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Cyber Assaults on Estonia Typify a New Battle Tactic




Cyber Assaults on Estonia Typify a New Battle Tactic
Cyber Assaults on Estonia Typify a New Battle Tactic



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http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/05/18/AR2007051802122.html 

By Peter Finn
Washington Post Foreign Service
May 19, 2007

TALLINN, Estonia, May 18 -- This small Baltic country, one of the most 
wired societies in Europe, has been subject in recent weeks to massive 
and coordinated cyber attacks on Web sites of the government, banks, 
telecommunications companies, Internet service providers and news 
organizations, according to Estonian and foreign officials here.

Computer security specialists here call it an unprecedented assault on 
the public and private electronic infrastructure of a state. They say it 
is originating in Russia, which is angry over Estonia's recent 
relocation of a Soviet war memorial. Russian officials deny any 
government involvement.

The NATO alliance and the European Union have rushed information 
technology specialists to Estonia to observe and assist during the 
attacks, which have disrupted government e-mail and led financial 
institutions to shut down online banking.

As societies become increasingly dependent on computer networks that 
cross national borders, security experts worry that in wartime, enemies 
will attempt to cripple those networks with electronic attacks. The 
Department of Homeland Security has warned that U.S. networks should be 
secured against al-Qaeda hackers. Estonia's experience provides a rare 
chance to observe how such assaults proceed.

"These attacks were massive, well targeted and well organized," Jaak 
Aaviksoo, Estonia's minister of defense, said in an interview. They 
can't be viewed, he said, "as the spontaneous response of public 
discontent worldwide with the actions of the Estonian authorities" 
concerning the memorial. "Rather, we have to speak of organized attacks 
on basic modern infrastructures."

The Estonian government stops short of accusing the Russian government 
of orchestrating the assaults, but alleges that authorities in Moscow 
have shown no interest in helping to end them or investigating evidence 
that Russian state employees have taken part. One Estonian citizen has 
been arrested, and officials here say they also have identified Russians 
involved in the attacks.

"They won't even pick up the phone," Rein Lang, Estonia's minister of 
justice, said in an interview.

Estonian officials said they traced some attackers to Internet protocol 
(IP) addresses that belong to the Russian presidential administration 
and other state agencies in Russia.

"There are strong indications of Russian state involvement," said Silver 
Meikar, a member of Parliament in the governing coalition who follows 
information technology issues in Estonia. "I can say that based on a 
wide range of conversations with people in the security agencies."

Russian officials deny that claim. In a recent interview, Kremlin 
spokesman Dmitri Peskov called it "out of the question." Reached Friday 
at a Russia-E.U. summit, he reiterated the denial, saying there was 
nothing to add.

A Russian official who the Estonians say took part in the attacks said 
in an interview Friday that the assertion was groundless. "We know about 
the allegations, of course, and we checked our IP addresses," said 
Andrei Sosov, who works at the agency that handles information 
technology for the Russian government. His IP address was identified by 
the Estonians as having participated, according to documents obtained by 
The Washington Post.

"Our names and contact numbers are open resources. I am just saying that 
professional hackers could easily have used our IP addresses to spoil 
relations between Estonia and Russia."

Estonia has a large number of potential targets. The economic success of 
the tiny former Soviet republic is built largely on its status as an 
"e-society," with paperless government and electronic voting. Many 
common transactions, including the signing of legal documents, can be 
done via the Internet.

The attacks began on April 27, a Friday, within hours of the war 
memorial's relocation. On Russian-language Internet forums, Estonian 
officials say, instructions were posted on how to disable government Web 
sites by overwhelming them with traffic, a tactic known as a denial of 
service attack.

The Web sites of the Estonian president, the prime minister, Parliament 
and government ministries were quickly swamped with traffic, shutting 
them down. Hackers defaced other sites, putting, for instance, a Hitler 
mustache on the picture of Prime Minister Andrus Ansip on his political 
party's Web site.

The assault continued through the weekend. "It was like an Internet 
riot," said Hillar Aarelaid, a lead specialist on Estonia's Computer 
Emergency Response Team, which headed the government's defense.

The Estonian government began blocking Internet traffic from Russia on 
April 30 by filtering out all Web addresses that ended in .ru.

By April 30, Aarelaid said, security experts noticed an increasing level 
of sophistication. Government Web sites and new targets, including media 
Web sites, came under attack from electronic cudgels known as botnets. 
Bots are computers that can be remotely commanded to participate in an 
attack. They can be business or home computers, and are known as zombie 
computers.

When bots were turned loose on Estonia, Aaviksoo said, roughly 1 million 
unwitting computers worldwide were employed. Officials said they traced 
bots to countries as dissimilar as the United States, China, Vietnam, 
Egypt and Peru.

By May 1, Estonian Internet service providers had come under sustained 
attack. System administrators were forced to disconnect all customers 
for 20 seconds to reboot their networks.

Newspapers in Estonia responded by closing access to their Web sites to 
everyone outside the country, as did the government. The sites of 
universities and nongovernmental organizations were overwhelmed. 
Parliament's e-mail service was shut for 12 hours because of the strain 
on servers.

Foreign governments began to take notice. NATO, the United States and 
the E.U. sent information technology experts. "It was a concerted, 
well-organized attack, and that's why Estonia has taken it so seriously 
and so have we," said Robert Pszczel, a NATO spokesman. Estonia is a new 
member of NATO and the E.U.

The FBI also provided assistance, according to Estonian officials. The 
bureau referred a reporter's calls to the U.S. Embassy in Estonia, which 
said there was no one available to discuss American assistance to the 
Baltic State.

On May 9, the day Russia celebrates victory in World War II, a new wave 
of attacks began at midnight Moscow time.

"It was the Big Bang," Aarelaid said. By his account, 4 million packets 
of data per second, every second for 24 hours, bombarded a host of 
targets that day.

"Everyone from 10-year-old boys to very experienced professionals was 
attacking," he said. "It was like a forest fire. It kept spreading."

By May 10, bots were probing for weaknesses in Estonian banks. They 
forced Estonia's largest bank to shut down online services for all 
customers for an hour and a half. Online banking remains closed to all 
customers outside the Baltic States and Scandinavia, according to Jaan 
Priisalu, head of the IT risk management group at Hansabank, a major 
Baltic bank.

"The nature of the latest attacks is very different," said Linnar Viik, 
a government IT consultant, "and it's no longer a bunch of zombie 
computers, but things you can't buy from the black market," he said. 
"This is something that will be very deeply analyzed, because it's a new 
level of risk. In the 21st century, the understanding of a state is no 
longer only its territory and its airspace, but it's also its electronic 
infrastructure.

"This is not some virtual world," Viik added. "This is part of our 
independence. And these attacks were an attempt to take one country back 
to the cave, back to the Stone Age."

=C2=A9 2007 The Washington Post Company


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