AOH :: P22-04.TXT

A Novice's Guide To Hacking (1989 Edition)



                                ==Phrack Inc.==

                      Volume Two, Issue 22, File 4 of 12

               +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
               |              The LOD/H Presents               |
++++++++++++++++                                               ++++++++++++++++
                  A Novice's Guide to Hacking- 1989 edition                 /
                  =========================================                /
                                     by                                   /
                                 The Mentor                              /
                       Legion of Doom/Legion of Hackers                 /
                                                                       /
                               December, 1988                         /
                          Merry Christmas Everyone!                  /
         +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++/


The author hereby grants permission to reproduce, redistribute, or include this
file in your g-file section, electronic or print newletter, or any other form
of transmission that you choose, as long as it is kept intact and whole, with
no ommissions, deletions, or changes.

      (C) The Mentor- Phoenix Project Productions 1988,1989  512/441-3088


Introduction:  The State of the Hack
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
After surveying a rather large g-file collection, my attention was drawn to the
fact that there hasn't been a good introductory file written for absolute
beginners since back when Mark Tabas was cranking them out (and almost
*everyone* was a beginner!)  The Arts of Hacking and Phreaking have changed
radically since that time, and as the 90's approach, the hack/phreak community
has recovered from the Summer '87 busts (just like it recovered from the Fall
'85 busts, and like it will always recover from attempts to shut it down), and
the progressive media (from Reality Hackers magazine to William Gibson and
Bruce Sterling's cyberpunk fables of hackerdom) is starting to take notice
of us for the first time in recent years in a positive light.

Unfortunately, it has also gotten more dangerous since the early 80's.  Phone
cops have more resources, more awareness, and more intelligence than they
exhibited in the past.  It is becoming more and more difficult to survive as a
hacker long enough to become skilled in the art.  To this end this file is
dedicated.  If it can help someone get started, and help them survive to
discover new systems and new information, it will have served it's purpose, and
served as a partial repayment to all the people who helped me out when was a
beginner.

Contents
~~~~~~~~
This file will be divided into four parts:
     Part 1:  What is Hacking, A Hacker's Code of Ethics, Basic Hacking Safety
     Part 2:  Packet Switching Networks: Telenet- How it Works, How to Use it,
              Outdials, Network Servers, Private PADs
     Part 3:  Identifying a Computer, How to Hack In, Operating System Defaults
     Part 4:  Conclusion; Final Thoughts, Books to Read, Boards to Call,
              Acknowledgements

Part One:  The Basics
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
As long as there have been computers, there have been hackers.  In the 50's at
the Massachusets Institute of Technology (MIT), students devoted much time and
energy to ingenious exploration of the computers.  Rules and the law were
disregarded in their pursuit for the 'hack.'  Just as they were enthralled with
their pursuit of information, so are we.  The thrill of the hack is not in
breaking the law, it's in the pursuit and capture of knowledge.

To this end, let me contribute my suggestions for guidelines to follow to
ensure that not only you stay out of trouble, but you pursue your craft without
damaging the computers you hack into or the companies who own them.

I.    Do not intentionally damage *any* system.
II.   Do not alter any system files other than ones needed to ensure your
      escape from detection and your future access (Trojan Horses, Altering
      Logs, and the like are all necessary to your survival for as long as
      possible).
III.  Do not leave your (or anyone else's) real name, real handle, or real
      phone number on any system that you access illegally.  They *can* and
      will track you down from your handle!
IV.   Be careful who you share information with.  Feds are getting trickier
      Generally, if you don't know their voice phone number, name, and
      occupation or haven't spoken with them voice on non-info trading
      conversations, be wary.
V.    Do not leave your real phone number to anyone you don't know.  This
      includes logging on boards, no matter how k-rad they seem.  If you don't
      know the sysop, leave a note telling some trustworthy people that will
      validate you.
VI.   Do not hack government computers.  Yes, there are government systems that
      are safe to hack, but they are few and far between.  And the government
      has inifitely more time and resources to track you down than a company
      who has to make a profit and justify expenses.
VII.  Don't use codes unless there is *NO* way around it (you don't have a
      local telenet or tymnet outdial and can't connect to anything 800).  You
      use codes long enough, you will get caught.  Period.
VIII. Don't be afraid to be paranoid.  Remember, you *are* breaking the law.
      It doesn't hurt to store everything encrypted on your hard disk, or
      keep your notes buried in the backyard or in the trunk of your car.  You
      may feel a little funny, but you'll feel a lot funnier when you when you
      meet Bruno, your transvestite cellmate who axed his family to death.
IX.   Watch what you post on boards.  Most of the really great hackers in the
      country post *nothing* about the system they're currently working except
      in the broadest sense (I'm working on a UNIX, or a COSMOS, or something
      generic.  Not "I'm hacking into General Electric's Voice Mail
      System" or something inane and revealing like that).
X.    Don't be afraid to ask questions.  That's what more experienced hackers
      are for.  Don't expect *everything* you ask to be answered, though.
      There are some things (LMOS, for instance) that a begining hacker
      shouldn't mess with.  You'll either get caught, or screw it up for
      others, or both.
XI.   Finally, you have to actually hack.  You can hang out on boards all you
      want, and you can read all the text files in the world, but until you
      actually start doing it, you'll never know what it's all about.  There's
      no thrill quite the same as getting into your first system (well, ok, I
      can thinksavea couple of biggers thrills, but you get the picture).

One of the safest places to start your hacking career is on a computer system
belonging to a college.  University computers have notoriously lax security,
and are more used to hackers, as every college computer department ment has one
or two, so are less likely to press charges if you should be detected.  But the
odds of them detecting you and having the personel to committ to tracking you
down are slim as long as you aren't destructive.

If you are already a college student, this is ideal, as you can legally explore
your computer system to your heart's desire, then go out and look for similar
systems that you can penetrate with confidence, as you're already
familar with them.

So if you just want to get your feet wet, call your local college.  Many of
them will provide accounts for local residents at a nominal (under $20) charge.

Finally, if you get caught, stay quiet until you get a lawyer.  Don't volunteer
any information, no matter what kind of 'deals' they offer you.  Nothing is
binding unless you make the deal through your lawyer, so you might as well shut
up and wait.

Part Two:  Networks
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The best place to begin hacking (other than a college) is on one of the
bigger networks such as Telenet.  Why?  First, there is a wide variety of
computers to choose from, from small Micro-Vaxen to huge Crays.  Second, the
networks are fairly well documented.  It's easier to find someone who can help
you with a problem off of Telenet than it is to find assistance concerning your
local college computer or high school machine.  Third, the networks are safer.
Because of the enormous number of calls that are fielded every day by the big
networks, it is not financially practical to keep track of where every call and
connection are made from.  It is also very easy to disguise your location using
the network, which makes your hobby much more secure.

Telenet has more computers hooked to it than any other system in the world once
you consider that from Telenet you have access to Tymnet, ItaPAC, JANET,
DATAPAC, SBDN, PandaNet, THEnet, and a whole host of other networks, all of
which you can connect to from your terminal.

The first step that you need to take is to identify your local dialup port.
This is done by dialing 1-800-424-9494 (1200 7E1) and connecting.  It will
spout some garbage at you and then you'll get a prompt saying 'TERMINAL= '.
This is your terminal type.  If you have vt100 emulation, type it in now.  Or
just hit return and it will default to dumb terminal mode.

You'll now get a prompt that looks like a @.  From here, type @c mail <cr> and
then it will ask for a Username.  Enter 'phones' for the username.  When it
asks for a password, enter 'phones' again.  From this point, it is menu driven.
Use this to locate your local dialup, and call it back locally.  If you don't
have a local dialup, then use whatever means you wish to connect to one long
distance (more on this later).

When you call your local dialup, you will once again go through the TERMINAL=
stuff, and once again you'll be presented with a @.  This prompt lets you know
you are connected to a Telenet PAD.  PAD stands for either Packet
Assembler/Disassembler (if you talk to an engineer), or Public Access Device
(if you talk to Telenet's marketing people.)  The first description is more
correct.

Telenet works by taking the data you enter in on the PAD you dialed into,
bundling it into a 128 byte chunk (normally... this can be changed), and then
transmitting it at speeds ranging from 9600 to 19,200 baud to another PAD, who
then takes the data and hands it down to whatever computer or system it's
connected to.  Basically, the PAD allows two computers that have different baud
rates or communication protocols to communicate with each other over a long
distance.  Sometimes you'll notice a time lag in the remote machines response.
This is called PAD Delay, and is to be expected when you're sending data
through several different links.

What do you do with this PAD?  You use it to connect to remote computer
systems by typing 'C' for connect and then the Network User Address (NUA) of
the system you want to go to.

An NUA takes the form of   031103130002520
                           ___/___/___/
                             |    |    |
                             |    |    |____ network address
                             |    |_________ area prefix
                             |______________ DNIC


This is a summary of DNIC's (taken from Blade Runner's file on ItaPAC)
according to their country and network name.


DNIC   Network Name    Country          DNIC   Network Name    Country
_______________________________________________________________________________
                                     |
02041   Datanet 1       Netherlands  |  03110   Telenet         USA
02062   DCS             Belgium      |  03340   Telepac         Mexico
02080   Transpac        France       |  03400   UDTS-Curacau    Curacau
02284   Telepac         Switzerland  |  04251   Isranet         Israel
02322   Datex-P         Austria      |  04401   DDX-P           Japan
02329   Radaus          Austria      |  04408   Venus-P         Japan
02342   PSS             UK           |  04501   Dacom-Net       South Korea
02382   Datapak         Denmark      |  04542   Intelpak        Singapore
02402   Datapak         Sweden       |  05052   Austpac         Australia
02405   Telepak         Sweden       |  05053   Midas           Australia
02442   Finpak          Finland      |  05252   Telepac         Hong Kong
02624   Datex-P         West Germany |  05301   Pacnet          New Zealand
02704   Luxpac          Luxembourg   |  06550   Saponet         South Africa
02724   Eirpak          Ireland      |  07240   Interdata       Brazil
03020   Datapac         Canada       |  07241   Renpac          Brazil
03028   Infogram        Canada       |  09000   Dialnet         USA
03103   ITT/UDTS        USA          |  07421   Dompac          French Guiana
03106   Tymnet          USA          |

There are two ways to find interesting addresses to connect to.  The first and
easiest way is to obtain a copy of the LOD/H Telenet Directory from the LOD/H
Technical Journal 4 or 2600 Magazine.  Jester Sluggo also put out a good list
of non-US addresses in Phrack Inc. Newsletter Issue 21.  These files will tell
you the NUA, whether it will accept collect calls or not, what type of computer
system it is (if known) and who it belongs to (also if known.)

The second method of locating interesting addresses is to scan for them
manually.  On Telenet, you do not have to enter the 03110 DNIC to connect to a
Telenet host.  So if you saw that 031104120006140 had a VAX on it you wanted to
look at, you could type @c 412 614 (0's can be ignored most of the time).

If this node allows collect billed connections, it will say 412 614 CONNECTED
and then you'll possibly get an identifying header or just a Username: prompt.
If it doesn't allow collect connections, it will give you a message such as 412
614 REFUSED COLLECT CONNECTION with some error codes out to the right, and
return you to the @ prompt.

There are two primary ways to get around the REFUSED COLLECT message.  The
first is to use a Network User Id (NUI) to connect.  An NUI is a username/pw
combination that acts like a charge account on Telenet.  To collect to node
412 614 with NUI junk4248, password 525332, I'd type the following:
@c 412 614,junk4248,525332  <---- the 525332 will *not* be echoed to the
screen.  The problem with NUI's is that they're hard to come by unless you're a
good social engineer with a thorough knowledge of Telenet (in which case you
probably aren't reading this section), or you have someone who can provide you
with them.

The second way to connect is to use a private PAD, either through an X.25 PAD
or through something like Netlink off of a Prime computer (more on these two
below).

The prefix in a Telenet NUA oftentimes (not always) refers to the phone Area
Code that the computer is located in (i.e. 713 xxx would be a computer in
Houston, Texas).  If there's a particular area you're interested in, (say, New
York City 914), you could begin by typing @c 914 001 <cr>.  If it connects, you
make a note of it and go on to 914 002.  You do this until you've found some
interesting systems to play with.

Not all systems are on a simple xxx yyy address.  Some go out to four or five
digits (914 2354), and some have decimal or numeric extensions (422 121A = 422
121.01).  You have to play with them, and you never know what you're going to
find.  To fully scan out a prefix would take ten million attempts per prefix.
For example, if I want to scan 512 completely, I'd have to start with 512
00000.00 and go through 512 00000.99, then increment the address by 1 and try
512 00001.00 through 512 00001.99.  A lot of scanning.  There are plenty of
neat computers to play with in a 3-digit scan, however, so don't go berserk
with the extensions.

Sometimes you'll attempt to connect and it will just be sitting there after one
or two minutes.  In this case, you want to abort the connect attempt by sending
a hard break (this varies with different term programs, on Procomm, it's
ALT-B), and then when you get the @ prompt back, type 'D' for disconnect.

If you connect to a computer and wish to disconnect, you can type <cr> @ <cr>
and you it should say TELENET and then give you the @ prompt.  From there, type
D to disconnect or CONT to re-connect and continue your session uninterrupted.

Outdials, Network Servers, and PADs
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
In addition to computers, an NUA may connect you to several other things. One
of the most useful is the outdial.  An outdial is nothing more than a modem
you can get to over telenet -- similar to the PC Pursuit concept, except that
these don't have passwords on them most of the time.

When you connect, you will get a message like 'Hayes 1200 baud outdial,
Detroit, MI', or 'VEN-TEL 212 Modem', or possibly 'Session 1234 established on
Modem 5588.'  The best way to figure out the commands on these is to type ? or
H or HELP -- this will get you all the information that you need to use one.

Safety tip here -- when you are hacking *any* system through a phone dialup,
always use an outdial or a diverter, especially if it is a local phone number
to you.  More people get popped hacking on local computers than you can
imagine, Intra-LATA calls are the easiest things in the world to trace
inexpensively.

Another nice trick you can do with an outdial is use the redial or macro
function that many of them have.  First thing you do when you connect is to
invoke the 'Redial Last Number' facility.  This will dial the last number used,
which will be the one the person using it before you typed.  Write down the
number, as no one would be calling a number without a computer on it.  This is
a good way to find new systems to hack.  Also, on a VENTEL modem, type 'D' for
Display and it will display the five numbers stored as macros in the modem's
memory.

There are also different types of servers for remote Local Area Networks (LAN)
that have many machine all over the office or the nation connected to them.
I'll discuss identifying these later in the computer ID section.

And finally, you may connect to something that says 'X.25 Communication PAD'
and then some more stuff, followed by a new @ prompt.  This is a PAD just like
the one you are on, except that all attempted connections are billed to the
PAD, allowing you to connect to those nodes who earlier refused collect
connections.

This also has the added bonus of confusing where you are connecting from.  When
a packet is transmitted from PAD to PAD, it contains a header that has the
location you're calling from.  For instance, when you first connected to
Telenet, it might have said 212 44A CONNECTED if you called from the 212 area
code.  This means you were calling PAD number 44A in the 212 area.  That 21244A
will be sent out in the header of all packets leaving the PAD.

Once you connect to a private PAD, however, all the packets going out from *it*
will have it's address on them, not yours.  This can be a valuable buffer
between yourself and detection.

Phone Scanning
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Finally, there's the time-honored method of computer hunting that was made
famous among the non-hacker crowd by that Oh-So-Technically-Accurate movie
Wargames.  You pick a three digit phone prefix in your area and dial every
number from 0000 --> 9999 in that prefix, making a note of all the carriers you
find.  There is software available to do this for nearly every computer in the
world, so you don't have to do it by hand.

Part Three:  I've Found a Computer, Now What?
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This next section is applicable universally.  It doesn't matter how you found
this computer, it could be through a network, or it could be from carrier
scanning your High School's phone prefix, you've got this prompt this prompt,
what the hell is it?

I'm *NOT* going to attempt to tell you what to do once you're inside of any of
these operating systems.  Each one is worth several G-files in its own right.
I'm going to tell you how to identify and recognize certain OpSystems, how to
approach hacking into them, and how to deal with something that you've never
seen before and have know idea what it is.


VMS -      The VAX computer is made by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), and
           runs the VMS (Virtual Memory System) operating system. VMS is
           characterized by the 'Username:' prompt.  It will not tell you if
           you've entered a valid username or not, and will disconnect you
           after three bad login attempts.  It also keeps track of all failed
           login attempts and informs the owner of the account next time s/he
           logs in how many bad login attempts were made on the account.  It is
           one of the most secure operating systems around from the outside,
           but once you're in there are many things that you can do to
           circumvent system security.  The VAX also has the best set of help
           files in the world.  Just type HELP and read to your heart's
           content.

           Common Accounts/Defaults:  [username: password [[,password]]]

           SYSTEM:     OPERATOR or MANAGER or SYSTEM or SYSLIB
           OPERATOR:   OPERATOR
           SYSTEST:    UETP
           SYSMAINT:   SYSMAINT or SERVICE or DIGITAL
           FIELD:      FIELD or SERVICE
           GUEST:      GUEST or unpassworded
           DEMO:       DEMO  or unpassworded
           DECNET:     DECNET


DEC-10 -   An earlier line of DEC computer equipment, running the TOPS-10
           operating system.  These machines are recognized by their '.'
           prompt.  The DEC-10/20 series are remarkably hacker-friendly,
           allowing you to enter several important commands without ever
           logging into the system.  Accounts are in the format [xxx,yyy]
           where xxx and yyy are integers.  You can get a listing of the
           accounts and the process names of everyone on the system before
           logging in with the command .systat (for SYstem STATus).  If you
           seen an account that reads [234,1001]   BOB JONES, it might be wise
           to try BOB or JONES or both for a password on this account.  To
           login, you type .login xxx,yyy  and then type the password when
           prompted for it.

           The system will allow you unlimited tries at an account, and does
           not keep records of bad login attempts.  It will also inform you if
           the UIC you're trying (UIC = User Identification Code, 1,2 for
           example) is bad.

           Common Accounts/Defaults:

           1,2:        SYSLIB or OPERATOR or MANAGER
           2,7:        MAINTAIN
           5,30:       GAMES

UNIX -     There are dozens of different machines out there that run UNIX.
           While some might argue it isn't the best operating system in the
           world, it is certainly the most widely used.  A UNIX system will
           usually have a prompt like 'login:' in lower case.  UNIX also will
           give you unlimited shots at logging in (in most cases), and there is
           usually no log kept of bad attempts.

           Common Accounts/Defaults:  (note that some systems are case
           sensitive, so use lower case as a general rule.  Also, many times
           the accounts will be unpassworded, you'll just drop right in!)

           root:       root
           admin:      admin
           sysadmin:   sysadmin or admin
           unix:       unix
           uucp:       uucp
           rje:        rje
           guest:      guest
           demo:       demo
           daemon:     daemon
           sysbin:     sysbin

Prime -    Prime computer company's mainframe running the Primos operating
           system.  The are easy to spot, as the greet you with 'Primecon
           18.23.05' or the like, depending on the version of the operating
           system you run into.  There will usually be no prompt offered, it
           will just look like it's sitting there.  At this point, type 'login
           <username>'.  If it is a pre-18.00.00 version of Primos, you can hit
           a bunch of ^C's for the password and you'll drop in.  Unfortunately,
           most people are running versions 19+.  Primos also comes with a good
           set of help files.  One of the most useful features of a Prime on
           Telenet is a facility called NETLINK.  Once you're inside, type
           NETLINK and follow the help files.  This allows you to connect to
           NUA's all over the world using the 'nc' command.

           For example, to connect to NUA 026245890040004, you would type
           @nc :26245890040004 at the netlink prompt.

           Common Accounts/Defaults:

           PRIME       PRIME or PRIMOS
           PRIMOS_CS   PRIME or PRIMOS
           PRIMENET    PRIMENET
           SYSTEM      SYSTEM or PRIME
           NETLINK     NETLINK
           TEST        TEST
           GUEST       GUEST
           GUEST1      GUEST

HP-x000 -  This system is made by Hewlett-Packard.  It is characterized by the
           ':' prompt.  The HP has one of the more complicated login sequneces
           around -- you type 'HELLO SESSION NAME,USERNAME,ACCOUNTNAME,GROUP'.
           Fortunately, some of these fields can be left blank in many cases.
           Since any and all of these fields can be passworded, this is not the
           easiest system to get into, except for the fact that there are
           usually some unpassworded accounts around.  In general, if the
           defaults don't work, you'll have to brute force it using the common
           password list (see below.)  The HP-x000 runs the MPE operating
           system, the prompt for it will be a ':', just like the logon prompt.

           Common Accounts/Defaults:

           MGR.TELESUP,PUB                      User: MGR Acct: HPONLYG rp: PUB
           MGR.HPOFFICE,PUB                     unpassworded
           MANAGER.ITF3000,PUB                  unpassworded
           FIELD.SUPPORT,PUB                    user: FLD,  others unpassworded
           MAIL.TELESUP,PUB                     user: MAIL, others unpassworded
           MGR.RJE                              unpassworded
           FIELD.HPPl89 ,HPPl87,HPPl89,HPPl96   unpassworded
           MGR.TELESUP,PUB,HPONLY,HP3           unpassworded

IRIS -     IRIS stands for Interactive Real Time Information System.  It
           originally ran on PDP-11's, but now runs on many other minis.  You
           can spot an IRIS by the 'Welcome to "IRIS" R9.1.4 Timesharing'
           banner, and the ACCOUNT ID? prompt.  IRIS allows unlimited tries at
           hacking in, and keeps no logs of bad attempts.  I don't know any
           default passwords, so just try the common ones from the password
           database below.

           Common Accounts:

           MANAGER
           BOSS
           SOFTWARE
           DEMO
           PDP8
           PDP11
           ACCOUNTING

VM/CMS -   The VM/CMS operating system runs in International Business Machines
           (IBM) mainframes.  When you connect to one of these, you will get
           message similar to 'VM/370 ONLINE', and then give you a '.' prompt,
           just like TOPS-10 does.  To login, you type 'LOGON <username>'.

           Common Accounts/Defaults are:

           AUTOLOG1:            AUTOLOG or AUTOLOG1
           CMS:                 CMS
           CMSBATCH:            CMS or CMSBATCH
           EREP:                EREP
           MAINT:               MAINT or MAINTAIN
           OPERATNS:            OPERATNS or OPERATOR
           OPERATOR:            OPERATOR
           RSCS:                RSCS
           SMART:               SMART
           SNA:                 SNA
           VMTEST:              VMTEST
           VMUTIL:              VMUTIL
           VTAM:                VTAM

NOS -      NOS stands for Networking Operating System, and runs on the Cyber
           computer made by Control Data Corporation.  NOS identifies itself
           quite readily, with a banner of 'WELCOME TO THE NOS SOFTWARE SYSTEM.
           COPYRIGHT CONTROL DATA 1978,1987.'  The first prompt you will get
           will be FAMILY:.  Just hit return here.  Then you'll get a USER
           NAME: prompt.  Usernames are typically 7 alpha-numerics characters
           long, and are *extremely* site dependent.  Operator accounts begin
           with a digit, such as 7ETPDOC.

           Common Accounts/Defaults:

           $SYSTEM              unknown
           SYSTEMV              unknown

Decserver- This is not truly a computer system, but is a network server that
           has many different machines available from it.  A Decserver will say
           'Enter Username>' when you first connect.  This can be anything, it
           doesn't matter, it's just an identifier.  Type 'c', as this is the
           least conspicuous thing to enter.  It will then present you with a
           'Local>' prompt.  From here, you type 'c <systemname>' to connect to
           a system.  To get a list of system names, type 'sh services' or 'sh
           nodes'.  If you have any problems, online help is available with the
           'help' command.  Be sure and look for services named 'MODEM' or
           'DIAL' or something similar, these are often outdial modems and can
           be useful!
GS/1 -     Another type of network server.  Unlike a Decserver, you can't
           predict what prompt a GS/1 gateway is going to give you.  The
           default prompt it 'GS/1>', but this is redifinable by the system
           administrator.  To test for a GS/1, do a 'sh d'.  If that prints out
           a large list of defaults (terminal speed, prompt, parity, etc...),
           you are on a GS/1.  You connect in the same manner as a Decserver,
           typing 'c <systemname>'.  To find out what systems are available, do
           a 'sh n' or a 'sh c'.  Another trick is to do a 'sh m', which will
           sometimes show you a list of macros for logging onto a system.  If
           there is a macro named VAX, for instance, type 'do VAX'.

           The above are the main system types in use today.  There are
           hundreds of minor variants on the above, but this should be enough
           to get you started.

Unresponsive Systems
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Occasionally you will connect to a system that will do nothing, but sit there.
This is a frustrating feeling, but a methodical approach to the system will
yield a response if you take your time.  The following list will usually make
*something* happen.

1)  Change your parity, data length, and stop bits.  A system that won't
    respond at 8N1 may react at 7E1 or 8E2 or 7S2.  If you don't have a term
    program that will let you set parity to EVEN, ODD, SPACE, MARK, and NONE,
    with data length of 7 or 8, and 1 or 2 stop bits, go out and buy one.
    While having a good term program isn't absolutely necessary, it sure is
    helpful.
2)  Change baud rates.  Again, if your term program will let you choose odd
    baud rates such as 600 or 1100, you will occasionally be able to penetrate
    some very interesting systems, as most systems that depend on a strange
    baud rate seem to think that this is all the security they need...
3)  Send a series of <cr>'s.
4)  Send a hard break followed by a <cr>.
5)  Type a series of .'s (periods).  The Canadian network Datapac responds to
    this.
6)  If you're getting garbage, hit an 'i'.  Tymnet responds to this, as does a
    MultiLink II.
7)  Begin sending control characters, starting with ^A --> ^Z.
8)  Change terminal emulations.  What your vt100 emulation thinks is garbage
    may all of a sudden become crystal clear using ADM-5 emulation.  This also
    relates to how good your term program is.
9)  Type LOGIN, HELLO, LOG, ATTACH, CONNECT, START, RUN, BEGIN, LOGON, GO,
    JOIN, HELP, and anything else you can think of.
10) If it's a dialin, call the numbers around it and see if a company answers.
    If they do, try some social engineering.

Brute Force Hacking
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
There will also be many occasions when the default passwords will not work on
an account.  At this point, you can either go onto the next system on your
list, or you can try to 'brute-force' your way in by trying a large database of
passwords on that one account.  Be careful, though!  This works fine on systems
that don't keep track of invalid logins, but on a system like a VMS, someone is
going to have a heart attack if they come back and see '600 Bad Login Attempts
Since Last Session' on their account.  There are also some operating systems
that disconnect after 'x' number of invalid login attempts and refuse to allow
any more attempts for one hour, or ten minutes, or sometimes until the next
day.

The following list is taken from my own password database plus the database of
passwords that was used in the Internet UNIX Worm that was running around in
November of 1988.  For a shorter group, try first names, computer terms, and
obvious things like 'secret', 'password', 'open', and the name of the account.
Also try the name of the company that owns the computer system (if known), the
company initials, and things relating to the products the company makes or
deals with.
                              Password List
                              =============

      aaa                daniel             jester             rascal
      academia           danny              johnny             really
      ada                dave               joseph             rebecca
      adrian             deb                joshua             remote
      aerobics           debbie             judith             rick
      airplane           deborah            juggle             reagan
      albany             december           julia              robot
      albatross          desperate          kathleen           robotics
      albert             develop            kermit             rolex
      alex               diet               kernel             ronald
      alexander          digital            knight             rosebud
      algebra            discovery          lambda             rosemary
      alias              disney             larry              roses
      alpha              dog                lazarus            ruben
      alphabet           drought            lee                rules
      ama                duncan             leroy              ruth
      amy                easy               lewis              sal
      analog             eatme              light              saxon
      anchor             edges              lisa               scheme
      andy               erenity
      arrow              elizabeth          maggot             sex
      arthur             ellen              magic              shark
      asshole            emerald            malcolm            sharon
      athena             engine             mark               shit
      atmosphere         engineer           markus             shiva
      bacchus            enterprise         marty              shuttle
      badass             enzyme             marvin             simon
      bailey             euclid             master             simple
      banana             evelyn             maurice            singer
      bandit             extension          merlin             single
      banks              fairway            mets               smile
      bass               felicia            michael            smiles
      batman             fender             michelle           smooch
      beauty             fermat             mike               smother
      beaver             finite             minimum            snatch
      beethoven          flower             minsky             snoopy
      beloved            foolproof          mogul              soap
      benz               football           moose              socrates
      beowulf            format             mozart             spit
      berkeley           forsythe           nancy              spring
      berlin             fourier            napoleon           subway
      beta               fred               network            success
      beverly            friend             newton             summer
      angerine
      bumbling           george             osiris             tape
      cardinal           gertrude           outlaw             target
      carmen             gibson             oxford             taylor
      carolina           ginger             pacific            telephone
      caroline           gnu                painless           temptation
      castle             golf               pam                tiger
      cat                golfer             paper              toggle
      celtics            gorgeous           password           tomato
      change             graham             pat                toyota
      charles            gryphon            patricia           trivial
      charming           guest              penguin            unhappy
      charon             guitar             pete               unicorn
      chester            hacker             peter              unknown
      cigar              harmony            philip             urchin
      classic            harold             phoenix            utility
      coffee             harvey             pierre             vicky
      coke               heinlein           pizza              virginia
      collins            hello              plover             warren
      comrade            help               polynomial         water
      computer           herbert            praise             weenie
      condo              honey              prelude            whatnot
      condom             horse              prince             whitney
      cookie             imperial           protect            will
      cooper             include            pumpkin            william
      create             ingres             puppet             willie
      creation           innocuous          rabbit             winston

I hope this file has been of some help in getting started.  If you're asking
yourself the question 'Why hack?', then you've probably wasted a lot of time
reading this, as you'll never understand.  For those of you who have read this
and found it useful, please send a tax-deductible donation
of $5.00 (or more!) in the name of the Legion of Doom to:

                                       The American Cancer Society
                                       90 Park Avenue
                                       New York, NY  10016


*******************************************************************************

References:

1) Introduction to ItaPAC by Blade Runner
   Telecom Security Bulletin 1

2) The IBM VM/CMS Operating System by Lex Luthor
   The LOD/H Technical Journal 2

3) Hacking the IRIS Operating System by The Leftist
   The LOD/H Technical Journal 3

4) Hacking CDC's Cyber by Phrozen Ghost
   Phrack Inc. Newsletter 18

5) USENET comp.risks digest (various authors, various issues)

6) USENET unix.wizards forum (various authors)

7) USENET info-vax forum (various authors)

Recommended Reading:

1) Hackers by Steven Levy
2) Out of the Inner Circle by Bill Landreth
3) Turing's Man by J. David Bolter
4) Soul of a New Machine by Tracy Kidder
5) Neuromancer, Count Zero, Mona Lisa Overdrive, and Burning Chrome, all by
   William Gibson
6) Reality Hackers Magazine c/o High Frontiers, P.O. Box 40271, Berkeley,
   California, 94704, 415-995-2606
7) Any of the Phrack Inc. Newsletters & LOD/H Technical Journals you can
   find.

Acknowledgements:
   Thanks to my wife for putting up with me.
   Thanks to Lone Wolf for the RSTS & TOPS assistance.
   Thanks to Android Pope for proofreading, suggestions, and beer.
   Thanks to The Urvile/Necron 99 for proofreading & Cyber info.
   Thanks to Eric Bloodaxe for wading through all the trash.
   Thanks to the users of Phoenix Project for their contributions.
   Thanks to Altos Computer Systems, Munich, for the chat system.
   Thanks to the various security personel who were willing to talk to me about
             how they operate.

Boards:

   I can be reached on the following systems with some regularity;

       The Phoenix Project:    512/441-3088    300-2400 baud
       Hacker's Den-80:        718/358-9209    300-1200 baud
       Smash Palace South:     512/478-6747    300-2400 baud
       Smash Palace North:     612/633-0509    300-2400 baud

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