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ITL Bulletin for November 2006
ITL Bulletin for November 2006
ITL Bulletin for November 2006
Site design & layout copyright © 1986-2014 CodeGods
Forwarded from: Elizabeth Lennon
ITL BULLETIN FOR NOVEMBER 2006
GUIDE TO SECURING COMPUTERS USING WINDOWS XP HOME EDITION
Shirley Radack, Editor
Computer Security Division
Information Technology Laboratory
National Institute of Standards and Technology
U.S. Department of Commerce
Users of home computers must deal with many threats to the security of
their systems, including sophisticated attacks by people who
deliberately attempt to cause mischief, disrupt operations, commit
fraud, and steal identities. Remotely launched attacks can spread
malicious code and software, known as malware, through e-mail, malicious
Web sites, and file downloads. These attacks may result in the insertion
of viruses, worms, and spyware into home systems.
People attacking home computer systems can easily find information on
the Internet to assist them in their activities. Information is readily
available about vulnerabilities that are found in information technology
(IT) products on a daily basis. Information about ready-to-use exploits
and attacks can also be located readily. Since many IT products serve a
wide range of users and systems, restrictive security controls are
usually not enabled in systems by default. The available controls must
be selected and installed appropriately for the individual systems. If
the controls are not installed, the IT products are vulnerable.
Therefore, many IT products are immediately vulnerable when they are
installed out-of-the-box. Even experienced system administrators find
that it is a complicated, arduous, and time-consuming task to identify a
reasonable set of security settings for many IT products. But without
the proper protection, home computer users are vulnerable to threats and
The security issues that challenge home computer users are of paramount
concern to federal agency staff members who telecommute, using laptop
computers, mobile devices, and home computers. Unless these systems are
specifically protected, they can be less secure than those that are used
within the federal organizational setting. The Information Technology
Laboratory (ITL) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology
(NIST) has developed general guidance for securing workstations and
small computer installations, with a focus on specific guidance
applicable to those systems running Windows XP Home Edition.
NIST Special Publication (SP) 800-69, Guidance for Securing Windows XP
Home Edition: A NIST Security Configuration Checklist
Issued in September 2006, NIST SP 800-69, Guidance for Securing Windows
XP Home Edition: A NIST Security Configuration Checklist,
Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards and Technology
(NIST), was written by Karen Kent and Murugiah Souppaya of NIST and John
Connors of Booz Allen Hamilton. The publication is designed to alert
home computer users to the threats to their systems and to make them
aware of the security measures that are available for protecting
systems. The information presented in the guide draws on extensive
vendor knowledge and on the experience of government and security
community experts. The Department of Homeland Security supported the
development of the publication.
The guide explains the need to secure Windows XP Home Edition computers
and the security protections that are available to reduce weaknesses,
protect privacy, stop attacks, and preserve data. NIST SP 800-69
provides practical guidance on how to install Windows XP Home Edition,
how to secure new and existing installations, how to secure user
accounts and settings, and how to maintain and monitor the security
settings. The guidance applies generally to home desktop and laptop
systems that run Windows XP Home Edition as the operating system.
In addition, the appendices contain step-by-step instructions for
implementing additional security recommendations for computers with
Windows XP Home Edition operating systems running Service Pack 2.
Instructions are provided for securing certain applications, such as
antivirus software, antispyware software, personal firewalls, e-mail
clients, Web browsers, instant messaging clients, and office
The appendices also provide useful information about various tools,
which are discussed in the publication, and which can be used to
configure, manage, and monitor Windows XP Home Edition security
settings. Other features include a glossary of terms used in the guide,
a listing of acronyms, and a listing of in-print and online resources
that should be helpful to people who want to learn more about Windows XP
Home Edition and how to secure it.
The guide is available on NIST's Web pages at:
NIST Security Configuration Checklists
NIST SP 800-69 supports the NIST Security Configuration Checklists
Program for IT Products. Checklists of security settings, such as NIST
SP 800-69, are useful tools that have been developed to guide IT
administrators and security personnel in selecting effective security
settings that will reduce the risks of Internet connections and protect
systems from attacks. A checklist, sometimes called a security
configuration guide, lockdown guide, hardening guide, security technical
implementation guide, or benchmark, is basically a series of
instructions for configuring an IT product to an operational
environment. Checklists can be effective in reducing vulnerabilities in
systems, especially for small organizations with limited resources. IT
vendors often create checklists for their own products, but other
organizations such as consortia, academic groups, and government
agencies also develop them.
NIST's checklists program provides a structure for the development and
sharing of security configuration checklists. A central repository has
been established for checklists that have been developed by
organizations and submitted to NIST. This enables users to find
checklists easily. NIST assists developers in making checklists that
conform to common operational environments and associated baseline
levels of security, and that are well documented and easy to use. A
managed process provides for the review, update, and maintenance of the
Information about NIST's checklist program is available at:
Need to Secure Windows XP Home Edition
Users of Windows XP Home Edition need to be aware of the threats to the
security of their systems and the security protections that will
eliminate or reduce system vulnerabilities. The most common threat to
these systems is malware, also known as malicious code, a computer
program that is covertly placed onto a computer with the intent to
compromise the privacy, accuracy, or reliability of the computer's data,
applications, or operating system. Common types of malware threats are:
* Viruses - self-replicating code that makes copies of itself and
distributes the copies to other files, programs, or computers.
* Worms - self-replicating programs that are completely self-contained
* Malicious mobile code - malicious software that is transmitted from a
remote system to be executed on a local system without the user's
* Trojan horses - non-replicating programs that appear to be benign but
that have hidden malicious purposes.
* Rootkits - collections of files that are installed onto computers to
alter their functionality in a malicious and stealthy way, including
installing and hiding other types of malware.
Security protections, also called security controls, are the measures
used to thwart threats and to compensate for the computer's security
weaknesses, or vulnerabilities. Threats are directed to take advantage
of the vulnerabilities. Security protections can eliminate some of the
vulnerabilities and also prevent attacks from taking advantage of
vulnerabilities that cannot be eliminated. Security protections include
* Technical protection - configuring a computer to restrict the actions
that can be performed with the computer and to monitor the actions
that are performed. Examples include the use of username and password
to limit access to a computer or service, or the use of a feature in
an application that automatically downloads and installs new versions
of the application with previous errors corrected.
* Operational protection - the actions performed by computer users.
Examples are the use of antivirus software to check a user's files,
e-mails, and Web browsing for malware and to quarantine or delete any
malware and prevent the malware from infecting the computer and
causing damage. Other examples are making backup copies of users'
files, keeping a computer and the computer's removable media in a
locked room, and users learning how to use a computer securely.
* Management protection - oversight of the security of computers. While
taking place mostly within an organizational setting, management
oversight also includes practices such as users performing periodic
reviews of the security of their systems and identifying
Security protections cannot prevent all attacks, but they can greatly
reduce the opportunities that attackers have to gain access to a
computer or to damage the computer's software or information. A
combination of security protections may be needed to secure a Windows XP
Home Edition computer effectively and to maintain its security
protection. Then, if one protection fails or is ineffective against a
particular threat, other protections are likely to prevent the threat
from succeeding. Windows XP Home Edition computers should be secured
using a combination of technical and operational protections, such as
antivirus software, Windows XP Home Edition configuration settings, and
user education and security awareness activities. Security protections
should be updated on a regular basis because new vulnerabilities in
software are discovered on an ongoing basis.
NIST Recommendations for Securing Windows XP Home Edition
NIST recommends the following actions to improve the security of systems
running Windows XP Home Edition:
Users should eliminate any known weaknesses in their Windows XP Home
Edition computers because attackers will attempt to take advantage of
Known weaknesses should be eliminated through a combination of several
methods, including the following:
* Install Windows XP Home Edition Service Pack 2 (SP2) and apply
software updates to the computer on a regular basis, including Windows
XP Home Edition and software applications.
* Limit access to the computer through separate password-protected user
accounts for each person.
* Limit network access by disabling unneeded networking features,
limiting the use of remote access utilities and configuring wireless
* Disable services that are not needed.
Users should configure their Windows XP Home Edition computers to use a
combination of software and software features that are designed
specifically to stop attacks, particularly malware.
Every Windows XP Home Edition computer should use antivirus software,
antispyware software, and a personal firewall at all times, and they
should be kept up to date. Other helpful software performs the filtering
of spam and Web content and carries out popup blocking. Users can also
change settings on common applications such as e-mail clients, Web
browsers, instant messaging clients, and office productivity suites to
stop some attacks.
Users or administrators of Windows XP Home Edition computers should
periodically perform backups that duplicate data from the computer onto
Performing regular backups helps to ensure that user data is available
if an unfortunate event should occur, such as an attack against the
computer, a hardware failure, a natural disaster, or human error. User
data should be backed up periodically, on a weekly or monthly schedule,
for example. Some of the options available for performing backups on
Windows XP Home Edition computers are the use of utilities built into
Windows XP Home Edition, as well as the use of third-party utilities and
remote backup services.
Users or administrators of Windows XP Home Edition computers that
connect to the Internet should ensure that they are protected properly
from Internet-based threats.
The five most important protections that should be used for all Windows
XP Home Edition computers connecting to the Internet are:
* Apply updates to the operating system and major applications, such as
e-mail clients and Web browsers, regularly. The updates should be done
through an automated process that checks for updates frequently.
* Use a limited user account for typical daily tasks on the computer.
Full privileges should be used only when performing computer
management tasks, such as installing updates and applications
software, managing user accounts, and modifying software and settings.
* Run up-to-date antivirus software and antispyware software that is
configured to monitor the computer and applications often used to
spread malware, such as Web browsing and e-mail, and to quarantine or
delete any identified malware.
* Use a personal firewall that is configured to restrict incoming
network communications to only that which is required.
* Perform regular backups so that data can be restored in case an
adverse event occurs.
For More Information
NIST SP 800-68, Guidance for Securing Microsoft Windows XP Systems for
IT Professionals: A NIST Security Configuration Checklist, assists IT
professionals, and particularly Windows XP system administrators and
information security personnel, in securing Windows XP Professional
systems running Service Pack 2.
NIST SP 800-70, Security Configuration Checklists Program for IT
Products: Guidance for Checklist Users and Developers, discusses the
development and dissemination of security configuration checklists to
help users and developers of IT products secure their IT products and
NIST SP 800-83, Guide to Malware Incident Handling and Prevention:
Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards and Technology,
assists organizations and users in planning and implementing security
programs to prevent malware incidents as much as possible and to limit
damage from any incidents that might occur.
NIST publications assist organizations in planning and implementing a
comprehensive approach to IT security. For information about NIST
standards and guidelines that are referenced in the Windows XP guide, as
well as other security-related publications, see NIST's Web page:
Any mention of commercial products or reference to commercial
organizations is for information only; it does not imply recommendation
or endorsement by NIST nor does it imply that the products mentioned are
necessarily the best available for the purpose.
Elizabeth B. Lennon
Information Technology Laboratory
National Institute of Standards and Technology
100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8900
Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8900
Telephone (301) 975-2832
Fax (301) 975-2378
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