Critical infrastructure central to cyber threat

Critical infrastructure central to cyber threat
Critical infrastructure central to cyber threat 

By Ben Bain
April 24, 2008

The United States is increasingly vulnerable to cyberattacks that could 
have catastrophic effects on critical physical infrastructure, and 
severely damage the country's economic, military and strategic 
interests, cybersecurity specialists said today.

The conventional strategic thinking that has driven defense efforts over 
the past century is becoming irrelevant in today's networked world, 
according to specialists from the U.S. Cyber Consequences Unit (US-CCU), 
who spoke at the GovSec, U.S. Law and Ready Conference and Exposition 
today in Washington.

US-CCU is an independent, nonprofit research institute, set up at the 
request of the government. Its reports are supplied directly to the 
government, critical infrastructure industries and the public.

"The change here is so profound that almost all of our previous defense 
categories are breaking down," said Scott Borg, US-CCU's director. 
"There is not a clear line there anymore."

Borg said the distinction between physical and information attacks is 
disappearing, and he cited the lasting effects the terrorist attacks of 
2001 had on the information technology infrastructure. Borg said 
Industrial-era distinctions between the local and the remote, personal 
and public communications, and military and economic targets are fading 
and very sophisticated cyberattacks could damage major nations.

Scalable cyberattacks could physically destroy large numbers of 
electricity generators that would take years to replace, Borg said, 
adding that if a sizable region.s electricity was shut down for an 
extended period, a majority of that economy would shut down and people 
likely would die.

Security experts worry that last spring.s denial-of-service attacks on 
facilities in Estonia may be a precursor. Developed countries are 
considered to be most susceptible to the threats.

"Looking at the many wake-up calls that the international community has 
had over the past decade... I would say that we have entered an era of 
cyberterror and perhaps even an era of cyberwar," said Lauri Almann, 
Estonia's Permanent Undersecretary of Defence, at the conference.

Also, cybersecurity specialists warned that a cyberattack could cause 
greater economic and physical damage than the United States has 

"We are talking about things much bigger than the Great Depression," 
said Borg. "We are talking about consequences that are only exceeded by 
use of nuclear weapons."

His colleague at US-CCU, John Bumgarner, said attacks that could cripple 
an entire industry can be carried out by a handful of knowledgeable 

The specialists said the primary target of cyberattacks presently is 
business information that has been consolidated in a company's 
information system. This can allow thieves to open a new factory with 
the exact specifications and settings it took the business they 
victimized years to perfect.

Borg said he is concerned that although the federal government's efforts 
to consolidate access points to the government.s systems could mitigate 
information leaks, more consolidation can also make systems more 
susceptible to damage from attacks. He said that cybersecurity and 
military efforts should be expanded from focusing on perimeter defenses 
to also stress resiliency, robust systems and protecting critical 

Homeland Security Department officials who have been rolling out the 
Bush administration's new classified cyberinitiative so far have 
stressed beefing up intrusion detection and improving coordination 
between federal agencies and the private sector, which owns 
approximately 85 percent of the country.s critical infrastructure.

Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7, issued in December 2003, 
designated DHS as the lead agency for protecting critical 
infrastructure. DHS' 2006 National Infrastructure Protection Plan 
designated the roles that several agencies have in protecting different 
sectors of critical infrastructure.

US-CCU has developed a list of critical infrastructure groups based on 
how significant they are to the country's economy. The defense industry 
ranks only as the fourth most economically significant group.

The study ranks the Critical Infrastructure Groups (CIG) in the 
following order:

. Electric power, oil and gas fuel, telecommunications/Internet, 
. Chemical industries, water and sanitation, air and ground transport.
. Hospitals and health care, police and fire departments.
. Electronic, automotive and defense industries.
. Food processing, agriculture and national monuments, icons.

Almann said another challenge is that authorities are often unable to 
attribute attacks because of legal and technological challenges.

"Never prepare for the last war," Almann said. "We should prepare for 
the next war and let me tell you, next time when an attack like this 
occurs against any country it will be more painful, it will be more 

1105 Media, Federal Computer Week's parent company, sponsored the 
GovSec, U.S. Law and Ready Conference and Exposition.

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