AOH :: STELDRIV.TXT The Stellar Drive (another self-sustaining electromagnetic propulsion drive)
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Newsgroups: alt.sci.physics.new-theories
From: Joe@stellar.demon.co.uk (Joseph Michael)
Subject: The Stellar Drive Engine
Date: Sun Sep 19 12:24:55 1993

STELLAR DRIVE THEORY

by J. Michael

(Revised 18-09-93 to correct error in penultimate sentence of
paragraph 3 below.)

The Stellar Drive Engine is an electromagnetic device for generating
unidirectional thrust. It has no moving parts and generates
unidirectional thrust based on a flaw in Maxwell's electromagnetic
equations which manifests itself when two conductors carrying
current with harmonics greater than the fundamental interact through
their magnetic fields. The vector sum for these interacting magnetic
fields is zero when the excitation is sinusoidal (which is in general
agreement with default observations based on standard calculations)
but they are not zero for sustained non-sinusoidal excitations.

A simple way to explain how a Stellar Drive works is to take two
electromagnets made from copper wire with an air core and glue
them back to back with an intervening plastic rod between them.
The importance of not using an iron core (normally used to enhance
the electromagnet's strength) is that with an air core, the
electromagnets are not magnetic when switched off. Using copper
for the wire and plastic for the intervening rod makes the whole
assembly non-magnetic. If the electromagnets have magnetic cores,
or if there are any significant magnetic materials nearby, the device
will not work at the expected efficiencies. Figure 1. shows the
arrangement of the non-magnetic electromagnets and the plastic rod.

When electromagnet one switches on, its field will propagate to
electromagnet two. Before the field reaches electromagnet two,
electromagnet one is switched off. Thus we get a travelling pulse of
magnetic pulse that would eventually sweep past electromagnet two
at the speed of light. As the pulse from electromagnet one arrives at
electromagnet two,  electromagnet two is switched on.
Electromagnet two's field interacts with the passing field from
electromagnet one and electromagnet two would be attracted to
electromagnet one. (The arguments remain consistent whether the
force is attraction or repulsion.)

Electromagnet 1        Electromagnet 2

:---:                  :---:
:   :------------------:   :
:   :                  :   :     Figure 1
:   :                  :   :
:   :------------------:   :
:___:   plastic rod    :___:

While the field from electromagnet one is interacting with
electromagnet two, the rod feels a unidirectional push towards
electromagnet one. In free space, the rod and electromagnet assembly
would be accelerated unidirectionally.

The situation is true while the field from electromagnet one is
passing over electromagnet two. To create the equal and opposite
force, the magnetic field from electromagnet two races to
electromagnet one to interact with it to create the equal and
opposite. But here it encounters a problem. Electromagnet one is
switched off and since there is nothing magnetic there it cannot
interact with it and so it must pass through it unaffected.

The consequence of this escaping field is that we have created local
momentum. Once all the fields have escaped the device, there is no
way of cancelling the locally generated momentum.

After the field from electromagnet two has passed through
electromagnet one, the momentum generating cycle can be repeated.
Electromagnet one is pulsed on and off again and as the field passes
through electromagnet two, it is also pulsed on and off again
generating more momentum. In theory, the device can keep on
accelerating forever if there was a method for energizing the coils on
and off in the incredibly short periods needed  for the interactions to
be observable.

Because magnetic fields travel at the speed of light c, the energizing
method must be very quick so as to generate the appropriate pulsed
magnetic fields.

The device has no moving parts, yet it generates thrust. If it were to
be rotated clockwise ninety degrees and placed on a weighting
machine (that has no magnetic components nearby) we would see the
weight of the device lessening . The weight loss would be
proportional to the amount of power fed to the electromagnets.
Changing the phase at which the electromagnets are turned on and
off and the frequency with which they are turned on and off will also
register proportional thrust. The mark space ratio of the rectangular
wave used to turn the electromagnets would also affect the thrust
generation characteristics of the drive.

The Stellar Drive would appear to be violating Newton's third law
but if we look closely it does not violate Newton's laws. The
escaping fields have pulling power. The fields escaping to the left
have more pulling power than to the right because the fields escaping
to the right have interacted with electromagnet two and thereby
diminished its strength whereas the field escaping to the left is much
stronger because it has not interacted with anything. These fields
will terminate on distant objects and pull them cancelling the locally
generated momentum.

This part of the theory more than anything else allows the Stellar
Drive to exist because from a theoretical point of view, Newton's
third law is violated locally only to be cancelled globally which is
perfectly acceptable science. If the device did break Newton's third
law in its entirety, then virtually all of physics would need to re-
written and most scientists would find it difficult to accept such a
theory because of the counter evidence gathered from centuries
of work.

The excitation of the electromagnets are assumed to be from a
rectangular wave. Since the rectangular wave is merely the sum of
sinusoidal functions given by a Fourier series, it is easy to see that
in theory at least, the local momentum generating effects should start
to appear if more than the fundamental harmonic is present in the
excitation. Energizing the electromagnets with sinusoidal wave forms
merely allows the radiating of energy in the form of photons which
is what Maxwell's theory. Photons unfortunately yield virtually zero
thrust. But turning the excitation to a rectangular wave yields
extremely large thrust. The theoretical maximum is 50% of the force
experienced between two electromagnets when they are fully
switched on, turned into unidirectional thrust. The maths (not
included) conveniently express unidirectional force generated as a
percentage of the force measured between two electromagnets when
they are fully on. This percentage changes as the frequency or shape
of the excitation wave is changed, if the mark space ratio is altered
and if the total power delivered to the electromagnets is changed due
to unwanted physical phenomena (such as inductance). The designs
for practical devices give 25% maximum but its likely to be much
less than that when put into operation.

The effects are large and should be measurable.

If anyone wants to build a 'Star Wars' (as in the movie) type
thrusters, building the Stellar Drive is the real way to proceed.
Fabrication of high speed electromagnets is difficult but I have
worked out a scheme for implementing it using GaAs photocell ring
arrays fabricated onto the surface of a chip and illuminated by high
speed laser pulses (in the picosecond region) to energise it. Because
high speed lasers have low mark space ratios, the operation of the
Stellar Drive Array could be severely affected. However, based on a
consideration of total power consumed, a 100W laser shining over a
large area array (around one square metre) should be able to generate
around 1W of mechanical power in the form of unidirectional thrust
with prototypes even if the mark space ratios are low.

Improvements in the efficiency of the device can be worked out once
the physics of picosecond magnetics is better understood.

This device requires very little capital expenditure to build working
prototypes compared to work done with ion drives, large thrusters.
All we need is a GaAs chip to be manufactured and a picosecond
laser facility to test it. The Stellar Drive is not an 'anti-gravity'
machine but a proper unidirectional thrust generating engine. As
such the device could for example control the flight of a missile
without any control surfaces because of the way it creates forces
within an object, eliminating the need for complex mechanical
attitude and spin control systems. Because the Stellar Drive Engine
can be turned on and off extremely quickly, it can be used to control
the flight path of high speed projectiles where mechanical systems
cannot intervene on time. It can also be used to stabilise high speed
wings in supersonic flight against vibrations through its use to
deliver a dampening force on the wing tip where no mechanical
systems can compete because mechanical systems do not have the
slew rate needed to achieve the desired result.

It does not take much imagination to put Stellar Drives to military use
in space. Small solar powered Stellar Drive engine based 'pebbles' (an
object about a metre in size!) can be put into large high velocity
holding orbits that can then be switched to target missiles in an all
out ICBM offensive scenario. These pebbles would be deployed at
the first hint of tension and would remain in orbit for months if
necessary. It is much more cheaper than launching large rail guns
which can be evaded by targets that change velocity. It is better than
chemical propellant based pebbles because they need to be serviced
frequently with fuel if they are deployed. Stellar Drive Engines have
higher slew rate allowing the pebble to change directions much
faster than mechanical systems will ever be able to do. The pebbles
are powered by solar panels while in holding orbits but switch to
chemical batteries when in interceptor mode. Enough pebbles are
held in storage orbits that can be switched to graded interceptor
orbits with intercept times in the order of minutes to tens of minutes.

Satellites equipped with Stellar Drives and a power source such as a
solar panel or nuclear battery can change their orbits frequently
because they do not run out of fuel. It is possible to think of
building dual use satellites that function in low earth orbits and at
geostationary orbits.

Because satellites need constant fuel to keep them in low altitude
and non equatorial geostationary orbits (to repel the excess force of
gravity), it is possible now to think of deploying Stellar Drive driven
satellites that generate the counter balancing force to repel an excess
gravity vector. These satellites are far more useful in that they have
much narrower footprints and deliver a lot more power to the
receiving aerials. They are also much easier to control because they
don't need complex thruster orientation/firing sequences and
associated complex orbital trajectories to achieve desired
positioning in space.

or solar cells can be sent off to reach their destinations more quickly
because the drives can accelerate the probe half of the way and
decelerate the other half of the journey. The intervening velocities
reached can be quite high shortening the length of the whole
journey.

As for building systems that would take off and land from Earth (as
in the movie 'Star Wars'), I believe there is a long way to go for
increasing power to weight ratios before we see such vehicles.
Regrettably, the device cannot provide warp drive. You may however
accelerate for a year at a time at g and achieve simulated warp drive.
your sense of time will be slowed down that will allow you to get to
your destination apparently at speeds greater than c but what really
happens is that you will travel at speeds close to c while the rest of
the Universe ages faster around you. Einstein worked this out in his
theory of relativity and I have no idea at present on how to
circumvent Einstein's time dilation effects.

On a less technical note, some of you must be wondering why go to
all this bother building all these things. In a round about way I have
a motive. I personally believe that planets and planetsimals out
number stars by anything from 2:1 to 5:1 in most stable galaxies and
because of that I believe that life should have existed in millions of
planets. The fact that life does not appear to be common and that we
cannot see any beacons left by other intelligent life forms suggests
to me far more sinister things are happening than meets the eye. The
universe is too silent. When you see life and its struggles to exploit
every niche for survival on just Earth alone, trying to comprehend
the total silence of the cosmos is an insult to any intelligence. At the
moment, I believe with our advanced SQUID devices and the like, it
is far better to listen (e.g. the SETI programme) rather than talk (as
we do by broadcasting radio waves in all directions in virtually all
channels). The last thing we need is a hostile visitor that cannot
tolerate any other forms of life. That a hostile culture dominates this
part of the universe may be a pretty good one of two reasons why
there is so little life to be found (the other reason being the sheer
pessimistic statistics associated with probabilities of stable life
systems evolving which may in the end turn out to be true). If we are
faced with hostile culture situation we need to be ready.

The physics of this device although fitting neatly into standard physics
without violating Newton's laws, still leaves room for awful rewrites.
For example, if the device works, it is not necessary for objects to
reach escape velocity to leave the gravitational pull of another
object. This line of argument is treading on dangerous territory since
black holes are assumed to exist on the assumption that escape
velocity is greater than c and so light must become trapped. There
are many such niggling doubts that surface once the principles of the
theory are accepted. For example, what happens at the microscopic
quantum levels if interactions arise that lead to local momentum
generation or if escaping fields carry momentum instead of
'particles'.

Incidentally, Feynman's ideas about magnetism as an extension of
electrostatics are better suited to describing the Stellar Drive than
standard classical models of magnetism. Since Feynman's model is
totally equivalent to the classical model, we should not see any
difference and that is just what we get when applied to the Stellar
Drive.

All in all, in this project there is a lot of work here for
students, academics, reporters, research establishments, defence
companies and Government agencies who get involved.

AUTHOR'S NOTES

boards, Internet etc., but don't alter copyrighted content without
prior permission other than to give credit to say who you are and

Anyone interested in involvement, donations or setting up research
programmes can contact me through any of the following electronic
methods:-

Compuserve 100273,350
Internet Joe@stellar.demon.co.uk
Fax +44 81 800 9915

Or through the old fashioned boring postal method:-

Joe Michael
23 Portland Rise
London N4 2PT
United Kingdom.

Requests for posting of information bundles and updates will be
catered at \$8 which include a minimal administration charge &
international post.

I will reply to as many letters as I can. I am interested in any
reasonable maths content. I am weary of claims made by people who
have 'invented' gyroscopic anti-gravity machines and I am keen to
disprove any such mechanism to promote the Stellar Drive Engine in
its place. Students and companies wishing to be educated more on
the subject matter can arrange for posting of information bundles
and updates. Alternatively, if there is a group of you out there that
need a lecture, then that can be arranged too (I travel widely).

Written by J. Michael