is a little more difficult, we can show
that nuclear interactions must derive from this
constant photon amplitude, also. Consider that
neutrons, protons, and electrons are composed of
photons trapped in resonant orbits that form a
sphere just like the artificial mass created by Dr.
Alley. These orbiting photons generate an electric
field whose strength at the circumference of the
sphere is inversely proportional to the radius of the
sphere. Since photon amplitude is a constant, the
amplitude of this charge is also a constant when
sensed at any constant radius. When sensed at an
electron’s radius, for example, charges at the surface
of spheres smaller than an electron appear to be
exactly that of an electron. They are, however, much
stronger at the surface of their own spheres.
Consider also that protons and neutrons have
the structure proposed by the late Nobel laureate Dr.
Robert Hofstadter of Stanford. He thought they were
composed of alternately charged shells beginning
with a most central positive shell, then a negative
shell, then a positive shell for the proton. This makes
sense when we consider that each shell mass is the
square of the mass of the next shell out as in the
square-of-the-shells rule discovered in 1991.
According to this rule, the difference
between proton and neutron mass starts a square-of-
the-shells sequence that defines the mass of each of
Hofstadter’s shells. The sequence is 2.54992206745,
6.50210, 42.27734, and 1787.37327. Each larger
number is the square of the next smaller. The total of
all these is 1838.7, the mass of a neutron in
electron masses. The total of the three numbers
representing the inside shells is 1836.1, the
mass of a proton.
When we consider that the electromagnetic
attraction at any point on the surface of the sphere
formed by these shells is the square root of their
mass values, we find the exact values of the strong
Consider that protons may merge together
such that their outer shells pass through each other
[weak repulsive interaction] to come into close
proximity with their next-to-outer shells [strong
attractive interaction]. There are then four shells in
close proximity and their values are 6.5021, 6.5021,
42.2773, and 42.2773. The square root of the total
of these is 9.87718 electron forces and this is as
close as modern instruments can measure to the
strong nuclear interaction between two merged
protons. Add the starting number to the three
results, take the square root and you get 10.005, the
observed value of the strong nuclear interaction
between protons and neutrons.
This view of nuclear forces explains another
great mystery that has puzzled physicists for many
years. An alpha particle which consists of two
protons and two neutrons is the most stable particle
yet found in the universe. Nuclear decay involving
particles larger than neutrons always produces alpha
particles. The reason for this stability is obvious
when we consider the makeup of an alpha particle.
Composite merging of shells produce four shell one
contacts, twelve shell two contacts, and eight shell
three contacts. The square root of the sum of all
these is 20.6505, about twice the value of the
nuclear force between protons and neutrons alone.
Forces show up only where the shells form
parallel engagement. Perpendicular engagement
allows photons to pass each other with little effect
so that shells may merge. There is a repulsive force
against any like particles merging because the shells
can never get through each other without first
experiencing parallel engagement.
All this may only be a strange coincidence.
Maybe it is just a play with numbers, but all the
numbers are so exact and check with actual
measurements to such a degree that physicists must
take some note of them. The strong and the weak
nuclear interactions seem more and more to be
electromagnetic as each new discovery surfaces.
A new uncertainty has crept into the minds
of scientists engaged in fundamental particle
research. They are no longer 100% certain that
particle transfer is the basis for nuclear interactions.
Those who control funding for giant particle-
accelerators sense this uncertainty and are more
reluctant to put money into things that may appear
foolish in the future. Senator Dale Bumpers of
Arkansas exploited this uncertainty when he went to
debate the Super-Conducting Super Collider (SSC)
on the Senate floor. He was successful in his bid to
kill funding for the project.
In England there is a parallel effort
concerning another huge high-energy collider called
the CERN project. Scientists engaged in its
construction face a real dilemma. If they investigate
these new findings they will seem even more
uncertain about the cause of nuclear interactions. If
they don’t, opponents will use the same tactics that
Senator Bumpers used to kill their funding.
The only real way out seems to be a unified
effort among fundamental physicists to remove the
cloud of uncertainty about the cause of nuclear
interactions. They must find the photon’s hidden
secrets and either falsify or fortify Einstein’s now
complete unified field theory. If they do not, their
well will surely run dry.
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