AOH :: REYNOLD3.TXT|
On Osbourne Reynolds' Submechanics of the Universe (3/3)
| File Name : REYNOLD3.ASC | Online Date : 01/02/95 |
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The EXCELLENT Reynolds files are listed on KeelyNet as:
REYNOLDS1.ASC - Aether as a crystalline dilatant matrix to help
explain matter, energy, space, time and PSI pheomena
REYNOLDS2.ASC - the dilatant medium hypothesis as a bridge between
classical and modern physics
REYNOLDS3.ASC - envisions dynamic systems of negative dislocations
(holes) through which matter and energy manifest and
moves with tie-ins to explain UFOs
REYNOLDS.ZIP - All of the above files as bundled together
Also, you should download BUBBLE1.ZIP as explaining matter as a bubble in the
UFOs, Osborne Reynolds, and the One Wind:
A New Look at an Old Theory
Bruce L. Rosenberg
an Entry in
the Cutty Sark
Scientific Paper Competition
the UFO Phenomenon
June 21, 1979
23 North Chelsea Avenue
New Jersey, 08401 USA
Copyright (C) 1979 by Bruce L. Rosenberg, All Rights Reserved.
UFOs, Osborne Reynolds, and the One Wind:
A New Look at an Old Theory
For in the sea of sky, My Love
The moonships sail and fly, My Love
And many are their kind, My Love
Who all need but ONE WIND
To make their starry ways
To make their starry ways
And there will come a time, My Love
Oh may it be in mine, My Love
When men will proudly rise, My Love
And forge to sail the skies
Moonships from all the spheres
Moonships from all the spheres
Verses 5 and 6 from "Voyage of the Moon" (BMI) by Donovan
I am a romantic scientist. The second verse above expresses a hope which is
dear to my heart; a hope I have for the children of man. The first verse
gives a hint as to how this hope might be realized. This paper expands on
In the winter of 1978-79 both the CIA and the USAF, having been sued under the
U.S. Freedom of Information Act, released information (1,2) which indicates
serious official interest in UFOs. The content of these releases strengthens
the hypothesis that UFOs are advanced space vehicles of nonhuman manufacture,
operated by intelligent aliens. This hypothesis has not generally found favor
with scientists of the establishment, whom I call "Apologists".
The Apologists restrict the range of admissible data to that which can be
accounted for by their cherished theories. And this is useful. It allows the
scientist to decide which anomalous observations are meaningful, correct, or
valid and which are merely noise. In opposition to the Apologists, are the
"Heretics" who are looking to make names for themselves. The Heretics look
far and wide for phenomena which are poorly accounted for by current theory.
Typically, reviewers of papers are Apologists. Therefore, they will reject
this heretical paper because it accepts a category of anomalous data (UFOs'
and espouses a radically different theory of the dynamics and structure of the
universe. However, its acceptance or rejection is of little consequence. I
believe that these ideas must ultimately prevail.
About ninety percent of UFO reports can be explained as misidentified natural
or manmade phenomena, hoaxes, or hallucinations. The Heretic in me feels that
there is scientific payoff in assuming that a large part of the remainder are
advanced vehicles of nonhuman manufacture with propulsion systems and energy
sources advanced, not only beyond the capability of existing technology; but
also beyond human theoretical science of 1979. Henceforth, I will call them
People ask, "If these aerial aliens really exist, why don't they communicate
with us?" My answer is that in allowing themselves to be seen and, in some
cases, pursued; they are communicating. There have been numerous encounters
between UFOs and military craft of the U.S. and many other countries (1,2).
In these encounters the aliens seem to be playing sophomoric cat and mouse
games; saying, in effect, "Nyah, Nyah, Nyah! Can't catch us! Can't catch us!
You can't do what we can do!"
The Heretic in me thinks that we are being given a Global IQ test in which the
time taken to duplicate the UFOs, to do what the aliens can do, is a measure
of our technological and scientific IQ. Well, if they can do it, we can too
... monkey see, monkey do! But monkey must first see. French Aviation
Pioneer Gabriel Voisin warns (3), "These extraterrestrial explorers are
separated from us by a gigantic barrier higher than the Himalayas - which is
our retarded technical knowledge and our haughty ignorance." If the existence
of this mountain is not accepted, how can it be scaled?
Mentioning many of the characteristics of UFOs which are inexplicable with
current physical theory, J. Allen Hynek, Director of the Centre for UFO
Studies in Evanston, Illinois, U.S.A., says in his book, The UFO Experience
(4), "But there will surely be, we hope, a twenty-first century science and a
thirtieth century science, and perhaps they will encompass the UFO phenomenon
as twentieth century science has encompassed the aurora borealis, a feat
unimaginable to nineteenth century science, which likewise was incapable of
explaining how the stars and sun shine." His wait may soon be over.
The heretical Apologist in me believes that a synthesis of nineteenth century
and present day physical theory can explain the behaviour of UFOs. I am
referring to Osborne Reynolds' mechanical aether theory and its integration
with relativity and quantum theories. My goal is to show the extraordinary
explanatory power of this theory and to demonstrate that it is the Holy Grail
of Physics; a theory unifying all physical phenomena.
Osborne Reynolds, F.R.S. (1842-1912), a British engineer and educator, earned
the respect of his peers and the devotion of his students. Today he is
recognized mainly for his contributions to the study of fluid flow (5,6); but
Reynolds perceived these as only preliminaries to his grand synthesis - an
axiomatic theory of a particulate aether.
Reynolds was disappointed because his peers neither understood his theory nor
shared his perception of its value (7). Also, he was competing for attention
with the many major discoveries which followed one upon the other at the
dynamic turn of the century. Now, 76 years later, will Reynolds have a more
In 1903 Cambridge University Press published the third volume of Reynolds'
collected works, "On The Submechanics of the Universe" (8). This was two
years ahead of Einstein's special theory of relativity. Einstein devoted the
latter part of his career to the formulation of a theory which could subsume
all physical phenomena under a single rubric. He failed. It hardly seems
possible that Einstein was unaware of Reynolds' theory; but would he have
failed if he had been aware of it?
Historically, there has been competition between British and German
scientists. Heretically speaking, I feel Reynolds' contributions have been
equal to or, perhaps, greater than Einstein's. British scientists should
espouse Reynolds' theory as a matter of national pride!
Reynolds titled his "popular" lecture of 1902, "On an Inversion of Ideas as to
the Structure of the Universe". Current science pictures tiny, 'hard'
particles zooming around in a lot of nothing (space) somehow mysteriously
interacting with photons and nuclear, electric, magnetic, and assorted other
Reynolds' inversion, on the other hand, envisions dynamic systems of negative
dislocations (holes) zooming around in a lot of something (a quasigaseous,
quasicrystalline, dilatant medium) interacting with transverse vibrations
(photons) and different types of stresses in the medium (nuclear, electric,
magnetic, etc. forces). This theory is compatible with both relativity and
quantum theories. It is an aether which was not demolished by the Michelson-
Morley (M-M) experimental results.
Today, theories of the luminiferous aether are not in vogue among Apologist
physicists. They say that the M-M experiment disproved and that relativity
theory did away with the need for an aether. It is true that M-M results
disproved some aether theories; but the type of aether proposed by Reynolds,
far from being disproven, actually permits visualization of the mechanism
whereby the speed of light remains a constant. Here is a demonstration.
As Einstein has shown, the observed speed of light is always a constant
because the length of an object contracts in the direction of motion and its
local time rate slows in perfect balance. Reynolds' theory enables me to show
that the mechanism whereby this occurs is inherent in the very structure and
dynamics of the medium.
This medium is granular, composed of uniform, spherical grains much smaller
than subatomic particles and filling the entire universe. In fact, it is the
universe. In matter-free space the grains are hexagonally arrayed and almost
close-packed. Because they cannot exchange neighbors, they form a
quasicrystalline matrix. The grains are in relative, vibratory, gas-like
motion; but with a mean free path many orders of magnitude smaller than the
diameter of the grains (unlike a gas). This jostling of the grains against
one another produces a very high pressure in the medium. Because of the
gearing of the grains and the pressure, the medium supports transverse
disturbances (EM waves) whose local propagation rate depends on the local
pressure and strains in the medium. Unstrained; i.e., without matter, the
aether is isotropic. Strained; i.e., with matter present, it is anisotropic.
Reynolds says matter is strained regions of misalignment of the grains or
"singular surfaces", "negative inequalities", or simply, "holes". Matter,
then, moves by means of displacement; much as a bubble moves upward by an
equal amount of liquid being displaced downward. For holes to move through
the medium, aether grains must move in the opposite direction.
Picture a void or hole having two plane, parallel faces. For this hole to
move in a direction perpendicular to the faces, aether grains must leave the
forward face and travel to the rear face of the hole. Since the distance the
grains must travel is larger than the normal grain spacing and since they
travel at a limited velocity, the grains spend a certain amount of time in
transit across the singular surface. While in transit, the grains do not
vibrate against other grains and their energy is momentarily unavailable to
the rest of the medium.
As the hole moves faster, the number of grains in transit across it increases.
This causes a local decrease in aether pressure. Also, as more grains leave
the front face, it experiences a loss of pressure and produces an aether
strain tending to cause the front face to approach the rear face. This
results in a contraction of the hole (matter) in the direction of motion.
VOILA! THE LORENTZ-FITZGERALD CONTRACTION!
The vibration rate of the grains determines the aether pressure and this
determines the rate at which light waves are propagated. The faster light
travels in the medium, the greater the rate of passage of time. Thus, if the
motion of matter through the medium decreases the local aether pressure, it
also causes local time to slow.
VOILA! TIME EXPANSION!
As the speed of the hole approaches the mean velocity of the grains (which,
in part, determines the speed of light) the local aether pressure approaches a
value close to zero. Reynolds identifies gravitational and inertial effects
with the inward, radially directed aether strain on a volume containing holes
(matter) and the dilatation this strain produces. As the local aether
pressure drops to a low value, the aether strain rises to a high value. This
aether strain increase is synonymous with a mass increase.
VOILA! THE INCREASE IN MASS WITH VELOCITY!
The above explanations are, admittedly, intuitive, nonmathematical, and
analogical. But, until today, has there ever been a model which could provide
such a visualization of the manner in which motion causes distortion of the
space-time continuum (in this case "discontinuum" or "quantinuum")? This is
what I like about Reynolds' theory. It makes possible the visualization of
phenomena, which formerly were grasped mainly by mathematical relationships.
"Don't try to picture it; the equation is the whole reality", is a point of
view which promulgates mystery in physics. Reynolds' theory can demystify
physics and bring to bear, once again, that powerful human faculty of
visualization to the subject. In this simple, elegant model, the pressure of
the aether, the interlocking structure of the aether grains, and dilatation
attending strains in the medium are first order effects. All of the known
physical phenomena are higher order effects deriving from these first order
In the above paragraphs I have given intuitive explanations for the constant
velocity of light, the Lorentz-Fitzgerald contraction, time expansion, and the
increase in mass with velocity. Reynolds' quasigaseous, quasicrystalline,
dilatant medium can also provide mechanical, kinetic, structural, and
thermodynamic explanations for:
1. the mechanism of gravity,
2. the equivalence between gravitational and inertial mass,
3. the wave-particle duality of EM radiation,
4. the different ranges of the physical forces,
5. nonradiating orbits of electrons around the nucleus,
6. mass-energy interconversion,
7. the numerical relationships between physical constants, etc.
I feel unqualified to speak as an Apologist in defense of Reynolds' heretical
theory. In his Magnum Opus, he starts from fundamental axioms and produces
many detailed analytical, mathematical derivations. Although I have some
small skill in mathematics, most of his equations involving multiple integrals
and differentials are beyond me. For this reason, I will not include any of
his analytical results here. However, I do feel that the intuitive,
descriptive material above should be augmented with some of the quantitative
results of the theory.
On the basis of empirical data circa 1900, Reynolds computed values for the
parameters of his model of the aether. These values may lead to conclusions
which disagree with our current knowledge of the universe. It must be
stressed that such disagreement might be eliminated by choice of a different
set of parameter values without invalidating the model, itself. Reynolds'
computed values (in C.G.S. units) are:
Grain Diameter = 5.534 X 10 exp(-18)
Mean Relative Velocities of the Grains = 6.777 X 10
Mean Path of the Grains = 8.612 X 10 exp(-28)
Mean Density of the Medium = 10 exp(4)
Coefficient of Transverse Elasticity = 9.03 X 10 exp(24)
Rate of the Transverse (EM Shear) Wave = 3.004 X 10 exp(10)
Rate of the Normal (Compression) Wave = 7.161 X 10 exp(10)
Time to Cut Transverse Wave Energy from 1 to 1/e2 = 1.785 X 10 exp(15)
Time to Reduce Normal Wave Energy from 1 to 1/e2 = 3.923 X 10 exp(-6).
On the basis of the above parameter values, I calculated some figures which
agree reasonably well with known physical measures. I obtained a value close
to 10 exp(-48) grams for the mass of the grain. This value is the same as the
upper mass limit for the photon as determined by de Broglie and Vigier in 1972
The diameter for the smallest sphere of grains which could detach itself from
the rest of the grains in the medium and rotate independently, which I call
the 'mean free sphere', I calculated to be 3.5 X 10 exp(-8) cm. This is close
to the measured value for atomic diameters.
The mass of a minimal shell around the mean free sphere came to 4.3 X 10
exp(-28) grams; again, not too far from the measured electron mass of 9.1 X
10 exp(-28) grams. These rough numerical agreements are not offered as proof
of the theory. However, they are suggestive enough that I hope those more
qualified than I am will be motivated to examine Reynolds' aether more
Fortunately, not all established scientists are anti-aether. Dirac has
demonstrated analytically that the existence of an aether is not ruled out
by quantum theory (11). Bohm, de Broglie, and Vigier (12) have postulated
the existence of a subquantal medium, which according to Bohm's interpretation
(13), is surprisingly similar to Reynolds' aether. These friends of the
aether seem not to have known about Reynolds. At least I found no reference
to his work in any of their papers.
Both aether theories envision a structured matrix with a graininess much finer
than subatomic particles. In Bohm's medium, elementary particles are
analogous to dislocations in a crystalline matrix. He says that there are
enough different types of dislocations in crystals to account for the number
of known elementary particles.
The stress fields in the crystal are analogous to the various physical forces
exerted by the particle. The particle cannot exist without the stress fields,
nor the stress fields without the particle. Hiley (14) references Frank (15)
who has shown in a theoretical analysis that a Burgers screw dislocation
moving through a crystal experiences all the relativistic effects, which can
be determined by a substitution of the transverse velocity of sound in the
crystal for the speed of light.
The Zeitgeist is moving in the direction of Reynolds.
How does Reynolds' aether relate to UFOs? By now you have probably guessed
that the romantic me equates "moonships" with UFOs and the "one wind" with the
pressure of the aether. UFOs have displayed behaviours which indicate that
they operate by altering the local metric of space-time.
Extreme accelerations, antigravity effects, bending of light beams, alteration
of time, changes of shape, and unusual EM interference have all been
associated with UFO sightings. Hypersonic velocities without sonic booms and
extreme accelerations without killing the occupants require that UFOs operate
by means of a field which acts equally on all the contents of the vehicle and
also on the atmosphere in its vicinity.
Extreme velocities without sonic booms could then be achieved since at
increasing distances from the UFO decreasing field strength would move less
and less atmosphere along with it. Several photographs have shown UFOs
surrounded by clouds or mist. A decrease in atmospheric pressure can produce
condensation of moisture. An increase of aether pressure in the vicinity of
the UFO would cause a drop in atmospheric pressure. These and many similar
observations when viewed from the perspective of Reynolds' aether theory can
provide a basis for the design of a moonship.
The first three decades of the twentieth century were rich with theoretical
advances in physics. Since that time, technology has developed the practical
applications of these new theories. It seems that the new lands charted by
these theories are well explored and cultivated. There remain few new vistas.
The time has come for a new perspective; for a revitalized vision of the
physical world. This is what I believe Reynolds' theory has to offer. It
allows for the possibility of:
1. control of gravity or levitation of physical objects,
2. control of inertia or mass of physical objects,
3. control of the local metric of space,
4. a space drive not requiring expulsion of reaction mass,
5. control of the rate of passage of time within a volume of space,
6. signal propagation at 2.4 times the speed of light,
7. an inexhaustible source of energy,
8. a radically changed cosmology, and who knows what else?
Isn't this just what one might need to build a moonship? Much theoretical and
applied research will be necessary to realize any of these possibilities. But,
just knowing that they exist, will infuse new vitality into our physics and,
further, our entire civilization.
Even if one chooses to discount the UFO evidence, there is sufficient
justification in the above possibilities for serious consideration of
Reynolds' aether as a paradigm upon which a new physics for the third
millennium may be built. "And there will come a time, My Love. Oh may it be
in mine'" Oh may it be in mine.
1. New York Times, Sunday, 14 Jan 1979, Headlined, "C.I.A. Papers Detail UFO
Surveillance: Agency's Secret Studies Convince Arizona Research Group
That Flying Saucers 'Are Real."
2. Satchell, M., "UFO's vs. USAF: Amazing (but True) Encounters" in Parade,
a Philadelphia Bulletin weekly feature magazine, 10 Dec 1978.
3. Voisin was quoted on p 180 of The Flying Saucer Story by Brinsley Le Poer
Trench, Ace Books, Inc., New York, 1966.
4. Hynek, J. A., The UFO Experience: A Scientific Inquiry, Henry Regnery
Co., Chicago, 1972, p 232.
5. Reynolds, 0., Papers on Mechanical and Physical Subjects, Reprinted from
Various Transactions and Journals, Vol. I: 1869 - 1882, published in
1900 and Vol. 11: 1881 - 1900, published in 1901 by Cambridge: at the
6. Obituary Notices of Fellows Deceased, Proceedings of the Royal Society of
London, Series A, Vol. LXXXVIII, July 1913, pp xv - xix. Reynolds'
obituary devotes only half a page out of six to his aether theory. The
author (H. L.) states a view probably reflecting those of Reynolds'
contemporaries, "Unfortunately, illness had already begun gravely to
impair his powers of expression, and the memoir as it stands is affected
with omissions and discontinuities which render it unusually difficult to
follow. No one who has studied the work of Reynolds can doubt that it
embodies ideas of great value, as well as of striking originality; but it
is to be feared that their significance will hardly be appreciated until
some future investigator, treading a parallel path, recognizes them with
the true sympathy of genius, and puts them in their proper light."
7. Bryan, G. H., "A New Mechanical Theory of the Aether", a review of
Reynolds' theory which appeared in Nature, No. 1773, Vol. 68, 22 Oct.
1903, p 600.
8. Reynolds, 0., Papers on Mechanical and Physical Subjects, Vol. III, The
Submechanics of the Universe, Cambridge: at the University Press, 1903.
9. Reynolds, 0., On an Inversion of Ideas as to the Structure of the
Universe (The Rede Lecture, June 10, 1902), Cambridge: at the University
10. de Broglie, L. and Vigier, J. P., "Photon Mass and New Experimental
Results on Longitudinal Displacements of Laser Beams near Total
Reflection", Physical Review Letters, Vol. 28, No. 15, 10 Apr. 1972, p
11. Dirac, P. A. M., "Is there an Aether?" a Letter to the Editor, Nature,
Vol. 168, No. 4282, 24 Nov. 1951, p 906.
12. de Broglie, L. and Vigier, J. P., Introduction to the Vigier Theory of
Elementary Particles, Elsevier Publishing Co., 1963, p 131.
13. Bohm, D. J., "Problems in the Basic Concepts of Physics", discusses a
crystalline medium on pages 296 - 299 of the Satyendranath Bose 70th
Birthday Commemoration Volume, Part II, Kalipada Mukherjee at Eka Press,
14. Hiley, B. J., "A Note on Discreteness, Phase Space and Cohomology
Theory", in Quantum Theory and Beyond: Essays and Discussions Arising
from a Colloquium, Ted Bastian, Ed., Cambridge: at the University Press,
1971, p 188.
15. Frank, F. C., "On the Equations of Motion of Crystal Dislocations", in
The Proceedings of the Physical Society, Sec. A, from Jan. 1949 to Dec.
1949, Vol. 62, pp 131 - 134.
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