AOH :: SYNERGY.TXT Borderland: The Synergy Model - Khammas
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THE SYNERGY MODEL

by A. A. W. Khammas

If on the earth's surface a body is moved from one point to another,
gravitation has only an indirect effect through friction on this body so
long as it is on the same level of potential energy.  However, if one wants
to move the body's level in a direction opposite to gravitational influence
(=upward transport), a considerable expenditure of energy would be required.
The expended energy is not lost, but remains stored in the body in form of
increased potential energy.  The actual percentage of total energy stored on
the new potential energy level varies directly with the degree of efficiency
of the transport system used.  The quantity of possible energy reclamation
(Example: Pump-fed power station) also depends on the degree of efficiency
of the system converting to stored potential energy into other forms of
energy and exergy (e.g. falling water into rotational energy) and then into
electrical energy, the most commonly known exergy form. Calm water has a
very high surface tension.  Gravitation affects all molecules equally
strongly, thus permitting the surface to level itself in an ideal manner.
Seen in a planetary context, the sea level surface is considered to be the
"zero level" of all altitude or depth measurement.  The upward transport of
water onto a higher level requires a certain expenditure of energy.  We
contend that this expenditure of energy is especially high in those cases
where in an "upward transport" a partial amount of water must be detached
from the whole system.  In this case, the cohesion counteracts the upward
transport and thus increases the necessary energy requirement to a
considerable extent. This paper deals with a method of transport which
eliminates the necessity for breaking the cohesive forces in water.  This
"transport system" is based on a topological deformation of water, resulting
from rotation but without application of pressure, in which the cohesive
forces are not affected during upward transport. A vital element of this
transport system is basically not new; it is known as the Newtonian Bucket
Experiment.  However, in his time Newton had not paid any attention to the
possible practical use of spirally rising water.  He mainly considered his
experiment to be a proof of "Absolute rotation".  Since then -- and to this
day -- it seems that no one has dealt anymore intensively with this
experiment, with the possible exception of Berkeley, who dismissed Newton's
Thesis, asserting the "Bucket Experiment" to be a proof of the "Relativity
of Movement".  No one seemed to be interested either in the technical or the
practical aspects. The physical concept: Continuously acting centrifugal,
centripetal and shearing forces result in a helical movement opposite to the
gravitational direction.  Although continuous bucket rotation releases all
of these forces, it releases no strong pressure or suction forces, thus
considerable minimizing the losses due to friction. Determining the
necessary number of revolutions does not present a problem.  The rotating
body's minimum number of revolutions depends exclusively on the ratio of
height to diameter.  Aesthetical calculations result in single-digit number
of revolutions per second.  Therefore, it is easy to calculate the optimal
number of revolutions adequate to the material, to the type of storage as
well as to other parameters.  These low number of revolutions are
independent of the actual dimensions of the rotating body. The water-formed
paraboloid in the rotating container steepens with the increase in speed,
its base dropping lower and lower as water is displaced sideways and upwards.
The aforementioned low number of revolutions are enough to deform the water
topologically in such a way that the inside surface of the produced hollow
space approaches an upright angle of 90o to the calm surface. The entire
system calls to mind those designs for space stations which generate a
(centrifugal) artificial gravitational force through their artificially
created axial rotation; thus ensuring an almost normal life aboard.  However,
the bucket experiment's most interesting aspect is its application "WITHIN"
a gravitational field, upon which the rotational effect is superimposed.
Topological deformation causes the water to literally "creep up the walls"
inside the rotation field.  As soon as the container's rim is reached, the
unrestrained centrifugal force thrusts the water over the rim.  If this
upper rim were to be equipped with a (stationary) collecting basin, a
certain quantity of water of a higher potential energy level would be
obtained. This effect, of course, could only be achieved by first expending
a certain amount of energy into the rotation procedure. Let us proceed on
the assumption that the water quantity in the bucket is limited and that the
bucket itself is at rest.  Under these conditions, a relatively large amount
of energy would be required in order to lift up the water in the described
way.  It would be a completely different case, however, if the established
rotation (after expenditure of start and acceleration energy) is only to be
kept constant and if there is a constant supply of water at the lower end of
the bucket.  The energy expenditure necessary to maintain the flow
equilibrium is substantially lower than the amount required for start and
acceleration, while the total-mass-stabilizing flow equilibrium is
materially assured by the "Effect of communicating tubes".  If one part of
the rotation container is situated beneath the level of feed water, then the
water -- with a corresponding tube connection and possible axial infeed at
the lower end of the rotating cylinder -- will flow into the container
without any additional application of energy. A further decrease in energy
expenditure in the maintenance of rotation can be achieved by reducing the
number of revolutions of the cylinder to a subcritical speed.  This speed is
reached as soon as the water is no longer thrust over the upper rim of the
rotating container, but moves only within the rotating container as a
standing wall of water.  Due to the previously integrated continuous water
supply at the bottom end of the rotating body even the most minor increase
in speed would reestablish the interrupted flow equilibrium such that each
drop that is thrust over the top of the rim would be replaced simultaneously
at the bottom. Now, another closer look at the subcritical speed.  With
this number of revolutions applied, an overflow at the upper rim does not
yet occur -- unless we were to artificially generate a certain pressure on
the water, an incompressible medium.  This pressure would immediately thrust
the water over the upper rim because it would present the water with its
only alternative exit. First, we assume that the water feed at the lower end
is (still) closed and that the rotating body is turning with subcritical
speed.  Since the water quantity is limited in this case, the base of the
created rotation paraboloid sinks to a level beneath the still water surface
which is identical with the feed water level.  With the water indeed open,
however, any drop of the falling water level results in an immediate rise in
indeed water pressure with its assumed constant level.  Since, according to
physical laws, this pressure acts upon the entire water quantity within the
rotating cylinder, this pressure could represent exactly that kind of energy
which is required to thrust the water over the upper rim of the container
even at a subcritical number of revolutions. With the described method we
achieve a constant upward flow, opposite to the pull of gravitation, which
results in a constant flow equilibrium when a constant number of revolutions
is applied.  After providing for acceleration, our direct energy expenditure
is limited to the compensation of various friction losses, while the upward
transport itself takes place through the permanently renewed pressure of the
feeding water reservoir (Sea, lake, etc.). The hydrological cycle is closed
by the subsequent use of increased potential energy by means of water
turbines.  Wit this procedure one can reconvert the gravitation effect --
now again uninfluenced by rotation-based centrifugal and centripetal forces
-- into utilizable electric current. It cannot be left unmentioned that
doubts have been raised from various sides concerning the practicability of
this system.  This machine itself prohibits an uncritical application of the
Thermodynamic Principles.  In the meantime, however, positive remarks have
been made which refer to recent discoveries in physics and chemistry.
Indeed, the Belgian scientist Prigogine was recently awarded the Nobel prize
for just this particular theory, according to which the application of the
Thermodynamic Principles is only allowable in closed systems.  If we reflect
on the conditions established by Prigogine for an opposite, open system, we
ascertain, that these conditions are completely met by the transport system
described here: An uninterrupted flow of MATTER and ENERGY through the
system. What represents the uninterrupted supply of chemically-bound energy
and/or light in an non-entropic form of human, animal or plant nature, is
carried out in this very system by the water itself: it transports its
immanent and constantly renewed heat energy, the sources of which are mainly
solar radiation and geothermal energy -- in addition to the process heat of
all biological and mechanical cycles found in the upper layers of the
world's oceans. Certain similarities exist between the above described
transport system and the universally feared tornados.  Due to their
exceptionally high revolution speeds, these tornados do represent an extreme
form of general turbulence, but they also show very clearly that heat energy
itself can transform itself direction into mechanical energy within a
cyclonic field, even if only in low percentages.  Quantitatively considered,
however, they add up to enormous amounts.  Several authors with insights
into the latest research in the field speak of a synergistic self-
-organization of matter, which in this practical case, leads to the "self-
energization" of the cyclonic structure. It is pointed out that even minimal
temperature differences are sufficient to lift up water molecules to
astonishing heights.  Indeed, the entire population living on the surface of
the planet lives from this low-temperature transport.  Evaporation lifts
millions of tons of water up hourly, without any pressure or suction forces
in a technical sense -- and that to heights of several thousand meters! The
successful combination of two old and well-known principles with recent
discoveries in physics opens up the possibility of water transport (from the
ZERO water level upward), due to the physical characteristics of a cyclonic
field, requiring extraordinarily low operating energies.  Based on the
assumption that a self-energization takes place, these must act -- contrary
to the first impression -- in a decelerating not an accelerating manner. It
remains to be seen which actual figures future pilot plants will achieve.
Only then will the efficiency of the suggested rotation transport system be
concretely verified.  However, experiments with relatively small models have
already indicated that the installation of centrifugal mass or disk flywheel
on the rotating cylinder would pay off not only as regards to stability and
temporary energy storage.  The heavier the empty rotating container, the
greater the water storage in the slow "subcritical speed range", thus also
increasing the water quantity thrust over the upper rim due to the pressure
of feed water.  Due to the additional empty mass, the start-energy
investment necessarily increases, but this is more than compensated by the
higher equilibrium forces.  The necessary energy required for further
operation is hardly important because of its low percentage rate. Apart from
the above described cohesion, adhesion should also be mentioned.  Without
this adhesion, the water would not move at all upon the start of the
rotation (e.g. which is the case with HELIUM II near absolute zero).  In the
aforementioned system, inside friction is a basic precondition for the
functioning of the system.  As proximity to the rotation center increases,
the shearing forces progressively decrease, thus clearly indicating the
difference between a centrifugal rotation acceleration (mixer, pumps etc.)
and a centripetal acceleration "from the circumference" which we have named
"implosive". Comparing the above system with a conventional centrifugal pump
or the possible mathematical or physical conclusions deriving from such a
pump, leaves the impression that one intends to explain the flight behavior
of a jet with the knowledge gained from ballooning. Gravitation, in our eyes,
should no longer be considered negatively as a "foe to be overcome".  On the
contrary, no upward transport would probably be possible without gravitation
and certainly no subsequent energy transformation or energy generation would
take place. Even the actual meaning of the word "overcome" refers to the
suggested system -- if one has a little imagination. As a theoretical basis
for a future mathematical analysis we have formulated the following: NON-
ENTROPIC SYSTEMS ARE ANTI-GRAVITATIONAL. The abovementioned system offers
numerous possible applications.  The system could be applied either as a
transport component in pump-fed storage stations, for quick filling of
sluices or for larger irrigation projects; in connection with other
technologies, it could be applied in the field of sea-water desalinization
and sewage treatments or in other projects.  The most important aspect,
however, will be the system's utilization in the field of exergy
exploitation from various renewable "environmental energies".  An important
aspect in an economic, technical and ecological respect context.

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