AOH :: ZPE3.TXT|
EXCELLENT kick-ass paper on zero-point energy by Moray King.
(word processor parameters LM=8, RM=75, TM=2, BM=2)
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June 15, 1991
The following paper has been graciously shared with KeelyNet by
Moray King, author of the book, "Tapping the Zero Point Energy".
Moray specifically mentions a new free energy device patented in
January 1990 and which has a power multiplication of 10,
that is 2.4 KW input yielding 22.9 KW output
for a net power output of 20.5 KW.
We researched the patent at the Dallas Library and it will
eventually be listed on KeelyNet.
We wish to thank Mr. King for sharing such
advanced information with our network.
Please feel free to share this with other BBS's and with other
Tapping the Zero-Point Energy as an Energy Source
Moray B. King
P.O. Box 859
Provo, UT 84603
The hypothesis for tapping the zero-point energy (ZPE) arises by
combining the theories of the ZPE with the theories of system self-
organization. The vacuum polarization of atomic nuclei might allow
their synchronous motion to activate a ZPE coherence.
Experimentally observed plasma ion-acoustic anomalies as well as
inventions utilizing cycloid ion motions may offer supporting
evidence. The suggested experiment of rapidly circulating a charged
plasma in a vortex ring might induce a sufficient zero-point energy
interaction to manifest a gravitational anomaly. An invention
utilizing abrupt E field rotation to create virtual charge exhibits
excessive energy output.
Today's physics might allow the possibility of tapping virtually
limitless quantities of energy directly from the fabric of space.
Such a surprising conjecture arises by merging two separate
theoretical areas of modern physics:
1) The theories of the zero-point energy (1-5) (ZPE) that model
the vacuum as containing real, energetic fluctuations of
electric field energy, and
2) the theories of system self-organization (6-13) which not
only open the possibility of inducing coherence in this
energy, but also provide the underlying principles on how
this could be achieved (10).
At first this hpyothesis might seem to be a blatant violation of the
conservation of energy. But the key question is:
Does the zero-point energy REALLY exist?
If so, a real energy is already present and its conservation would
not be an issue.
The real issue centers on how random fluctuations could become
coherent. Any spontaneous coherence seems to violate the second law
of thermodynamics, which is generally understood to mean systems
should evolve toward random behavior, not toward coherence.
This point is thoroughly discussed in the theories of system self-
organization (11,12). Prigogine (13) won the 1977 Nobel prize in
chemistry for defining the conditions under which a system could
evolve from randomness toward coherence. The conditions are that
the system must be
1) far from equilibrium,
2) nonlinear in its dynamics and
3) have an energy flux through it.
These conditions are expressed in general system theory terms, and
it turns out that the already published theories of the ZPE can,
under certain circumstances, fulfill these conditions.
Despite the intriguing possibility offered by system theory, no
purely theoretical discussion could ever prove that the zero-point
energy could be tapped as an energy source. Only an experiment
coupled with the theory would be convincing.
This article discusses how observed anomalies associated with the
ion-acoustic oscillations in plasmas could be a manifestation of a
coherent ZPE interaction and in particular, how the cycloid motion
of a a plasma's nuclei might induce a sufficient ZPE coherence to
manifest a gravitational anomaly.
This article also highlights an invention which utilizes the abrupt
rotation of electric fields to cause an hypothesized pair production
of virtual charges from the vacuum energy across a macroscopic
system. The invention reportedly outputs excessive power while free
running. The invention reportedly outputs excessive power while
free running, and its full disclosure may constitute an experiment
which could be repeated by the scientific community.
THE FABRIC OF SPACE
Does the fabric of empty space really contain a plenum of energy?
This question has been debated throughout the history of science.
The early scientists through the 19th century believed in the
existence of an ether, which was modeled as a material substance
that could support the wave propagation of light.
The famous Michelson-Morley experiment failed to detect the expected
ether wind produced by the earth's motion through it. At the turn
of the cnetury Einstein used this result to support the theory of
special relativity. When this became accepted, the scientific
community rejected the existence of the ether. Thus classical
physicists came to consider the vacuum of space to be truly empty.
The classical model was only to last until the 1930's when quantum
mechanics became accepted. From quantum mechanics arose a
mathematical term in the description of the ground state of any
oscillating system called the zero-point energy.
The term "zero-point" refers to zero degrees Kelvin which means this
energy exists even in the absence of all heat. The energy was
interpreted as being INHERENT TO THE FABRIC OF SPACE ITSELF.
Dirac (14) showed how electron-positron pair production could arise
from the vacuum fluctuations and quantum electrodynamics was born.
The Heisenberg uncertaintly principle allowed quantum mechanical
systems to "borrow" this energy for short periods of time. The
ether came back into science not modeled as a material substance but
rather as a randomly fluctuating energy.
Could a space filled with fluctuations of electric flux be
consistent with special relativity? Boyer (15) showed that, by
invoking the postulate of Lorentz invariance, the spectral energy
density p of the zero-point fluctuations must have the particular
form as a function of frequency w :
p(w) = kw
where the constant k is related to Planck's constant. This result
gives a quantitative basis to the theory of random electrodynamics
which strives to show that quantum mechanical effects arise FROM
MATTER'S INTERACTION WITH THE ZERO-POINT ENERGY.
This cubic frequency relation implies an absurd result:
the energy density of the ZPE
AT EACH POINT IN SPACE is INFINITE!
A similar problem plagues quantum electrodynamics where infinities
are renormalized away. Some type of frequency cutoff is required to
create a finite, quantitative theory.
Wheeler (16) applied the theory of general relativity to the ZPE to
create a natural cutoff in his theory of geometrodynamics. In
general relativity the fabric of space curves as a function of
When the density becomes sufficiently great, space pinches like it's
forming a black hole. This gives rise to the formation of
hyperspace structures that Wheeler called "wormholes."
His calculation yielded microscopic channels on the order of 10-33
(to the -33rd) cm having a (mass equivalent) energy density of 10+94
(to the 94th) grams/cm3 (cubed).
The resulting view is that the fabric of space consists of
constantly forming and annihilating pairs of microscopic "mini"
blackholes and whiteholes which channel electric flux into and out
of our three dimensional space.
These mini holes manifest dynamics which could be modeled as a
turbulent, virtual plasma that Wheeler calls the "quantum foam." In
this view the elementary particles are like bubbles or vortices
arising from the dynamics of the vacuum energy.
Is it possible to tap this energy? At first the answer seems to be
no since it is extermely difficult experimentally to observe its
existence; the energy is ubiquitous and a detector REQUIRES AN
ENERGY DIFFERENCE to measure field strength.
However, the theories of quantum electrodynamics indicate that all
the elementary particles are dynamically interacting with the ZPE
resulting in vacuum polarization. In particular, quantum
electrodynamics shows that the different elementary particles
polarize the vacuum differently (17-19).
In a first order model, electrons, especially conduction band
electrons, exhibit an ethereal cloud-like random interaction with
the zero-point fluctuations and are effectively in thermodynamic
equilibrium with it. No net energy would be absorbed by this type
However, an atomic nucleus exhibits a pattern of quasi-stable vacuum
polarization channels converging toward it. This may allow the
possibility of driving the nucleus-ZPE system off of equilibrium by
abrupt motion. This fulfills the first condition for system self-
How the other conditions could be fulfilled as well can be
understood by modeling the ZPE as a virtual plasma. Like a plasma,
it is nonlinear in its dynamical behavior, it may be driven off of
equilibrium by the abrupt motion of nuclei, and it might well be
sustained by an energy flux intersecting our three dimensional space
from a higher dimensional superspace (20-22).
This last point is clearly the most speculative. If true, it offers
VIRTUALLY LIMITLESS ENERGY.
It can best be supported by noting that there are interpretations of
quantum mechanics and relativity theory which imply the existence of
a physically real, higher dimensional space, and the notion of
superspace is well discussed in the physics literature (23-25).
It is interesting to note that some authors (26,27) recognized that
the mathematical analysis of a nonlinear system interacting with the
ZPE shows that energy could be extracted, but they are skeptical due
to the lack of experimental evidence.
The real proof that the zero-point energy could become an energy
source can only come from a repeatable experiment. The above
discussion suggests that the motion of a plasma's nuclei might be an
effective transducer for interacting with the ZPE.
The coherent oscillations of nuclei in a plasma is known as the ion-
acoustic mode, and it has been associated with anomalous plasma
behavior including run-away electrons (28), anomalous heating (29-
31), anomalous resistance (32), and high frequency voltage spikes
Could these anomalies be associated with a direct ZPE interaction
manifesting a macroscopic vacuum polarization (36)?
The inventor T. Henry Moray (37) stressed the importance of ion
oscillations in the plasma tubes of his invention that produced 50
kilowatts of anomalous electrical power in the 1930's. His well-
witnessed invention could not be explained with the physics of that
time, and puzzled all the scientists who investigated his device.
Another experiment where coherent oscillations of nuclei could be
the source of anomalous heat is the electrolytic "cold fusion"
experiment of Pons and Fleischmann (38).
In this experiment deuterium nuclei occupy shallow potential wells
in the crystal lattice sites of the palladium. Here the nuclei are
free to oscillate (39), but they generally diffuse to adjacent,
vacant lattice sites (40).
However, under the conditions of deuterium supersaturation all the
lattice sites are occupied, and the deuterons within a crystal grain
of palladium could then undergo synchronous oscillations similar to
ion-acoustic heat (41). This hypothesis predicts the effect would
be greatly enhanced by supersaturating a pure single crystal of
palladium and that an electrical pulse could trigger the
It might also be possible to generate anomalous heat with
experiments using ordinary water (although it is more difficult to
constrain protons to the lattice sites than deuterons). The
difficulty in repeating the heat anomaly of the Pons/Fleischmann
experiment is probably the first repeatable experiment in which at
least some other scientists are able to produce an energy anomaly
Other investigators have claimed energy anomalies associated with
plasma behavior. The Russian plasma physicist, Chernetskii, from
his observations of anomalous energetic plasma activity explains
that under appropriate conditions a plasma interacts directly with
the ZPE (43).
He has recently claimed to have created a plasma device that absorbs
energy from the vacuum fluctuations when the plasma's particles
undergo cycloid motion (43).
Likewise the inventions of Searle (44), Spence (45), and Papp (46)
also have cycloid particle motion in the plasmas within their energy
Ball lighting (47) is a possible candidate for a ZPE interaction
since it has been modeled as a vortex ring plasmoid (48). The
energy source needed to maintain its persistence must be localized
within the ball since it has been observed inside of shielded
environments such as aircraft and submarines.
In a submarine a particular type of circuit breaker has launched it
on multiple occasions (49). The vortex ring model for ball
lightning has its plasma particles undergoing precessional cycloid
motion, and it might therefore be an example of a zero-point energy
coherence occurring in nature.
It may also be possible to induce the cycloid motion of nuclei
within solid state magnetic materials such as ferrites. When a
ferrite's magnetic domain wall moves, the microscopic magnetic
dipoles rotate (50). This supports the propagation of nonlinear
spinor waves through the ferrite (51). This wave directly couples
to the ferrite lattice causing an elastic, acoustical spinor wave
(52). This results in the helical motion of the ferrite's nuclei.
If such motion induces a zero-point energy coherence, then nearby
pickup coils might detect anomalous energy. Such a hypothesis may
help explain the "free energy" inventions of Coler (53) and Sweet
The plasma vortex-ZPE hypothesis could also be applied to the water
vortex studies of Schauberger (55). He claimed that water forced to
precess through specially shaped spiralling tubes induced an energy
anomaly causing a peculiar bluish glow to appear at the center of
Also the gyroscope studies by Laithwaite (56) may fit the vortex
hypothesis. Laithwaite observed that a precessing gyroscope that
was displaced along a particular cycloid path would exhibit an
The expectation of gravitational anomalies associated with coherence
of the zero-point energy arises directly from general relativity.
Gravity is described as curvature of the space-time metric induced
by the stress-energy tensor (57). If the zero-point energy has the
enormous density as predicted by Wheeler, then even a slight
coherence in its activity could curve the local space-time metric
producing measurable gravitational or time anomalies.
An experiment which altered the pace of time near the apparatus
would suggest the ZPE's involvement (58). Puthoff (59) has recently
quantitatively explored Sakarov's suggestion that gravity is
intimately coupled to the behavior of the ZPE by proposing a model
in which gravity directly arises from the action of the zero-point
An experiment which produced a gravitational or time anomaly would
yield evidence that the ZPE is being cohered because the ZPE is the
only energy appreciable enough to induce a space-time metric
curvature by technological means.
How could such an anomaly be demonstrated experimentally? The ideas
presented in this paper suggest the following preliminary
A piping system is shaped into a vortex ring (Figure 1) whose
poloidal/toroidal size ratio is similar to the plasmoids observed
by Bostick (60) in his experiments.
Charged fluid or plasma is pumped to circulate rapidly through the
vortex ring. Note that the plasma is forced to undergo an
effective precessional motion (a poloidal rotation closing into a
A weight change in the apparatus or a change in the pace of time
nearby the apparatus would support the proposed conjecture that an
ionic plasma vortex could induce a ZPE coherence.
(since we cannot duplicate the drawing in this file,
Figure 1 shows a donut shape viewed from the top and
generated by loops as if a Slinky toy was connected end to
end "Vortex ring mainfesting precessional flow")
An oscillatory ion-acoustic plasma vortex ring can be created with
an electrical circuit. A toroidal coil is wound on a ferrite core
with wire whose insulator is coated with a mildly radioactive
Alternatively the coil could be bombarded by ionizing radiation
(61). The radiation only needs to be strong enough to ionize the
air or gas near the surface of the toroidal coil, and it maintains a
The coil is then tuned to resonate at the ion-acoustic frequency of
this plasma by adding an appropriate capacitance to the circuit. A
properly tuned resonance yields ion oscillatory displacement
currents in the medium surrounding the wire which acts as a wave
During resonance further ionization could accrue shifting the ion-
acoustic frequency. This nonlinear effect can be stabilized with a
parallel, variable capacitor controlled via feedback by the
magnitude of the output current.
The capacitance is automatically adjusted to maximize the output
current unless it becomes too large at which point the system is
intentionally detuned. If the ion-acoustic plasma vortex were to
interact coherently with the ZPE, then anomalous energy production
might occur in such a system.
MACROSCOPIC PAIR PRODUCTION
The plasma vortex ring motif can be applied directly to the virtual
ZPE plasma to create a model of an elementary charge. Bostick
showed that a pair of plasmoid vortex rings could arise from an
abruptly excited, turbulent plasma (60).
In a similar fashion could electron-positron pair production arise
as vortex rings from the ZPE modeled as a virtual plasma? In this
analogy the charge would be associated with the helicity of the
electric flux circulation on the vortex ring (62,63).
Likewise the electric (E) field lines emanating from a charge could
be modeled as helical filaments (64). Here the helical filaments
would originate from the charge and be sustained continuously by
electric flux flowing at the speed of light. This model of E field
lines offers a dynamic possibility for activating the vacuum energy.
If an E field line alone could be abruptly rotated, it would mimic
the precessional flow of a vortex ring section (Figure 2) and
consequently would manifest for an instant virtual charge at a
macroscopic level. This would constitute a coherence in the zero-
(Figure 2 shows a 1 quarter section of the doughnut shape as
described in Figure 1 "Vortex filament model of abruptly
rotated E field line")
An experiment in which E field lines are abruptly rotated might
yield excessive energy from the resulting voltage transients.
Such an experiment has already been done, and its description is
essentially the invention by Hyde (65). Hyde uses rapidly spinning
segmented rotors to abruptly cut E field lines, and his invention is
reported to output power TEN TIMES THE INPUT!
The invention consists of a pair of excitor plates, a pair of
segmented rotors and a pair of segmented stators (Figure 3). Charge
is free to migrate on the conductive surfaces comprising the rotors
and excitor plates, but on the stators the adjacent, conductive
segments are electrically insulated from each other.
(Figure 3 consists of 3 parts, the first shows a simple circle
labelled EXCITOR PLATE, the second shows a disk segmented into
3 section similar to the symbol for atomic hazard and labelled
SEGMENTED ROTOR and the third shows a circle sectioned into 6
areas much like a pie chard evenly divided into 6 sections, it
is labelled SEGMENTED STATOR "Simplified version of excitor,
rotor and stator")
The components are connected as shown in the side view (Figure 4).
E R S S R E
- ³ + ³ ³ ³ ³ - ³ +
- ³ + ³ ³ ÚÄÄÄÄÄ¿ ³ ³ - ³ +
- ³ + ³ ÃÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ´ P ÃÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ´ ³ - ³ +
- ³ + ³ ³ ÀÄÄÄÄÄÙ ³ ³ - ³ +
- ³ + ³ / /^\ ³ - ³ +
³ ========================|=============== ³
³ ³ | / ³ ³
- ³ + ³ \ ___/ ³ - ³ +
- ³ + ³ ÚÄÄÄÄÄ¿ ³ - ³ +
- ³ + ÃÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ´ P ÃÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ´ - ³ +
- ³ + ³ ÀÄÄÄÄÄÙ ³ - ³ +
- ³ + ³ ³ - ³ +
E = EXCITOR PLATE
R = ROTOR SEGMENT
S = STATOR SEGMENT
P = PULSE RECTIFIER
Figure 4. Connection of components (side view)
An external voltage source charges the excitor plates which provide
an electrostatic polarization field. Insulation on the device's
negatively charged surfaces insures that no current leaks from the
excitor plates and little power is drwan from the charging voltage
The rotors are electrically connected to each other through a
conductive shaft which is spun by an electric motor (not shown).
The rotors in the patent description were electrically connected by
brushes to their adjacent stators, but Hyde has since improved his
invention by removing these contacts (66). The field from the
excitor plates induces a polarization between the connected rotors.
The segments on both rotors are aligned to allow them to shield an
aligned pair of stator segments. As the rotor spins, aligned stator
segments are ALTERNATELY EXPOSED and SHEILDED from the excitor
Each stator segment is electrically connected to its counterpart on
the other stator through a PULSE RECTIFIER CIRCUIT in which the
transient voltage pulses are stepped down and then channeled to a
combining rectifier output circuit (not shown).
It is a surprise that such a simple device as Hyde's could output
anomalous power. An analysis using just classical physics would
predict that the voltage induced across a stator segment pair would
swing between zero and the excitor plate voltage since this is the
steady state limit for the shielded and exposed conditions.
This is observed when the rotor is spun slowly.
However, when the rotor is spun on the order of 6000 rpm, a 3 KV
potential across the excitor plates yields stator pulses in excess
of 300 KV with a very small drag on the rotor (67).
How the ZPE could be cohered by the abrupt field cutting from the
rotors is illustrated in the top view sequence in Figure 5.
- ³<---------³ +
- ³<---------³ +
- ³<---------³ +
- ³<------------------³ +
- ³<------------------³ +
- ³<------------------³ +
- ³<---------³ +
- ³<---------³ +
- ³<---------³ + S
³ ³ /³ +
- ³<-\ / /³ +
- ³<-\ \_________/ / /³ +
- ³<-\ \_________/ /
³ R S
- ³<---------³ + /³ +
- ³<---------³ + //³ +
- ³<---------³ + ///³ +
Figure 5. Abrupt E field cuting sequence (top view)
During the exposed condition, current flows to charge the stator
segment pair. Under rapid spin, the rotor blade cuts through the
gap quicker than the charge can leave the stator segment due to the
current's momentum from residual inductance of the connecting
The charge remains on the stator segment during the instant its E
field lines are cut resulting in their abrupt rotation. If such an
abrupt rotation of E field lines manifests virtual charge from the
vacuum energy, then this charge would greatly augment the potential
across the stator segment pairs and yield a more vigourous voltage
Note that opposite virtual charge is created simultaneously on the
outer surfaces of the connected stator segments. Quantum
electrodynamics allows virtual charge pair production from the ZPE
as long as charge is conserved. This analysis of Hyde's invention
suggests virtual charge pair production in the macroscopic realm.
The resulting transient zero-point energy coherence accelerates the
charges of the stator segment circuit, and the system outputs
anomalously excessive energy.
Applying the principles of system self-organization to the theories
of the zero-point energy suggests that an appropriate system might
be able to induce a coherence in the action of the zero-point
Quantum electrodynamics shows that the ZPE intimately interacts with
the various elementary particles with differing vacuum polarization
dynamics. The vacuum polarization description of atomic nuclei
suggests that abrupt, synchronous motion of ions or nuclei may be a
good candidate for coherent vacuum energy activation.
The observed anomalies associated with the ion-acoustic oscillations
of a plasma might be evidence for this. Further circumstantial
evidence may arise from the claims of different investigators and
inventors whose devices exhibit a common modus operandi: They
utilize coherent, synchronous motion of ions or nuclei.
The largest claims are associated with devices that produce cycloid
or precessional motion of nuclei. This leads to the hypothesis that
a POSITIVELY CHARGED PLASMA VORTEX MIGHT INDUCE A ZPE COHERENCE.
The idea can be experimentally explored by rapidly circulating a
charged plasma or fluid through a vortex ring piping system and
looking for a gravitational or time variation since there is a
recognized theorectical connection between gravity and the action of
the zero-point energy.
Since vortex ring plasmoid pair production is observed in turbulent
plasmas, modeling the ZPE as a turbulent, virtual plasma supports
the vortex ring model for elementary charge and the vortex filament
model for electric field lines.
Such a model predicts that the abrupt rotation of electric field
lines would manifest virtual charge from the vacuum energy.
Experimental support that macroscopic, virtual charge pair
production might provide energy directly from the ZPE arises from
Hyde's fully disclosed invention. It appears imperative that Hyde's
invention be replicated, for only a repeating experiment could prove
that it is possible to tap the zero-point energy as an energy
The help of Oliver Nichelson, Adrea Powell and Carl Rhoades is
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