AOH :: P24-04.TXT

Frontiers; Chapter Four of FTSaga


                                ==Phrack Inc.==

                      Volume Two, Issue 24, File 4 of 13

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       <>                                                            <>
       <>                          Frontiers                         <>
       <>                          ~~~~~~~~~                         <>
       <>        Chapter Four of The Future Transcendent Saga        <>
       <>                                                            <>
       <>                 Beyond Bitnet Lies Infinity                <>
       <>                                                            <>
       <>                Presented by Knight Lightning               <>
       <>                      February 12, 1989                     <>
       <>                                                            <>
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Welcome to the final chapter of The Future Transcendent Saga... or is it?  Can
there ever really be a final chapter to the future?  In any case, I have
collected information on some of the various other networks that you may comes
across through your use of Bitnet.  These listings are more of a summary than a
detail guide (like Utopia was for Bitnet).  However, I think you'll make good
use of the information presented here.  Much of the information in this file is
based on examination of research conducted in July, 1987.  Any errors due to
the advancement in technology and the difference in time are apologized for.

The networks indexed in this file include the government agency networks
ARPANET, MILNET, MFENET, and NSFnet; and the user-formed networks CSNET,
HEANET, SPAN, TEXNET, UUCP, and USENET.

This file is not intended to be a hackers guide, but merely a directory of some
of the networks.

One last thing to mention... the major top level domains on the Internet are:

     .EDU   Educational Institutions
     .COM   Commercial
     .GOV   Government
     .MIL   Military
     .ORG   Miscellaneous Orgainizations (that don't fit elsewhere)
_______________________________________________________________________________

                          GOVERNMENT AGENCY NETWORKS
                          ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

ARPANET and MILNET

In 1969 the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) began a research
program to advance computer networking.  The experimental packet-switched
network that emerged was called ARPANET, and it allowed computers of different
types to communicate efficiently.  Using ARPANET technology, the Defense Data
Network (DDN) was created in 1982 to encompass the existing ARPANET and other
Department of Defense (DoD) computer networks.  The DDN uses the DoD Internet
Protocol Suite, including TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol) and associated application protocols.

A splitting of the ARPANET was begun in 1983 and completed in 1984.  The result
was two networks, an experimental research and development network called
ARPANET, and a non-classified operational military network called MILNET.
Gateways interconnect the two networks.  The backbones of each of the networks
consist of Packet Switched Nodes (PSNs), most of which are connected with 56 Kb
terrestrial lines.  As of January 1987, the ARPANET had 46 PSNs, and MILNET had
117 PSNs in the U.S. and 33 in Europe and the Pacific.

While ARPANET and MILNET make up part of the DDN, the DDN and other networks
works which share the same protocols make up the ARPA Internet.  CSNET X25net,
which uses the TCP/IP protocols interfaced to the public X.25 network, is an
example of a network which is part of the ARPA Internet and is not a part of
the DDN.
           ________________________________________
          |                     +--------------+   |
          |                     | CSNET X25net |   |
          |                     +--------------+   |
          |  +---------------+                     |
          |  | DDN           |                     |
          |  |   +---------+ |                     |
          |  |   | Arpanet | |                     |
          |  |   +---------+ |                     |
          |  |               |                     |
          |  |   +---------+ |                     |
          |  |   | Milnet  | |                     |
          |  |   +---------+ |                     |
          |  +---------------+       ARPA Internet |
          |________________________________________|

Policy, access control and funding for the ARPANET are provided by DARPA's
Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO).  ARPANET and MILNET operation
and management are provided by the Defense Communications Agency's DDN Program
Management Office (DDN PMO).

Use of the ARPANET is limited to users engaged in experimental research for the
U.S. government, or government-sponsored research at universities.  Because it
is not meant to compete with commercial networks, it is not intended for
operational communication needs or use by the general public.

Services available on ARPANET and MILNET include remote login, file transfer,
mail, time, and date.  Mail addressing on both of the networks is of the form
user@domain, where domain refers to a full qualified domain name composed of a
string of one or more subdomains separated by a period, ending with a top-level
domain.  Examples of top-level domains:  edu, com, gov, mil, net, org, jp, au,
uk.  Examples of fully qualified domain names: kentarus.cc.utexas.edu,
relay.cs.net, icot.jp.

The DDN funds a Network Information Center (NIC), located at SRI International
in Menlo Park, California, which provides user services to DDN users via
electronic mail (NIC@SRI-NIC.ARPA), telephone (800-235-3155) and U.S. mail:
DDN Network Information Center, SRI International, Room EJ291, 333 Ravenswood
Avenue, Menlo Park, CA 94025.  The telephone service is available Monday through
Friday, 7a.m to 4p.m., Pacific time.

Much information is also available on-line on SRI-NIC.ARPA, via telnet or
anonymous ftp (login "anonymous", password "guest").  The file
NETINFO:NETINFO-INDEX.TXT contains an index of these on-line files.
_______________________________________________________________________________

MFENET

MFEnet is the Department of Energy's (DOE) magnetic fusion energy research
network.  It was established in the mid-1970's to support access to the MFE
Cray 1 supercomputer at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.  The
network uses 56-kbs satellite links, and is designed to provide terminal access
to the Cray time-sharing system (CTSS), also developed at the Lawrence
Livermore Laboratory.  The network currently supports access to Cray 1, Cray
X-MP/2, Cray 2, and Cyber 205 supercomputers.  The network uses special-purpose
networking software developed at Livermore, and, in addition to terminal
access, provides file transfer, remote output queuing, and electronic mail, and
includes some specialized application procedures supporting interactive
graphics terminals and local personal computer (PC)-based editing.  Access to
the network is in general restricted to DOE-funded researchers.  A couple of
years ago, the network was expanded to include the DOE-funded supercomputer at
Florida State University.  MFEnet is funded by DOE and managed by Livermore.

MFEnet has been successful in supporting DOE supercomputer users.  However,
the specialized nature of the communications protocols is now creating
difficulties for researchers who need advanced graphics workstations that use
the UNIX BSD 4.2 operating system and the TCP-IP protocols on LAN's.  For these
and other reasons, DOE is examining how best to migrate MFEnet to the TCP-IP,
and later to the OSI, protocols.

The combination of the CTSS operating system and the MFEnet protocols creates
an effective interactive computing environment for researchers using Cray
supercomputers.  For this reason, two of the new NSF national supercomputer
centers -- San Diego (SDSC) and Illinois -- have chosen the CTSS operating
system.  In SDSC's case, the MFENET protocols have also been chosen to support
the SDSC Consortium network.  In Illinois case, a project to implement the
TCP-IP protocols for the CTSS operating system has been funded by the NSFnet
program, and these developments will be shared with SDSC (and with DOE) to
provide a migration path for the SDSC Consortium network.

Mail can be sent to people on MFEnet by using this format;

user%site.MFENET@NMFEDD.ARPA
_______________________________________________________________________________

NSFNET

NSFnet began in 1986 as a communications network to facilitate access to
NSF-funded national supercomputer centers.  It is evolving into a general
purpose internet for research and scientific information exchange.  The network
has a three-level component structure comprised of a backbone, several
autonomously administered wide-area networks, and campus networks.  The
backbone includes the following supercomputer centers:

    - National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois,
      Urbana (UIUC)
    - Cornell National Supercomputer Facility, Cornell University (Cornell)
    - John von Neumann National Supercomputer Center, Princeton, New Jersey
      (JVNC)
    - San Diego Supercomputer Center, University of California, San Diego
      (SDSC)
    - Pittsburgh Supercomputer Center (Westinghouse Electric Corp,
      Carnegie-Mellon University, University of Pittsburgh)
    - Scientific Computing Division of the National Center for Atmospheric
      Research, Boulder, Colorado (NCAR)

Upper layer protocols in use on the NSFnet backbone are the TCP/IP protocols.
The backbone became operational in July of 1986.  It was composed of seven 56
kps links between six IP gateways.  These gateways are LSI 11/73 systems.  An
upgrade to T1 links (1.544 Mps) was established in the latter part of 1987.
There are plans to adopt the OSI networking protocols as the software becomes
available.

NSF-funded component networks include:

    BARRNET - California's Bay Area Regional Research Network
    MERIT - Michigan Educational Research Network
    MIDNET - Midwest Network
    NORTHWESTNET - Northwestern states
    NYSERNET - New York State Educational and Research Network
    SESQUINET - Texas Sesquicentennial Network
    SURANET - Southeastern Universities Research Association Network
    WESTNET - Southwestern states
    JVNCNET - consortium network of JVNC
    SDSCNET - consortium network of SDSC
    PSCAAnet - consortium network of the Pittsburgh Supercomputer Center

Some of the component networks preceded NSFnet, and some of them have just
recently been established.  Each of the component networks is connected to the
backbone.  Information about the status of any NSFnet component network is
available from the NSFnet Network Service Center (NNSC).  Monthly reports on
the status of the backbone and component networks are also available on-line
through the CSNET Info-Server.  Send a message to info-server@sh.cs.net with
the following message body:

    REQUEST: NSFNET
    TOPIC: NSFNET-HELP
    REQUEST:END

These reports may also be retrieved by anonymous ftp (login "anonymous",
password "guest") from sh.cs.net, in the directory "nsfnet." [FTP stands for
File Transfer Protocol]

Other autonomous networks connected to the NSFnet backbone include ARPANET,
BITNET, CSNET, and USAN (the University Satellite Network of the National
Center for Atmospheric Research).

Interesting projects associated with NSFnet include implementation of the gated
routing daemon which handles the RIP, EGP and HELLO routing protocols and runs
on 4.3BSD, Ultrix TM, GOULD UTX/32 TM, SunOS and VMS TM (Cornell University
Theory Center); implementation of TCP/IP for the CTSS operating system
supporting TELNET and FTP (University of Illinois); and a satellite experiment
providing 56 kps links between distant ethernets using Vitalink technology
(NCAR).

Management of the NSFnet is in an interim form with duties shared among The
University of Illinois, Cornell University, the University of Southern
California Information Sciences Institute, and University Corporation for
Atmospheric Research.  The NSFnet project is administered by the Division of
Network and Communications Research and Infrastructure, which is part of the
Computer and Information Science and Engineering Directorate at NSF.

Further information is available from the NSFnet Network Service Center (NNSC),
BBN Laboratories Inc., 10 Moulton Street, Cambridge, MA 02238. Assistance can
also be obtained by electronic mail to nnsc@nnsc.nsf.net, or by calling
617-497-3400.  The NNSC is run by Bolt, Beranek and Newman, and is an
NSF-funded project of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research.
_______________________________________________________________________________

                             USER-FORMED NETWORKS
                             ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

CSNET

In 1980 a proposal was presented to the National Science Foundation to fund a
computer science research network to link any university, commercial or
government organizations involved in research or advanced development in
computer science and computer engineering.  NSF provided funding for the period
for 1981 to 1985, and CSNET was established.  This single logical network today
connects approximately 200 computers on three physical networks.  These
component physical networks are Phonenet, X25net and a subset of the ARPANET.
Phonenet is a store-and-forward network using MMDF software over public
telephone lines to provide electronic mail service.  X25net utilizes the public
X.25 packet switched network Telenet, interfaced with TCP/IP, to provide
electronic mail, file transfer and remote login.  Some ARPANET hosts are also
members of CSNET.  The computers linked by CSNET are in the U.S., Europe,
Canada, Israel, Korea and Japan.  Addressing in CSNET is in the ARPA Internet
domain style.

In 1981 a contract was arranged with Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc. to provide
information, user and technical services for CSNET, and the CSNET Coordination
and Information Center (CIC) was established.  The CIC handles the daily
management of the network, and oversight is provided by the CSNET Executive
Committee.  The network is supported by membership fees.

The CIC maintains a User Name Server database, which is accessible through the
ns command on CSNET hosts running appropriate software, or by telnet to the
CSNET service host, sh.cs.net (login "ns", no password required).  There is
also much information available via anonymous ftp to sh.cs.net (login
"anonymous", password "guest"), particularly in the directory "info."  The Info
Server also provides a means for retrieving this information.  To utilize the
Info Server, send mail to infoserver@sh.cs.net with the following lines in the
message body:

            REQUEST:  INFO
            TOPIC:  HELP
            REQUEST:  END

The on-line information includes software, policy documents, information on
other networks, site lists and mailing list archives.

CSNET Foreign Affiliates and their gateways are:

     CDNNET -- Canadian Academic Network, University of British Columbia.

     SDN -- System Development Network (SDN) is an R&D computer network,
            consisting of computers of R&D communities in Republic of Korea,
            with a gateway at KAIST, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and
            Technology, Seoul.  It has mail connection to CSNET/Internet,
            USENET/EUNET/UUCP Net and Pacific countries like Australia,
            Indonesia, Hong Kong, Singapore and Japan.

     SUNET -- Swedish University Network, Chambers University of Technology,
              Gothenburg.

     CHUNET -- Swiss University Network, ETH-Zentrum, Zurich.

     Inria -- French University Network, Institute National de Recherce en
              Informatique, Rocquencourt.

     DFN -- Deutches Forschungsnetz, GWD-Gesellschaft fuer Mathematick und
            Datenvararbiten, Schloss Birlinghoven, St. Augustin.

     JUNET -- Japanese University Network, University of Tokyo.

     Finnish University Network, Helsinki University, Helsinki.

     AC.UK -- Academic Community, United Kingdom, University College, London.

     ACSNET -- A UUCP-based academic network in Australia, University of
               Melbourne.

     New Zealand Academic Network, Waikato University, Hamilton.

     Israeli Academic Network, Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

For more information contact CSNET CIC, BBN Laboratories Inc., 10 Moulton
Street, Cambridge, MA 02238, or send  electronic mail to cic@sh.cs.net
(cic@csnet-sh.arpa).  A 24-hour hotline is also available, (617) 497-2777.
_______________________________________________________________________________

HEANET

HEAnet is a network linking the Universities and National Institutes for Higher
Education in the Republic of Ireland.  The following institutions belong to
HEANET:

     NIHED:  National Institute for Higher Education, Dublin
     NIHEL:  National Institute for Higher Education, Limerick
     MAY:    St. Patrick's College, Maynooth
     TCD:    Trinity College, Dublin
     UCC:    University College, Cork
     UCD:    University College, Dublin
     UCG:    University College, Galway

The abbreviations on the left are used to form the network addresses for the
hosts belonging to each institution.  Addresses use the form:

     host.institution.IE  (for example VAX2.NIHED.IE)

HEANET is connected to EARN/Bitnet/Netnorth by a gateway at University College,
Dublin.  Mail for HEANET should be sent as a BSMTP "job" to MAILER at IRLEARN.
_______________________________________________________________________________

SPANet

The Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN) became operational in 1981, and was
the result of a pilot project at Marshall Space Flight Center funded by NASA
(Space Plasma Physics Branch, Office of Space Science).  The network is a
mission-independent data system testbed, intended to address problems of
exchanging data (raw and processed), analysis software, graphic images and
correspondence between researchers in several disciplines, including
Solar-Terrestrial, Interplanetary and Planetary Physics, Astrophysics,
Atmospherics, Oceans, Climate and Earth Science.  A perception that
multidisciplinary correlative research in solar-terrestrial physics would
increase in the 1980's, that standards were lacking in scientific databases,
and that support was required for the display of device independent graphic
images, all motivated the establishment of SPAN.  SPAN has therefore developed
to facilitate space data analysis and address significant unresolved problems
of scientific data exchange and correlation.

The Data Systems Users Working Group, formed in 1980, provides guidance and
policy recommendations to SPAN.  Daily operation of the network is performed by
a network and project manager, a project scientist, routing center managers,
and managers at the local nodes.

SPAN nodes communicate using a variety of transmission media (fiber optics,
coax, leased telephone lines) and lower layer protocols (ethernet, X.25,
DDCMP), and nearly all SPAN hosts use the DECnetTM upper layer protocols. There
are plans to migrate to the emerging OSI protocols as software becomes
available.

Currently SPAN connects over 1200 computers throughout the United States,
Europe, Canada, and Japan (leading to all of the hacker related trouble on the
network, such as the Mathias Speer incident).  The network backbone in the
United States consists of redundant 56 kps links between 5 DECnet routing
centers:

    1.  NASA's Johnson Space Center (Houston, Texas)
    2.  NASA and Cal Tech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, California)
    3.  NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (Huntsville, Alabama)
    4.  NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (Greenbelt,  Maryland)
    5.  NASA's Ames Research Center (Moffett Field, California)

Tail circuits connect SPAN member institutions to the closest routing center,
in most cases with leased lines at a minimum of 9.6 kps.

SPAN is gatewayed to CSNET, ARPANET, BITNET, GTE Telenet, JANET and the NASA
Packet Switched System (NPSS).  SPAN is joined to TEXNET, HEPnet and other
DECnetTM wide area networks.  Services available to SPAN nodes include
electronic mail, remote file transfer and remote login.

Additional information is available from the SPAN Network Information Center
(SPAN-NIC) located at the National Space Science Data Center, NASA Goddard
Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771.  Assistance is also available
by electronic mail at NSSDCA::SPAN_NIC_MGR.
_______________________________________________________________________________

TEXNET

Most of TEXNET became operational in 1986, although pieces of this network
existed earlier.  The purpose of the network is to link computers at Texas
universities which run the DECnetTM upper layer protocols.  Lower layer
protocols in use on the network are ethernet (IEEE 802.3) and DDCMP (Digital
Data Communication Message Protocol).  TEXNET currently connects over 450
machines in 14 cities.  The network backbone consists of DECnetTM routers, and
some synchronous links, connected via leased lines.  9600 bps and 56 Kbps lines
are used.

Gateways exist from TEXNET to SPAN, BITNET and the ARPA Internet.  Services
provided include electronic mail, file transfer and remote login.

Operational and policy management of the network is by consensus of an informal
management group composed of managers from each member institution.

The following institutions are TEXNET members:

    Baylor University
    Houston Area Research Center
    Pan American University
    Sam Houston State University
    Southwest Texas State University
    Texas A & M University
    University of Houston
    University of Texas at Arlington
    University of Texas at Austin
    University of Texas at El Paso
    University of Texas at Dallas
    University of Texas at Permian Basin
    University of Texas at San Antonio
    University of Texas at Tyler
    University of Texas Health Center at Tyler
    University of Texas Health Science Center at Dallas
    University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
    University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
    University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston
    University of Texas System Cancer Center
    University of Texas System Center for High Performance Computing
    University of Texas Office of Land Management
_______________________________________________________________________________

UUCP and USEnet

The UUCP network was started in the 1970's to provide electronic mail and file
transfer between UNIX systems.  The network is a host-based store-and-forward
network using dialup telephone circuits and operates by having each member site
dialup the next UUCP host computer and send and receive files and electronic
mail messages.  The network uses addresses based on the physical path
established by this sequence of dialups connections. UUCP is open to any UNIX
system which chooses to participate.  There are "informal" electronic mail
gateways between UUCP and ARPANET, BITNET, or CSNET, so that users of any of
these networks can exchange electronic mail.

USENET is a UNIX news facility based on the UUCP network that provides a news
bulletin board service.  USEnet has both academic and commercial members and
affiliates in Europe, Asia, and South America.  Neither UUCP nor USENET has a
central management; volunteers maintain and distribute the routing tables for
the network.  Each member site pays its own costs and agrees to carry traffic.
Despite this reliance on mutual cooperation and anarchic management style, the
network operates and provides a useful, if somewhat unreliable, and low-cost
service to its members.  Over the years the network has grown into a world-wide
network with thousands of computers participating.

                              "The Future Is Now"
______________________________________________________________________________


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