AOH :: P15-05.TXT

Phrack Volume 2, Issue 15, File 5 of 8


 
                ===== Phrack Magazine presents Phrack 15 =====

                         ===== File 5 of 10 =====








   
   
                        GELLED FLAME FUELS
                        ------------------
             
        A text phile typed by Elric of Imrryr from the book:
        Improvised Munitions Handbook (TM 31-210), published
        by the Dept of the Army, 1969.
        All information is provided only for information purposes 
        only. Construction and/or use may violate local, state, and/or
        federal laws. (Unless your name is Ollie North)



        Gelled or paste type fuels are often preferable to raw gasoline
for use in incendiary devices such as fire bottles. This type fuel adheres
more readily to the target and produces greater heat concentration.

        Several methods are shown for gelling gasoline using commonly
available materials. The methods are divided into the following categories
based on the major ingredient:

                1. Lye Systems

                2. Lye-Alcohol Systems

                3. Soap-Alcohol Systems

                4. Egg White Systems

                6. Wax Systems



























                                   Lye Systems

    Lye (also know as caustic soda or Sodium Hydroxide) can be used in
combination with powdered rosin or castor oil to gel gasoline for use as a
flame fuel which will adhere to target surfaces.





MATERIALS REQUIRED:
------------------

Parts by Volume   Ingredient    How Used         Common Source
---------------   ----------    --------         -------------

60                Gasoline      Motor Fuel       Gas station or motor vehicle

2 (flake) or      Lye           Drain cleaner,   Food store or Drug store
1 (powder)                      making of soap

15                Rosin         Manufactoring    Paint store, chemical supply
                                Paint & Varnish  house

                  or

                  Castor Oil    Medicine         Food and Drug stores


PROCEDURE
---------

______________________________________________________________________________
|CAUTION: Make sure that there are no open flames in the area when mixing the|
|flame fuel. NO SMOKING!                                                     |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------------|

1. Pour gasoline into jar, bottle or other container. (DO NOT USE AN ALUMINUM
CONTAINER.)

2. IF rosin is in cake form, crush into small pieces.

3. Add rosin or castor oil to the gasoline and stir for about five minutes to
mix thoroughly.

4. In a second container (NOT ALUMINUM) add lye to an equal volume of water
slowly with stirring.

______________________________________________________________________________
|CAUTION: Lye solution can burn skin and destroy clothing. If any is spilled,|
|wash away immediately with large quantities of water.                       |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------------|

5. Add lye solution to the gasoline mix and stir until mixture thickens (about
one minute).

NOTE: The sample willeventually thicken to a very firm paste. This can be
thinned, if desired, by stirring in additional gasoline.






                                   Lye-Alcohol Systems

    Lye (also know as caustic soda or Sodium Hydroxide) can be used in
combination with alcohol and any of several fats to gel gasoline for use as a
flame fuel.





MATERIALS REQUIRED:
------------------

Parts by Volume   Ingredient    How Used         Common Source
---------------   ----------    --------         -------------

60                Gasoline      Motor Fuel       Gas station or motor vehicle

2 (flake) or      Lye           Drain cleaner,   Food store or Drug store
1 (powder)                      making of soap

3                 Ethyl Alcohol Whiskey          Liquor store
                                Medicine         Drug store

NOTE: Methyl (wood) alcohol or isopropyl (rubbing) alcohol can be
substituted for ethyl alcohol, but their use produces softer gels.

14                Tallow        Food             Fats rendered by cooking the
                                Making of soap   meat or suet of animals.

NOTE: The following can be substituted for the tallow:

        (a) Wool grease (Lanolin) (very good) -- Fat extracted from sheep wool
        (b) Castor Oil (good)
        (c) Any vegetable oil (corn, cottenseed, peanut, linseed, etc.)
        (d) Any fish oil
        (e) Butter or oleo margarine

It is necessary when using substitutes (c) to (e) to double the given amount
of fat and of lye for satistfactory bodying.

PROCEDURE
---------

______________________________________________________________________________
|CAUTION: Make sure that there are no open flames in the area when mixing the|
|flame fuel. NO SMOKING!                                                     |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------------|

1. Pour gasoline into jar, bottle or other container. (DO NOT USE AN ALUMINUM
CONTAINER.)

2. Add tallow (or substitute) to the gasoline and stir for about 1/2 minute to
dissolve fat.

3. Add alcohol to the gasoline mixture.
mix thoroughly.

4. In a separate container (NOT ALUMINUM) slowly add lye to an equal volume of 
water. Mixture should be stirred constantly while adding lye.

______________________________________________________________________________
|CAUTION: Lye solution can burn skin and destroy clothing. If any is spilled,|
|wash away immediately with large quantities of water.                       |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------------|

5. Add lye solution to the gasoline mixture and stir occasionally until
thickened (about 1/2 hour)

NOTE: The sample willeventually (1 to 2 days) thicken to a very firm paste. 
This can be thinned, if desired, by stirring in additional gasoline.





                                   Soap-Alcohol System

        Common household soap can be used in combination with alcohol to gel
gasoline for use as a flame fuel which will adhere to target surfaces.






MATERIALS REQUIRED:
------------------

Parts by Volume   Ingredient    How Used         Common Source
---------------   ----------    --------         -------------

36                Gasoline      Motor Fuel       Gas station or motor vehicle

1                 Ethyl Alcohol Whiskey          Liquor store
                                Medicine         Drug store

NOTE: Methyl (wood) alcohol or isopropyl (rubbing) alcohol can be
substituted for ethyl alcohol.

20 (powdered) or  Laundry soap  Washing clothes  Stores
28 (flake)

NOTE: Unless the word "soap" actually appears somewhere on the container or
wrapper, a washing compound is probably a detergent. THESE CAN NOT BE USED.


PROCEDURE
---------

______________________________________________________________________________
|CAUTION: Make sure that there are no open flames in the area when mixing the|
|flame fuel. NO SMOKING!                                                     |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------------|

1. If bar soap is used, carve into thin flakes using a knife.

2. Pour Alcohol and gasoline into a jar, bottle or other container and mix
thoroughly.

3. Add soap powder or flakes to gasoline-alcohol mix and stir occasionally
until thickened (about 15 minutes).




                                   Egg System

The white of any bird egg can be used to gel gasoline for use as a flame fuel.





MATERIALS REQUIRED:
------------------

Parts by Volume   Ingredient    How Used         Common Source
---------------   ----------    --------         -------------

85                Gasoline      Motor Fuel       Gas station or motor vehicle

14                Egg Whites    Food             Food store, farms

Any one of the following

1                 Table Salt    Food, industrial Sea Water, Natural brine,
                                processes        Food stores

3                 Ground Coffee Food             Food store

3                 Dried Tea     Food             Food store
                  Leaves

3                 Cocoa         Food             Food store

2                 Sugar         Food             Food store

1                 Saltpeter     Pyrotechnics     Drug store
                  (Niter)       Explosives       chemical supply store
                  (Potassium    Matches
                  Nitrate)      Medicine

1                 Epsom salts   Medicine         Drug store, food store
                                industrial 
                                processes

2                 Washing soda  Washing cleaner  Food store
                  (Sal soda)    Medicine         Drug store
                                Photography      Photo supply store

1 1/2             Baking soda   Baking           Food store
                                Manufactoring:   Drug store
                                Beverages,
                                Mineral waters,
                                and Medicine

1 1/2             Aspirin       Medicine         Drug store
                                                 Food store


PROCEDURE
---------

______________________________________________________________________________
|CAUTION: Make sure that there are no open flames in the area when mixing the|
|flame fuel. NO SMOKING!                                                     |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------------|

1. Separate egg white from yolk. This can be done by breaking the egg into a
dish and carefully removing the yolk with a spoon.


______________________________________________________________________________
|NOTE: DO NOT GET THE YELLOW EGG YOLK MIXED INTO THE EGG WHITE. If egg yolk  |
|gets into the egg white, discard the egg.                                   |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------------|

2. Pour egg white into a jar, bottle, or other container and add gasoline.

3. Add the salt (or other additive) to the mixture and stir occasionally until
gel forms (about 5 to 10 minutes).

NOTE: A thicker flame fuel can be obtained by putting the capped jar in hot
(65 C) water for about 1/2 hour and then letting them cool to room temperature.
(DO NOT HEAT THE GELLED FUEL CONTAINING COFFEE).





                                   Wax System

        Any of several common waxes can be used to gel gasoline for use as a
flame fuel.





MATERIALS REQUIRED:
------------------

Parts by Volume   Ingredient    How Used         Common Source
---------------   ----------    --------         -------------

80                Gasoline      Motor Fuel       Gas station or motor vehicle

20                Wax           Leather polish,  Food store, drug store,
                  (Ozocerite,   sealing wax,     department store
                  Mineral wax,  candles,
                  fossil wax,   waxed paper,
                  ceresin wax   furniture &
                  beeswax)      floor waxes,
                                lithographing.

PROCEDURE
---------

1. Melt the wax and pour into jar or bottle which has been placed in a hot
water bath.

2. Add gasoline to the bottle.

3. When wax has completely dissolved in the gasoline, allow the water bath to
cool slowly to room temperature.

NOTE: If a gel does not form, add additional wax (up to 40% by volume) and
repeat the above steps. If no gel forms with 40% wax, make a Lye solution by
dissolving a small amount of Lye (Sodium Hydroxide) in an equal amount of 
water. Add this solution (1/2% by volume) to the gasoline wax mix and shake
bottle until a gel forms.




Well, thats it, I omitted a few things because they where either redundant, or
more aimed toward battle field conditions. Be careful, don't get caught, and 
have fun...

        Elric of Imrryr


AOH Site layout & design copyright © 2006 AOH