AOH :: VOID.TXT The Void Theory
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The Void Theory
as derived by
Steven L. Comee

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What is the cause of matter?
(Why does it exist?)

What is matter, physically?
What is the cause of gravity?
What is the cause of the electric charge?
Why are the electrons, protons, and neutrons
the only predominate particles?
Why are neutrons necessary to hold an atom's nucleus together?
Why do neutron stars form but not proton stars?

Why is the speed of light the value it is?
Why do Quarks have charges of 1/3, 2/3 and 1?

Why do electrons tunnel?
Why does superconductivity occur?

Why do a very few people have "supernatural" experiences?
Why does a "big bang" occur?

How can one travel to the stars and back in only
a few hours elapsed time (at the point of origin)?
How can you make antimatter?

These are the  questions that this theory answers directly.  The key
question to answer is what is Matter?

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Page 1

To start, let's  go back to the basics.  One condition of Einstein's
Theory of Relativity was that space  and  time  were  isotropic  and
homogeneous.

If matter is physically something, then one would need  at least one
more dimension to   account   for  it.   Maybe  not.   Consider  the
opposite; maybe matter ISN'T SOMETHING.

By considering the  law  of  thermodynamics  of  increasing  entropy
(disorder), quantum mechanics,  and  any  form of Murphy's  Law  all
blended together, I propose the following :

HYPOTHESIS

The Universe is not perfect because it is elastic to a limit.

This elasticity  means  that  a  void  (or missing dimension) may
occur anywhere at any time.

The size of a void is quantized.   A  uniform  random probability
distribution function governs the creation and destruction of the
voids throughout the universe.

The density of this function is high enough such  that  voids can
coalesce (since  there  are  larger  particles  than voids in the
universe.)

DISCUSSION:

A void  causes  a  distortion   to   space/time  because  of  the
elasticity of space and time.  The distortion is thus infinite.

A void  is  an  imperfection  in  the homogeneous  and  isotropic
assumption.  This distortion  to space and time due to the existence
of a void is what we call gravity  and the void is called a particle
of matter.

Gravity is always an attractive force because space/time tries to
minimize the distortion  (that  is,  to be stretched  as  little  as
possible).  There is  no  such  thing  as  anti-gravity  (due to the
definition of gravity).

If there is a limit to how elastic space/time is, then there is a
limit to how fast a void can travel  through space/time as well as a
limit to how big a void may get.  This is why the speed  of light is
the value it is and why a big bang occurs; they are a direct measure
of how elastic  space/time  is.   They are the limits to which space
and time may be stretched.

Time flow (time velocity or dt)  is not associated with space (it
is orthogonal) but with each void because the void  either  does  or
does not exist at an absolute location at an absolute time.

If the time flow is positive, it is called matter.

If the time flow is negative, it is called antimatter.

If the time flow is zero, it is called energy.

Page 2

This then  offers  an explanation as to why matter and antimatter
annihilate each other just by touching, producing energy; their time
flows cancel each other, and particles  with  zero  time  flows  are
energy.

The particles still exist, which is why conservation  of momentum
is maintained.  It  also  explains  the  particle  nature  of energy
(light).

It is important to note that the elastic limit applies to the sum
of the speed  through space AND  TIME  because  this  gives  us  two
important boundary conditions.

If the absolute spatial speed is 0, then the absolute  time  flow
is at a  maximum;  and if the absolute spatial speed is the speed of
light, then the absolute time flow is zero.

Thus in order to move about in  space,  you  must give up some of
your time flow.   To  travel  anywhere in the universe  "instantly",
your absolute time flow must be zero.

If you  go  back  to  the  four  basic equations that make up the
Theory of Relativity and add time flow, you get a set of four linear
differential equations.  When using  a  constant  velocity  (Special
Relativity) or constant  acceleration  (General Relativity)  between
two frames of   reference,   the   derivatives   for   velocity   or
acceleration must be used (because dt varies).

The boundary  conditions  needed   to   solve   the  differential
equations is the elastic limit of space/time.

Imagine all three spatial velocity vectors represented by one.

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(This is what John W. Keely discovered in the late 1800's,
he found that each of the 3 vectors
formed varying percentages of the total flow of 100% and
that these percentages could be CONTROLLED
to generate a variety of effects)
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This is where the Theory of Relativity stops and  uses  the speed
of light.  But  the  universe has four vectors.  Now add a time flow
vector to the spatial vector.

The resultant universe velocity  vector  has  an absolute maximum
value and is the new boundary condition (which is determined  by the
elasticity of space/time).

What events  lead  up  to  a  "big  bang"?   Just  as  a  rock is
pulverized when subjected to enough  pressure,  there  should  be  a
point at which  a  void has stretched the universe  to  its  elastic
limit.

When the  limit  is  reached, the void cannot be moving spatially
and thus its time flow is at the  maximum.   When  the void tries to
exceed the spatial/time limit, that point in the universe snaps back
to its original shape.

Page 3

This requires  that the void disappear instantly.  It can do this
by changing all of its time flow to spatial velocity.

Thus its maximum time flow jumps  to  zero (turns to energy), and
it must pulverize  to  obey  the conservation of momentum.   A  "big
bang" is just  a local event and will eventually disperse the matter
back to the norm.  Thus the question  of an open/closed universe has
no meaning.  It is neither.  The universe is a concept.

Tunnelling is  possible when a small void (say  an  electron)  is
perfectly aligned (travelling   perpendicularly)  with  the  missing
dimension of a larger void.  It can then pass right through.

Resistance can be viewed as the  result  of the attractive forces
(due to time  flow)  between  an  electron  and the  quarks  in  the
nucleus.

If a  geometric  configuration  of  the neutrons and protons in a
material could be arranged (as in  a  crystal)  so  as to shield the
positive time flowing  voids  from  external electrons,  then  those
electrons should see no resistance.  Temperature and pressure affect
crystal structure, so they should also affect resistance.

If an  event in the future generates voids which travel backwards
in time faster  than the event travels  forward  in  time,  then  it
should be possible to foretell that particular event.

Similarly, if an event in the past generates voids  which  travel
forward in time  faster than the event travels forward in time, then
it should be possible to relive the event.

Mathematically, a void is the absence  of at least one dimension.
Thus there are 15 unique types of voids or elementary particles. and
one quasi-particle.  This  number  is determined by  the  number  of
coordinates used.  Visually,  this  can  be shown in a binary table,
where 1 represents the presence of that dimension :

x    y    z    t

1         0    0    0    0
2         0    0    0    1
3         0    0    1    0
4         0    0    1    1
5         0    1    0    0
6         0    1    0    1
7         0    1    1    0
8         0    1    1    1
9         1    0    0    0
10         1    0    0    1
11         1    0    1    0
12         1    1    0    0
13         1    1    0    1
14         1    1    1    0
15         1    1    1    1

Level 15 is the "normal" or (empty) universe.

Page 4

Now lets' rearrange   these  entries  according  to  the  number  of
dimensions missing and whether time is present:

dimensions            anti-
x   y   z    t   missing   charge   particle   comment

1   1   1    1      0         0       yes      neutrino (when t is
out  of phase) (no
mass)
0   1   1    1      1        1/3      yes      quark (d - green)
1   0   1    1      1        1/3      yes      quark (d - blue)
1   1   0    1      1        1/3      yes      quark (d - red)
1   1   1    0      1         0       no       photon (no mass)

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0   0   1    1      2        2/3      yes      quark (u - red)
0   1   0    1      2        2/3      yes      quark (u - blue)
1   0   0    1      2        2/3      yes      quark (u - green)
0   1   1    0      2        1/3      no
1   0   1    0      2        1/3      no
1   1   0    0      2        1/3      no

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0   0   0    1      3         1       yes      electron
0   0   1    0      3        2/3      no
0   1   0    0      3        2/3      no
1   0   0    0      3        2/3      no

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0   0   0    0      4         1       no

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Note the quark symmetry :                 u         d
red     001       110
blue    010       101
green   100       011

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"t" must  be  present  for  a  particle  to  have  an  antimatter
counterpart since antimatter  is  nothing  more  than  the  particle
travelling backwards in time.

What is more intriguing are the  particles  which are missing the
time dimension.  This means they only exist for an instant (t=n) and
hence cannot be detected directly like an electron.   These  are the
virtual or "transfer" particles in most unified theories.

Charge is  a measure of the number of spatial dimensions missing.
The positive and negative attribute  normally associated with charge
really belongs to the time dimension.

A negative  charge  (say  an  electron) is really  an  antimatter
particle.

Page 5

A proton is composed of three quarks, one of which is antimatter,
and two of the three quarks in a neutron are antimatter.  By placing
the "sign" of  a  charge with the time dimension, one can understand
where all the  antimatter  went  when   cosmologists   ask  symmetry
questions.  It is all around us.

Matter/antimatter annihilation occurs only when  all of the voids
in each particle  match  dimensionally,  which  is why the quarks in
protons and neutrons coexist; they are not identical.

The table could be further subdivided  for  each  entry with more
than one dimension  missing  in  which  at least one  dimension  was
traveling forward in  time  and  the  remaining dimensions traveling
backwards in time.

Two voids (charges) travelling  in  the same time direction repel
each other because  they  are  trying to occupy the  same  time  and
space.

"Opposite charges" attract because their opposite time flows pull
the voids together and allow the voids to occupy the same space (and
hence annihilation).

This force  between  stationary voids which have a time dimension
is called the electrostatic force.  When the voids are moving, it is
called the electromagnetic force.

From the above table, one can see  why there are only six quarks.
Like a crystal,  a  larger  particle  can be built up  from  smaller
particles.

A composite  particle is stable when all three spatial dimensions
are in symmetry (i.e. an integer charge number).  A particle missing
one dimension will  attract  another   particle   missing  the  same
dimension with the opposite time flow and missing  at  least  one of
the remaining dimensions, and repel those missing the same dimension
with the same  time  flow.   The  force  that  governs the making of
composite particles is called the strong force.

How the  strong  force behaves  (three  ways)  depends  upon  the
structure of the particle.

Symmetry can  consist  of  two  voids  in  one spatial  dimension
travelling in opposite  time directions.  It can also be one spatial
dimension travelling opposite time  directions.  Or it can just be a
void in each spatial dimension.

The three colors associated with each quark is nothing  more than
the three ways  that  the voids within a quark may be oriented.  The
d-quarks have one void and the u-quarks have two voids.

Making a composite particle is somewhat like balancing a chemical
equation.  And by  looking at the  void  symmetry,  one  can  get  a
feeling for a particle's behavior.

Page 6

For example;  a neutron has its voids travelling in opposite time
directions (zero net time flow) and  a  proton  has  three voids all
travelling forward in time (positive net time flow):

Neutron
( 0  0  1  +)   ->   ( 0  0  1  +)   |
( 0  1  1  -)   ->   ( 0  1  1  -)   |
( 1  0  1  -)   ->   ( 0  1  0  +)   |
( 0  0  0  -)      electron
( 1  1  1  -)      antineutrino

Geometric structure:
+  -           + - +
-

When particles break up or combine, there may  be  a  transfer of
voids between particles.   At  the instant of transfer, at least one
of the eight virtual particles is involved.

The force that transfers a void  between  particles is called the
weak force.  Since  this  transfer  of voids takes  place  within  a
composite particle, the  weak  force  is  only effective for a short
time and hence for only a short distance.

The electrostatic, electromagnetic,  strong,  and  weak force are
all the result  of the force between voids due to  their  time  flow
direction, whereas gravity  is the result of the force between voids
due to their physical existence.

Thus one could look at gravity  as  being orthogonal to the other
forces and hence cannot be unified with them, other  than  they  are
all the result of a void.

Gravity results  in a larger single void to reduce the distortion
to space/time whereas the other forces  all  result in a combination
of individual voids   in   trying   to  eliminate   the   space/time
distortion.  That is  why  gravity  is  weaker than the other forces
(reduce verse eliminate).

EXPLANATION (PROOF) OF WHY THE UNIVERSE  IS  COMPOSED  OF ELECTRONS,
PROTONS, AND NEUTRONS:

A stable (long lived) particle is one in which all  three spatial
dimensions have a  net void each.  From the above table, an electron
fits this requirement right away.

The next step would be to consider groups consisting of particles
missing one and two dimensions:

One Dimension            Two Dimensions
0 1 1                    0 0 1
1 0 1                    0 1 0
1 1 0                    1 0 0

Now list all  possible  combinations  of  one  and  two  dimensional
particles:

011  011  011       101  101  101      110  110  110
001  010  100       001  010  100      001  010  100

Page 7

Now list all  possible  combinations  of  one  and  two  dimensional
particles:

011+  011+  011+    101+  101+  101+    110+  110+  110+
001+  010+  100+    001+  010+  100+    001+  010+  100+

011+  011+  011+    101+  101+  101+    110+  110+  110+
001-  010-  100-    001-  010-  100-    001-  010-  100-

011-  011-  011-    101-  101-  101-    110-  110-  110-
001+  010+  100+    001+  010+  100+    001+  010+  100+

011-  011-  011-    101-  101-  101-    110-  110-  110-
001-  010-  100-    001-  010-  100-    001-  010-  100-

Now select those pairs which can be  attached.   That is they have a
(+) and a (-) void in the dimension.  Note that two  one-dimensional
or two two-dimensional joining is matter/antimatter annihilation and
thus cannot exist.

011+ 011+ 011- 011- 101+ 101+ 101- 101- 110+ 110+ 110- 110-
001- 010- 001+ 010+ 001- 100- 001+ 100+ 010- 100- 010+ 100+

In all cases, there is a dangling void.  Thus there can be no stable
joining between just   one   one-dimensional   void   and  one  two-
dimensional void.

One solution would  be  to  add one  more  one-dimensional  void  to
balance the dangling  void,  just  like  a chemical  equation.   All

011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+
011- 011- 011- 011- 011- 011- 011- 011- 011- 011- 011- 011-

101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+
101- 101- 101- 101- 101- 101- 101- 101- 101- 101- 101- 101-

110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+
110- 110- 110- 110- 110- 110- 110- 110- 110- 110- 110- 110-

Only the dangling  void  can attract the one-dimensional void.  This
reduces the combinations to:

011+ 011+ 011- 011- 101+ 101+ 101- 101- 110+ 110+ 110- 110-
001- 010- 001+ 010+ 001- 100- 001+ 100+ 010- 100- 010+ 100+
101+ 110+ 101- 110- 011+ 110+ 011- 110- 011+ 101+ 011- 101-
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
111+ 111+ 111- 111- 111+ 111+ 111- 111- 111+ 111+ 111- 111-

Note that by adding all the voids  in each spatial dimension you get
either 111- or 111+.  A particle whose sum is 111- is the antimatter
equivalent of 111+.

Since one of the basic assumptions was that there  is  no  preferred
coordinate system, including  time,  then these twelve particles are
really the same.

Due to the right handed coordinate  system  chose,  each  of the six
particles is simply the same particle rotated one way or another.

Page 8

This three quark  particle is stable because all three spatial voids
are neutralized ( 0 + with a 0 -),  resulting in a sum of 111.  Thus
it is natural to call this particle a neutron.

The only other  solution  would  be to add one more  two-dimensional
void to balance the dangling void, just like a chemical equation.

001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+
001- 001- 001- 001- 001- 001- 001- 001- 001- 001- 001- 001-

010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+
010- 010- 010- 010- 010- 010- 010- 010- 010- 010- 010- 010-

100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+
100- 100- 100- 100- 100- 100- 100- 100- 100- 100- 100- 100-

Only the dangling   void   can   attract  the  two-dimensional  void
(otherwise there would  still be  an  unbalanced  dimension).   This
reduces the combinations to :

011+ 011+ 011- 011- 101+ 101+ 101- 101- 110+ 110+ 110- 110-
001- 010- 001+ 010+ 001- 100- 001+ 100+ 010- 100- 010+ 100+
010- 001- 010+ 001+ 100- 001- 100+ 001+ 100- 010- 100+ 010+
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
000- 000- 000+ 000+ 000- 000- 000+ 000+ 000- 000- 000+ 000+

Note that by adding all the voids in each spatial dimension  you get
either 000- or 000+.  A particle whose sum is 000- is the antimatter
equivalent of 000+.   Since  one  of  the basic assumptions was that
there is no preferred coordinate system,  including, time then these
twelve particles are really the same.

Due to time, the six 000- are the same as the six 000+.   Due to the
right handed coordinate  system chosen, each of the six particles is
simply the same particle rotated one way or another.

This three quark  particle  is  stable  because  all  three  spatial
dimension are cancelled (1+ with a 1-), resulting in  a  sum of 000.
This is a particle with a charge of one.  Thus it is natural to call
this particle a proton.

NEUTRONS: THE BINDING BUILDING BLOCKS

By looking  at the geometric structure of the quarks that make up
a neutron, one can easily see that there are two negative attachment
points and two positive attachment  points.  This allows neutrons to
bind to themselves or to protons.

Protons only have two positive attachment points.   Thus  protons
cannot bind to themselves.

Neutron to Neutron              Neutron to Proton
( Star )                   ( Helium nucleus )

+ - + -                      + - +---+
-   -                        -       -
+ - + -                      +---+ - +
-   -

Page 9

For more than one proton to be in an atom's nucleus there must be
neutrons to bind  them  together.   Geometry can be used to show why
the neutrons do not increase uniformly in the periodic table as well
as why there are isotopes of various stabilities.

Neutron stars can form but not proton stars because only neutrons
can bind to themselves.

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If you have comments or other information relating to such topics as
this paper covers,  please upload to KeelyNet or send to the Vangard
Sciences address as listed on the  first  page.   Thank you for your
consideration, interest and support.

Jerry W. Decker.........Ron Barker...........Chuck Henderson
Vangard Sciences/KeelyNet

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If we can be of service, you may contact
Jerry at (214) 324-8741 or Ron at (214) 484-3189
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FINIS
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