AOH :: P43-26.TXT

International Scene



                              ==Phrack Magazine==

                 Volume Four, Issue Forty-Three, File 26 of 27

                              International Scenes

There was once a time when hackers were basically isolated.  It was
almost unheard of to run into hackers from countries other than the
United States.  Then in the mid 1980's thanks largely to the
existence of chat systems accessible through X.25 networks like
Altger, tchh and QSD, hackers world-wide began to run into each other.
They began to talk, trade information, and learn from each other.
Separate and diverse subcultures began to merge into one collective
scene and has brought us the hacking subculture we know today.  A
subculture that knows no borders, one whose denizens share the common goal
of liberating information from its corporate shackles.

With the incredible proliferation of the Internet around the globe, this
group is growing by leaps and bounds.  With this in mind, we want to help
further unite the communities in various countries by shedding light
onto the hacking scenes that exist there.  We have been requesting files
from people to describe the hacking scene in their country, but
unfortunately, more people volunteered than followed through (you know
who you are.)  By next issue we will have more, I'm sure, but for now,
we want to introduce you all to the scenes in Ireland and Canada.


*****************************************************************************

COUNTRIES ON THE INTERNET

AD   Andorra
AE   United Arab Emirates
AF   Afghanistan
AG   Antigua and Barbuda
AI   Anguilla
AL   Albania
AM   Armenia
AN   Netherland Antilles
AO   Angola
AQ   Antarctica
AR   Argentina
AS   American Samoa
AT   Austria
AU   Australia
AW   Aruba
AZ   Azerbaidjan
BA   Bosnia-Herzegovina
BB   Barbados
BD   Bangladesh
BE   Belgium
BF   Burkina Faso
BG   Bulgaria
BH   Bahrain
BI   Burundi
BJ   Benin
BM   Bermuda
BN   Brunei Darussalam
BO   Bolivia
BR   Brazil
BS   Bahamas
BT   Buthan
BV   Bouvet Island
BW   Botswana
BY   Bielorussia
BZ   Belize
CA   Canada
CC   Cocos Island
CF   Central African Republic
CG   Congo
CH   Switzerland
CI   Ivory Coast
CK   Cook Islands
CL   Chile
CM   Cameroon
CN   China
CO   Colombia
CR   Costa Rica
CS   Czechoslovakia
CU   Cuba
CV   Cape Verde
CX   Christmas Island
CY   Cyprus
DE   Germany
DJ   Djibouti
DK   Denmark
DM   Dominica
DO   Dominican Republic
DZ   Algeria
EC   Ecuador
EE   Estonia
EG   Egypt
EH   Western Sahara
ES   Spain
ET   Ethiopia
FI   Finland
FJ   Fiji
FK   Falkland Islands
FM   Micronesia
FO   Faroe Islands
FR   France
FX   France
GA   Gabon
GB   Great Britain (UK)
GD   Grenada
GE   Georgia
GH   Ghana
GI   Gibraltar
GL   Greenland
GP   Guadeloupe
GQ   Equatorial Guinea
GF   French Guyana
GM   Gambia
GN   Guinea
GR   Greece
GT   Guatemala
GU   Guam
GW   Guinea Bissau
GY   Guyana
HK   Hong Kong
HM   Heard & McDonald Island
HN   Honduras
HR   Croatia
HT   Haiti
HU   Hungary
ID   Indonesia
IE   Ireland
IL   Israel
IN   India
IO   British Indian Ocean Territories
IQ   Iraq
IR   Iran
IS   Iceland
IT   Italy
JM   Jamaica
JO   Jordan
JP   Japan
KE   Kenya
KG   Kirgistan
KH   Cambodia
KI   Kiribati
KM   Comoros
KN   St.Kitts Nevis Anguilla
KP   North Korea
KR   South Korea
KW   Kuwait
KY   Cayman Islands
KZ   Kazachstan
LA   Laos
LB   Lebanon
LC   Saint Lucia
LI   Liechtenstein
LK   Sri Lanka
LR   Liberia
LS   Lesotho
LT   Lithuania
LU   Luxembourg
LV   Latvia
LY   Libya
MA   Morocco
MC   Monaco
MD   Moldavia
MG   Madagascar
MH   Marshall Islands
ML   Mali
MM   Myanmar
MN   Mongolia
MO   Macau
MP   Northern Mariana Island
MQ   Martinique
MR   Mauritania
MS   Montserrat
MT   Malta
MU   Mauritius
MV   Maldives
MW   Malawi
MX   Mexico
MY   Malaysia
MZ   Mozambique
NA   Namibia
NC   New Caledonia
NE   Niger
NF   Norfolk Island
NG   Nigeria
NI   Nicaragua
NL   Netherlands
NO   Norway
NP   Nepal
NR   Nauru
NT   Neutral Zone
NU   Niue
NZ   New Zealand
OM   Oman
PA   Panama
PE   Peru
PF   Polynesia
PG   Papua New Guinea
PH   Philippines
PK   Pakistan
PL   Poland
PM   St. Pierre & Miquelon
PN   Pitcairn
PT   Portugal
PR   Puerto Rico
PW   Palau
PY   Paraguay
QA   Qatar
RE   Reunion
RO   Romania
RU   Russian Federation
RW   Rwanda
SA   Saudi Arabia
SB   Solomon Islands
SC   Seychelles
SD   Sudan
SE   Sweden
SG   Singapore
SH   St. Helena
SI   Slovenia
SJ   Svalbard & Jan Mayen Islands
SL   Sierra Leone
SM   San Marino
SN   Senegal
SO   Somalia
SR   Suriname
ST   St. Tome and Principe
SU   Soviet Union
SV   El Salvador
SY   Syria
SZ   Swaziland
TC   Turks & Caicos Islands
TD   Chad
TF   French Southern Territories
TG   Togo
TH   Thailand
TJ   Tadjikistan
TK   Tokelau
TM   Turkmenistan
TN   Tunisia
TO   Tonga
TP   East Timor
TR   Turkey
TT   Trinidad & Tobago
TV   Tuvalu
TW   Taiwan
TZ   Tanzania
UA   Ukraine
UG   Uganda
UK   United Kingdom
UM   US Minor Outlying Islands
US   United States
UY   Uruguay
UZ   Uzbekistan
VA   Vatican City State
VC   St.Vincent & Grenadines
VE   Venezuela
VG   British Virgin Islands
VI   U.S. Virgin Islands
VN   Vietnam
VU   Vanuatu
WF   Wallis & Futuna Islands
WS   Samoa
YE   Yemen
YU   Yugoslavia
ZA   South Africa
ZM   Zambia
ZR   Zaire
ZW   Zimbabwe

****************************************************************************

                           HACKING IN IRELAND
                                   BY
                                HAWKWIND

 Greetings from the Emerald Isle!  My name is Hawkwind, and I'm an
Irish hacker *evil cackle*.  So, what's the hacking scene like in this
small green island called Ireland, perched on the edge of the Atlantic
Ocean?  -an island which claims to have one of the most sophisticated
digital phone networks in Europe, home of Eirpac (the Irish equivalent to
Sprintnet/Telenet) and lots of other weird and wonderful things like
that.

 Well, the hacking scene, like the country itself, is small
-there are no elite in Ireland. -or if there are they are so elite that
nobody has heard of them.  So if you're only into elite stuff, then
don't bother reading on, skip onto the next country.

 Also, sadly at the moment, there seems to be little interest in
hacking in Ireland  -I can count the number of Irish hackers I know on
the fingers of one hand.  Maybe I'm just hanging out in the wrong places,
or perhaps its the Iron Hand of Ireland's own Little Brother, friend and
follower of the U.S's Big Brother, enforcing his evil ways of censorship
and the like upon us all, denying us the right to free information.
Nationwide censorship of Usenet hurts like dry ice, but restricting ftp
and telnet out of the country to the privileged few, is the fatal
crunch.  Now, I ask you, with grief like this, is it any wonder so few
Irish have made it into the Computer Underground  -to those that have
beaten the odds, I wish them well.

 OK, so what do Irish hackers like to hack?  Like many hackers we
just have the curiosity and desire to explore any system or network we
come across  -the everlasting search for that spine-tingling adrenaline
rush when you've beaten the system and got somewhere where perhaps no
commoner has gone before  -don't ever ask us to choose between getting
well drunk, having sex, or hacking  --it would be a rough choice.

 Let me start by telling you of what I find an interesting moment
in Irish hacking history. -to you it may just seem like no big deal, but
we kinda like it.
 There is a type manufacturing company in Dublin, Ireland and
they like to make tyres--in order not to ruin any reputations we won't
mention any names--just another tyre company.  Now this company likes
nice modern systems--big colorful display panels with lots of flashing
lights, to keep their managers happy and amused for hours.  A happy
company is lots of happy striving workers and so, a big flashy sign
which displayed the number of tyres being produced, and dutifully
counted upwards every time one come off the assembly line, was
constructed.  So they had a big sign inside the plant so the workers
could see how hard they were working, and big bonuses and lots of
presents were promised if they got past a certain number in a day.
There was also a large juicy sign outside the plant showing this number
so that the general public could be suitably impressed with the busy-bee
workers and the number of tyres being produced.

 And all these signs and computers controlling them were
connected to such mysteries as a network with a couple of black boxes
which management proudly called modems  -enter stage left, Irish
hackers, *deep bow and evil wave*

 So you can imagine, one warm sunny summer's evening, when there
was really nothing better to do in Dublin, strange things started to
happen at the tyre factory.  Yes, strange things indeed.  Suddenly the
workers got very lazy and started slowing down their production,
becoming slower and slower and slower.  The numbers stopped counting up
on the glowing sign.  Then the digits oddly started counting backwards.
Down they went, getting faster and faster  -people began to picture
enraged workers destroying tyres in a crazed frenzy.  Soon our sign
showed that there were no tyres left and it began to dive into negative
numbers of tyres.  The passers-by scratched their heads in astonishment.

 Ah, but enough fun  -this really was a very good tyre company
with very hard-working workers.  They deserve lots of bonuses  -heck,
didn't someone say this was the most productive factory in Europe?  Well
it was that day anyway! *evil cackle*  So the signs stopped counting
backwards, and suddenly began to race forwards like there was no
tomorrow.  The workers were scurrying back and forth at lightening speed
-one hundred, two hundred..a thousand...ten thousand...what, a hundred
thousand!  Soon our good workers had produced more tyres in the space of
20 minutes, than visitors Disneyland had in 25 years...

 Ah yes, these are the things that Irish hackers like to do -we
still wonder if the management gave all those good workers their
bonuses??

 So really, we like to investigate or hack anything that we might
stumble across  -anything from the local University library computer to
tyre companies to networks in lands far away.  One of the things we
really like doing is just exploring, hopping from one network to the
next, using computers in such awed places as the U.S., Canada or Mexico,
this is probably because for us, even to reach such computers and
networks is an achievement, that our Little Brother would deny us had he
his evil ways.  We think that the Internet is one of the greatest
creations in a long time, and we would never want to do any malicious
damage on such a free association  -if only our Little Brother would let
us associate freely with it, instead of making life just that little bit
more difficult.  We find Sprintnet and other connected goodies
interesting prowling grounds, although we are the first to admit that we
still have very much to learn here.  To explore these systems is very
interesting for us, because they are so far away and in such interesting
lands that we may never see ourselves  -what to you might be the old U.S.,
to explore the nets there gives us a sense of excitement and a variety
of systems that cannot be found on such a small island as our own
Ireland.

    And of course, there is the never-ending quest for U.S. outdials
in the hope that one day we might actually reach some of the fabled U.S.
h/p boards and actually meet a real Fed or two.  *snicker*  Turning from
the strictly hacking scene for the moment there are some Irish people
interested in the phones and other phun things  -a while back two
college guys were busted for cracking an eleven digit code on some new
phone system chip or something, which had given them unlimited dialling
access and other phun privileges.  -then there was the magic toll free
number which for a month or two gave the Irish population unlimited
access to the outside world (a big thank-you goes to whoever worked that
one out. *grin*)  I'm told from reliable sources that we have a pretty
sophisticated phone system, a matter we soon hope to be investigating,
but this does not seem to have stopped phreakers from trying, and if we
manage to work anything out, we'll, as our 'Telecom Eireann' so aptly
put it 'Keep in touch across the world'.

 Sadly, we are plagued by outrageous phone charges, even for
local calls and hence many Irish boards have failed to blossom  -of
those that do, the sysops seem to be little interested in h/p talk and I
know of no dedicated h/p Irish board.

 There also used to be a type of Underground meeting that occurred
every dark rainy Sunday afternoon, down in the Ormond, a hotel in Dublin
city centre.  It passed unheeded under the guise of a computer club, but
the bloke who ran it was a renowned con-man, and dealer of everything
and anything from car radios to Rolex watches  -in any event the club
must have been one of the biggest WareZ swapping centres, including all
the latest videos from the U.S. which would not be released in the
cinemas(movies) here until six months later.  Generally people
interested in the same computer type things just got together to chat
and swap the latest news, disks and videos  -an interesting place with
interesting folks, which sadly no longer seems to happen.  Perhaps
someone will revive something similar in the near future.

 Well, I'll end the tale there for the moment.  Hopefully you've
gotten a little flavor of our little Underground, watched over by our
Little Brother, in our little country called Ireland.  I'm not sure how
I ended up writing this article, but since nobody else stepped forward, I
thought Ireland should at least get some kind of mention, if nothing
else  -so you can /dev/null any flames.

 Before I sign off, I'd just like to thank Phrack not only for
giving me the chance to tell my tale, but for supplying us with a great
publication and guide to the Underground.  Finally, if you are an Irish
hacker/phreaker, then get in touch now!!!  -I really want to be able to say
that I can count the number of Irish hackers I know on two hands, and not
just one, before the end of the decade!  Also, I am always interested in
talking to anyone interested in the hack/phreak world so get in touch if
you want to chat  -just remember, we are no elite!
(I don't suppose anyone out there, knows anything about the Irish phone
system? *shrugs*)

Ok, I can be reached at the following, for the next little while:
(Yes, I do have Irish a/c's but not for thine eyes...)

 al575@yfn.ysu.edu
 hawkwind@m-net.ann-arbor.mi.us
 hawkwin@santafe.edu  (note: no 'd' at end userid)


I'm also sometimes on IRC, and may hopefully be on phantom soon.
Well, as we say in Ireland, good luck and may the road rise up before
you.

Slan Leat,
Hawkwind.

*****************************************************************************


                           Canada
              All is Quiet on the Northern Front

                Written and compiled by Synapse

Welcome to the barren wastes or rather the undeveloped wastes if
you will. Welcome to Canada. A realm seldom traveled and less
often explored. Canada, or .ca if you will, is virgin country in
the net. There are places that have been sitting idle for years
on our nets that still have default accounts in use. There is an
unmeasurable amount of data out there waiting to be tapped. The
possibilities in this are endless, Canada is untouched for the
most part, and as developed networks go, I feel that Canada is as
close to The 'Undiscovered country' as you can get.

Most likely if you are reading this article you will be of a
nationality other than Canadian. If so, perhaps this will be an
educational experience for you. To explain our nets and our scene
here in the far far north, I must first explain our nation and
its greatest difficulty, it has NO identity, therefore it tends
to mirror those it is enamored with.  Hence our scene resembles
an amalgamation of whatever seems popular in the nets at a given
time. Most often it attempts somewhat miserably to emulate the
scene south of our border, the great U S of A. And in short it
fails miserably.

This is not to say that Canada does not have a scene of its own
nor is it attempting to take away from those scenes that have
developed fully on their own within .ca. It is simply bringing to
light a problem that plagues our scene and dilutes it for those
who are serious about the computer underground, and whatever
ideals it may contain.

If you travel the nets in Canada you will find that dissent and
"ElYtEeGoStRoKInG" are staple with both the Hacking and Warez
scenes all throughout the nine provinces and 2 territories. As I
am sure you know this is not a problem unique to .ca. However in
a scene as minute and spread painfully thin as ours, arrogance
and mis-communication can be fatal in the way of cooperation
gaps. This has proved the case many times in the recent past, and
I am sure it will in the near future as well.

Canada seems to a have a communication barrier that separates
east from west. There is simply close to no communications
between the two. It is as if we are in separate hemispheres and
lost to the technology of fibber optics and damned to smoke
signals and drum beating. I have to wonder sometimes if both
sides are so involved in their own local power struggles, that
the rest of the world has melted away including their country men
on either side.

Alas it is time to dive into this the this of the article. To
detail the complete underground in Canada would be impossible for
me to do, to even give a non-biased view would be impossible. So
if you feel that this is simply an overextended opinion, thank
IBM for the PgDn key and spare yourself some opinionated text.

                    The Almost LODs of .ca

Just like the U.S., Canada is proliferated with umpteen amounts
of upstart groups who after reading some trashy second rate book
on LOD or Kevin Mitnick, have decided that they have found what
it is to be elyte. Most often these will be the prominent voices
on underground boards spitting flame and stroking immeasurably
unhealthy egos, and boasting how proficient they are with toneloc
and Killer Cracker. However as with most boasts put forth by
fourteen year olds, nothing comes of it.

However if you can manage passage through the quagmire of shit
that serves as the .ca scene, then you will most likely encounter
some of .ca's more serious minded types who while retaining
talent and a penchant for learning, do not sport an ego of
astronomical proportions, and wit that would bring condescension
from an ant. The following is a short list of several of .ca's
more prominent if not more talented groups.

                   RaBID The Virus People

If the Virus world is your environment, then most likely you
have stumbled across the work of RaBID, hopefully not on the
receiving end.. Rabid is based out of 416 or rather Toronto
Canada, at it's prime Rabid was running a mail net that spanned
Canada and were releasing enough material to employ the boys at
McAfee. Things have changed. While Rabid had at one point been a
productive group (if you can call a virus group productive) time
seems to have worn their edge, in fact Rabid as a group have
failed to release anything of value in a great long time. Perhaps
this will change. If nothing else Rabid did bring a much needed
ego boost to the Canadian scene, in doing so they opened the door
for other such groups to be seen on the international level with
out being laughed out of the nets. For this if nothing else they
deserve recognition. There is a great deal more to be said  about
Rabid, however as I said all the information given here will be
cursory, if you require an information at all in the future on
Rabid or any of the groups mentioned below I will leave an e-mail
address below where you can write me, I will help you if I can.

                 FOG out of 403 Calgary, Alberta

No scene is complete without talented juveniles given to temper
tantrums virus spreading and general malicious behavior..Enter
FOG. FOG stands for the Fist Of God, it is for the most part a
group of individuals who go through unnatural amounts of effort
to get under the skin of others. Yet beyond juvenile behavior
that tends to underscore most endeavors they undertake. FOG does
for the most part work very diligently for a united .ca scene.
They have in the past run a nation wide net using encrypted mail
procedures so that dialogue could be opened between the east and
western scenes. This event was stopped when the Hubs house was
raided by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police for suspected telco
abuse, they were no charges laid however yet the organizers felt
that the information passing through the net was much too
valuable to be compromised by a bust. The net was killed.

After the net disappeared several members of FoG began writing
bbs software to be spread across the country to make networking
easier or rather standardized. The bbs also includes encryption
options for the mail, and will soon be HAM radio as well as
cellular modem capable. This program is available to any who wish
to take it, as I said earlier, just mail me.

                   NuKE Making Art out of Arrogance

NuKE hails from 516 Montreal, Canada.  It as far as I can see
primarily now a virus group. Producing and modifying strains, for
the most part NuKE has been the most active underground .ca group
that has seen movement on an international level, with this past
year.

It's membership has changed quite severely since I last had
contact with them. Therefore I fear that to publish anything else
on them would be inaccurate and therefore an injustice. However
if you are interested in pursuing this topic........Mail me.


As you can see these are cursory overviews of Canada's groups it
is of course largely incomplete, I provided it only to serve as a
guide for the feeling of Canada's groups. There are of course
many worth mentioning that I failed to show, and moreover there
is a great deal more to  the groups that I did mention. To those
who are in the above groups are unhappy with the opinion put
forth please by all means FUCKOFF. I e-mailed all of you, and in
your infallible wisdom you failed to reply. So suffer with it :>

                     .ca and the law

While Canada has been for the most part largely un-abused by the
'Computer Criminal'. It's laws are none the less fairly advanced.
Our legislators to their credit have kept a close eye on our
neighbors in the south, and have introduced laws accordingly.

The following is the Canadian criminal code as pertaining to
Computer Crime.

342.1
    (1) Every one who, fraudulently and without color of right,
        (a) obtains, directly or indirectly, any computer service,
        (b) by means of an electro-magnetic, acoustic, mechanical
             or other device, intercepts or causes to be intercepted,
            directly or indirectly, any function of a computer system, or,
        (c) uses or causes to be used, directly or indirectly, a
            computer system with intent to commit an offense under
            paragraph (a) or (b) or an offense under section 430 in
            relation to data or a computer system
            is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to
            imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years, or is
            guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction.
    (2) In this section, "computer program" means data representing
        instructions or statements that, when executed in a computer
        system, causes the computer to perform a function;
        "computer service" includes data processing and the
        storage or retrieval of data; "computer system" means
        a device that, or a group of interconnected or related
        devices one or more of which,
                (a) contains computer programs or other data, and
                (b) pursuant to computer programs,
                    (i) performs logic and control, and
                    (ii) may perform any other function;
        "data" means representation of information or of concepts
        that are being prepared or have been prepared in a form
        suitable for use in a computer system;
        "electro-magnetic, acoustic, mechanical or other device"
         means any device or apparatus that is used or is capable of
         being used to intercept any function of a computer system,
         but does not include a hearing aid used to correct subnormal
         hearing of the user to not better than normal hearing;
        "function" includes logic, control, arithmetic, deletion,
        storage and retrieval and communication of telecommunication to,
        from or within a computer system; "intercept" includes listen
        to or record a function of a computer system, or acquire the
        substance, meaning or purport thereof.

430.
    [...]
    (1.1) Every one commits mischief who willfully
        (a) destroys or alters data;
        (b) renders data meaningless, useless or ineffective;
        (c) obstructs, interrupts or interferes with the lawful
            use of data; or
        (d) obstructs, interrupts or interferes with any person
            in the lawful use of data or denies access to data
            to any person who is entitled to access thereto.
    [...]

    (8) In this section, "data" has the same meaning as in
        section 342.1.

As you can see our criminal code carries severe penalties for
both Hacking and Virus spreading however, there is little
precedent to set sentences by. While this is reassuring, there
seems to be a new trends to prosecute those who are caught at
computer crime. Moreover it seems to be a trend to prosecute with
setting precedence in mind.. So for those of you in .ca who have
busted recently I would begin to fear right about now.

For the most part most computer crime in Canada that results in
busts is telco related, most often the charges are federal but
the sentences are light, however as I said before, this is
changing. And will continue to change with each new bust ,
welcome to the new dawn I suppose.

                     Datapac, Canada's first net

As it stands Datapac is Canada's largest and most used
network, it is old archaic and slow, yet still it is immense
amounts of fun to play with. The following is a technical excerpt
to help you understand the operation of Datapac and how to
maneuver it. Those of you who are already familiar with the
workings of this type of network will find this dry and
repetitive for those of you who are not familiar it may  make for
some learning.

After the manual entry you will find a list of interesting sites
to explore with, enjoy....

              Datapac 3101 "Welcome to the Dark Ages"

Interface (ITI) in a Packet Assembler/Disassembler (PAD), which
allows the devices to access the Network over dial-up (DDD) or Dedicated
Access Lines.

ITI, the end-to-end protocol for Datapac 3101, conforms to the
CCITT recommendations X.3, X.28 and X.29 and supports access to the
Datapac Network for asynchronous, start-stop character mode terminals.

     X.3 specifies the operation of the PAD.  It contains the
specifications for the twenty-two International parameters and
their operation.

     X.25 specifies the command language between the terminal and
the PAD.  It also specifies the conditions which define the command
mode and the data transfer mode.

     X.29 specifies the procedures to be followed by an X.25 DTE
to access and modify the parameters in the PAD as well as the data
transfer procedure.

The Datapac 3101 service provides for terminal to Host (user's
computer) and terminal to terminal communication.  The Host access
should conform with the X.25 protocol, using the Datapac 3000 access
service, and also support the higher level protocol conventions for ITI.
Host access may also be provided via the Datapac 3101 service for some
applications.  The Datapac 3101 service also provides block mode and
tape support.

INTERNATIONAL PAD PARAMETERS
----------------------------

1)   Ability to Escape from Data Transfer State*

     The setting of this parameter allows the user to interrupt
the communication of his or her application (data transfer mode) and
interact with the PAD (common mode).  The character to do this is
"ControlJP".  To return to data transfer mode, press the carriage
return or enter a blank command line.  If the user wants to send a
"ControlJP" to the Host, with this parameter set set to one, simply
hit ControlJP twice and the second ControlJP will go to the Host and
the user will remain in data transfer mode.  This also applies to
the user data field in the call request command line.

Parameter Number:  1
Possible Values:   0 = Escape not possible.
                   1 = Escape is possible.

*Note:  Escape from Data transfer mode may also be possible using
the break signal if parameter seven is set to eight.


2)   Echo*

     This parameter indicates to the PAD whether or not the
terminal input data must be echoed.  This may be required if the user's
terminal cannot echo back what is being entered.

Parameter Number:  1
Possible Values:   0 = No echo.
                   1 = Echo.

*Note:  Echo will also be affected by the setting of Parameter 20.


3)   Selection of Data Forwarding Signal

     This parameter indicates to the PAD the set to terminal
generated characters or conditions that will cause data to be forwarded
to the destination.  For example, (CR) can be used as a data forwarding
signal on receipt of a (CR) from the local DTE Y, the PAD will forward all
characters in its buffer to the remote end, including the (CR).  If P13 is
set to 6.7, 22 or 23, a (LF) will be included in the packet and will delimit
it.  Data is also forwarded when the buffer is full whether or not a
forwarding character is received.

Parameter Number:  3
Possible Values:   0 = No data forwarding signal.
                   2 = Forward on carriage return.
                   2 = Carriage return.
                 126 = All characters in columns 0 and 1
                       of ASCII table and the character
                       del of International alphabet #5.


4)   Selection of Idle Timer Delay

      This parameter is used to determine the idle timer limit
value when data forwarding is based on timeouts.  To optimize packetizing
of data, no data forwarding signal need be specified.  The PAD will then
packetize data based on packet size specified (256 or 128 characters).
The idle timer is used to send any packets that are not fully filled.
If idle timer is activated and the Host requires the (CR) to input data,
it still must be provided before the data send is accepted by the Host.
The idle timer does not send any empty packets.


Parameter Number:  4
Possible Values:   0 = No data forwarding on timeout is
                       required.
               1-255 = Indicates value of the delay in
                       twenties of a second.  (i.e., a
                       value of 250 makes the time wait
                       10 seconds)

*Note:  When editing is on (P15:1), the idle timer is inactive.
If this is the only data forwarding condition, turning the editing function
on could cause a user terminal to hand or data not to be forwarded.

5)   Auxiliary Device Control*

     This is used for flow control of data coming from either a
PC or auxiliary device, e.g.:  a paper tape machine.  When set to
1 it indicates to the PAD that the data is to be read an auxiliary
I/O device connected to the terminal.  This parameter set to 2 indicates
that the data is coming from an intelligent device, i.e., a PC, and that
the PAD must exert flow control differently.

Parameter Number:  5
Possible Values:   0 = No use of X-on/X-off.
                   1 = Use of X-on/X-off for auxiliary
                       devices.
                   2 = Use of X-on/X-off for
                       intelligent terminals.

*Note:  A value of 2 is recommended for PC's.


6)   Suppress Network Messages

     This parameter indicates to the PAD whether or not Network
generated messages are to be transmitted to the terminal.

Parameter Number:  6
Possible Values:   0 = Suppress message.
                   1 = Transmit message.
                   5 = PAD prompt (*) follows Datapac
                       service signals.

7)   Procedure on Break

     This parameter is used to indicate how the PAD should
process a break signal that is received from the terminal
while the terminal is in data transfer state.

Parameter Number:  7
Possible Values:   0 = Nothing. (remain in data transfer
                       mode)
                   1 = Interrupt. (remain in data
                       transfer mode)
                   2 = Reset. (remain in data transfer
                       mode)
                   4 = Send an "indication of break"
                       message to the packet mode DTE.
                       (remain in data transfer mode)
                   8 = Escape from data transfer mode
                       (i.e., enter command mode)
                  16 = Discard output to terminal
                       activate Parameter 8 (P8:1)
                       (remain in data transfer mode)
                  21 = A combination of 1, 4 and 16.


*Note:  The break signal is ignored if the virtual circuit is not
established while in command state.  The break signal will delete
the current line.

         The valid values for P7 are 0, 1, 2, 8 and 21.

8)   Discard Output

     This parameter is used in conjunction with Parameter 7.
Depending upon the break procedure selected, this parameter may be
set by the PAD when the terminal user requests that terminal data be
discarded.  This parameter must then be reset by the destination
computer to allow normal delivery.  The PAD will discard all packets
destined for the terminal from the time the PAD sets this parameter
(i.e., it receives a break signal when Parameter 7 is set to 21) to
the time the parameter is reset by the destination.  It can only be
reset by the destination.

Parameter Number:  8
Possible Values:   0 = Normal delivery of output to
                       terminal.
                   1 = Discard output to terminal.

9)   Padding after Carriage Return

     This parameter is used to specify the number of padding
characters to be inserted by the PAD following a CR transmitted
to the terminal.  Padding allows time for the carriage to return
on mechanical printing devices.


Parameter Number:  9
Possible Values:   0 = 2 padding characters will be
                       inserted at 110 bps and 4
                       padding characters will be
                       inserted at higher speeds, in
                       command mode only.  (no padding
                       is done in data transfer mode)
               1-255 = The number of padding characters
                       to be inserted in both data
                       transfer and command mode.

10)  Line Folding

     This parameter indicates the maximum number of printable
characters that can be displayed on the terminal before the PAD must
send a format effector (i.e.., <CR><LF>).  This permits more data to
be transmitted in one packet while still letting the user print out
more than one line, i.e., printing out forms.

11)  Transmission Speed (Read only)

     This parameter is set by the PAD as a result of transmission
speed detection if the terminal accesses an autobaud port.  When a
private port with fixed speed is used, this parameter is set based
on the pre-stored information selected at subscription time.

Parameter Number:  11
Possible Values:    0 = 110 bps
                    2 = 300 bps
                    3 = 1200 bps
                    4 = 2400 bps
This is all very dry stuff (what buffer isn't?) however if you need more
info on it simply mail me.

                            NUA list
20500011                Bell Northern Research
39400100                Envoy (English/Francais)
30400101                Envoy (Anglais/French)
39500032                Globe and Mail
41100015,I              Infoglobe
59600072                University of Athabasca
60100010                Universtiy of Alberta
67100752                ?
67100673                ?
20400177                QL
29400138                Tymnet  CIS02 7770,101 'free demo'
20401338                Tymnet
41100043                CSG Infoglobe
73500023                KN Computer MCT
59100092                Keyano College (Alberta)
72400014                System Max-Daisey (VAX/VMS)
69100018                Cybershare
55500010                ?
29400263                ?
29400263                ?
67100086                Sears
67100132                Primenet
67100489                Terminal ID=VAX
67100629                (VAX/VMS)
67100632                McKim Advertising (Vancouver)
93200233                University of Manitoba
79400100                Envoy Info/Mailbox
92100086                Datapac General Info
20500011                Canole II

I have kept a number of sites I have, off this list simply
to ensure I keep them, however there are thousands of Virgin
sites available off of Dpac. Something to keep your eyes open for
are Canadian government machines which are fairly abundant on the
Dpac.

Beyond Dpac, there are some actual BBS's worth calling, most
however would rather not have there numbers published in Phrack. None
the less here are some stable, and relatively active BBS's:

     The Underground Subway  606-590-1147
     Gridpoint               403-283-5519
     The G-spot  (Rabid HQ)  416-256-9017
     Front 242   (VX)(Rabid) 416-790-6632

I am sorry for what this article did not cover, in the umpteen or so
pages  I have punched up, I still have covered not even a tenth
of what I would like to cover. For those who wish a reliable UG
bbs for list .ca or more info on the Dpac or wish to elicit any other
response to this article please e-mail me at besaville@sait.ab.ca

*********************************************************************

                    The German Scene
                      (by SevenUp)
                    ----------------

CCC
---

Talking about the German Hacker Scene, the Chaos Computer Club (CCC) comes
to most people's mind. They are most famous for their 'NASA-Hack' and their
publications like Hackerbibel and Datenschleuder, a monthly magazine talking
about 'softer' stuff than 2600, such as MUD's, the Internet and BBS'es.

They organize the annual Chaos Communication Congress, held annually
from December, 27th till 29th in Hamburg. Usually around 1000 people show up
there, discussing many different topics, such as Phreaking, Internet,
Women and Computer, Cellular Phones, Phone Cards and others. Many well-known
people, like Pengo and Professor Brunnstein the meeting. There are usually
also shows of Horror Movies (but no porns like at HohoCon), but it's not
a real 'party' like SummerCon or the upcoming Hacktic Party.

Another annually meeting from CCC members and many other hackers is at the
huge computer fare 'CeBit' in Hannover in March. The Get Together is at the
Telekom booth on Tuesday at 4pm. Usually Telekom (the German phone company)
representatives are very kind, give away phone cards (value: $4), but
usually don't have any interesting new informations.

There haven't been any hacks affiliated with the CCC for the last couple of
years. The CCC tries to get away from their former criminal image, talking
mostly about risks of computers in society, and producing lots of press
releases.

The KGB Hack
------------

Most of you might know "The Cuckoo's Egg" by Cliff Stoll. His exciting
novel talks about German Hackers hacking for the KGB.
These guys were using the German x.25 network Datex-P to get to a US
University, and from there to several hosts on the Arpa/Milnet (Internet).
They were using mostly basic knowledge to get into several UNIX and VMS
Systems, reading personal Mail and looking for documents the 'Russians'
might have been interested in.

It all ends up with the suicide (murder?) of Karl Koch, one of the hackers.
Although these hackers weren't CCC members, there is a pretty good book
from the CCC about it, containing more facts than Cliff's book:
"Hacker fuer Moskau", published by Wunderlich.

This is probably the best known German hack of all times.

Networks
--------

I. x.25

The German x.25 System is called 'Datex-P' and has the DNIC (2624).
Dialups are in almost every area code, or can be reached locally from
everywhere. There are also Tymnet and Sprintnet Dialups available in
the major cities, with some limitations though. Tymnet won't connect you
to dpac (Datapac Canada). Sprintnet has just a true dialup in Frankfurt,
the other dialups are handled by their partner Info AG, which allow
calling most RNUAs, but most Sprintnet NUIs won't work.

There is a 'Subnet' in the Datex-P Network, the so called 'WiN'
(which means scientific network). Almost all universities have connections
to the WiN, which means they pay a flat rate each month, which allows
them to make as many calls and transfer as much data to other WiN hosts,
as they like. Usually x.25 rates are charged by the volume of packages/data.
You can identify WiN addresses easily, because they start with
(0262)45050... There are many gateways from WiN to Internet, and also a few
from Internet to WiN. WiN NUAs can be reached without problem from any x.25
network in the world, like Sprintnet or Tymnet; though most WiN PADs will
refuse to connect to non-WiN NUAs.

There are also a couple of German systems, international hackers used to like.
The most-famous is probably Lutzifer in Hamburg, Germany. It can still
be reached from x.25 Networks like Sprintnet or Tymnet.
Around two years ago, British, American and other hackers used to trade
all kinds of codez on "Lutz". But now, Pat Sisson ("frenchkiss") from Sprintnet
Security and Dale Drew ("Bartman") from Tymnet Security, try to track
down everyone abusing their NUIs or PADs.

Before Lutzifer went up 2.5 years ago, tchh and Altos Munich were most
attractive. They were running the same simple Korn-Chat on an Altos.
There are still a couple of other x.25 Systems, which attract hackers
from all over the world, like qsd, Pegasus (in France and Switzerland) and
Secret Tectonics / sectec, a rather new semi-private Board in Germany with
x.25 and Direct Phone Dialups, uucp/Internet Mail, File and Message Bases and
all Phrack Issues as well.

II. Internet

But now, most hackers quit the x.25 scene and tried to get onto Internet.
Unlike the fast Internet connections in the USA between .edu sites,
German Internet connections are mostly routed through slow (9.6kbps or 64k)
x.25 Links.

This is mostly the fault of the German phone company 'Telekom'. They have a
monopoly on phone lines in Germany and charge 2-10 times higher fees than
American phone co's. Even local calls are US$1.50/hour.

There aren't many German Internet Sites that attract foreign hackers,
compared to US Sites that German Hackers are interested in.

There are almost no public Internet BBSes with free access in Germany.
Also, German Universities have often a pretty tight security and get
mad easily.

III. Amiga Kiddos

BBS'es are still the major hang-out besides IRC. The Amiga Scene with
its K-rad Kiddos (most of them under 18 years) used to be dominant a
couple of years ago, trading Calling Cards and new Blue Box frequencies
to call the best boards in the US to leech the latest games.
But recently, the IBM scene caught up and many guys switched from Amiga
to IBM; so over 50% of pirate boards are IBM boards now.

But recently, BBS sysops have to face hard times. A couple of months
ago, lots of BBS'es in Berlin, but also in Bavaria and North Germany
got 'busted' - raided by the police because of their illegal warez.
(see my article in Phrack 42 about it) The man behind these actions
is the lawyer 'Guenther Freiherr von Gravenreuth', who works for Acti-
vision, the SPA and BSA. He is tracking down kids with piracy as recklessly
as BBS Sysops, who sell subscriptions for a 'Disabled Upload/Download Ratio'
for around $100 a month. There have been a couple of these trials lately,
without much notice by the press. Mr Gravenreuth is also responsible for
many people's fear to put up a new BBS - especially in Bavaria where he lives.

Also, calling the favorite Board in the US is getting harder and harder,
as covered in the next Chapter.

IV. The Phone System

Blueboxing used to be the favorite sport of many German traders for the
last couple of years. But some phreakers wanted to make more money,
selling the Bluebox Story to Magazines like Capital or Spiegel, or to
TV Shows. Even AT&T and the German Telecom, who seemed to be blind about
this phreaking, couldn't avoid facing the truth now - they had to do
something, not only to recover from the huge losses, but also to save
their reputation.

There are a lot of rumors and text files about the actions these phone
companies took; most of them are fakes by 'eleet' people, who don't want
the 'lamers' to keep the trunks and the eleet boards busy. But some actions
seem to be certified; e. g. Telekom bought some intelligent filter boxes
from British Telecom. These boxes should detect any C5 tones (especially
2600 Hz), being sent by phreakers; and log the number of the phreaker,
if possible.

If possible, because the Telekom doesn't have ANI in most cases. Until
recently, all phone lines used to be analog, pulse dialing lines
with huge relay switches. Then the Telekom started switching to 'modern'
digitally switched lines, which allow Touch-Tone-Dialing, and also a few
other nice features, which I want to cover now.

One of these nice features 'died' just about 3 weeks ago, because someone
informed the new magazine 'Focus'.

The trick was very simple. All you need was a digital line which allowed
you to dial touch tone, and a 'Silver Box' - a device, that allows you to
dial the digits 0...9, #, * and also A, B, C and D - many modems have
this capability too.

All you had to do was to dial 'B' + 'xxx' + 'yyyy', where 'B' is the
Silver Tone B, 'xxx' is an internal Telekom code, and 'yyyy' are the last
four digits of a phone number. The internal codes 'xxx' usually look like
010, 223, 011, and so on - they switch you to an exchange, mostly in your
own area code, but often in a different one! Notice that exchange number and
internal code are different. When you are connected to a certain exchange,
dialing the four 'yyyy' digits connects you to a certain phone number in
that exchange. This enables you to make free calls - also to different area
codes, but you have to try around to find which code matches with which
exchange. But that's not all; now the fun just begins! Imagine the number
you dial is busy... you won't hear a busy signal then, you would just be
connected into the call! You could listen to the conversation of two parties!
Imagine how much fun this could be... and imagine someone would be listening
to your private conversations!

When Telekom read the article, most area codes lost this capability;
but there are still some reported to work.

Blueboxing is getting harder and harder, MCI and AT&T keep on changing their
'Break' frequencies more rapidly (though they still use in-band CCITT C5
signalling); so more and more people offer Calling Card subscriptions, and
even more traders, who refuse paying Telekom's high fees, buy them. They
are offered mostly by Americans, Belgium people and Germans, for about $100
a month. Also, I haven't heard of any case where a German got busted for
abusing AT&T's Calling Cards; probably because Telekom can't really trace
phones lines, either technically nor legally (they may not just 'tap' phone
lines because of people's privacy).

Also, German Toll Free Numbers (they start with 0130) are getting more and
more. I would take a guess and say they grow 20%-80% a year. There isn't any
official directory nor a directory assistance for these numbers, and many
companies want these numbers to remain 'unknown' to the evil hackers, since
Telekom is asking high fees for them.

So many Germans compile and scan these numbers; there is also a semi-public
list on them by SLINK - available on many BBS'es and on local German Newsgroups.
This list also contains numbers of business companies like Microsoft,
Hewlett Packard or Dell in Austin (hi erik :) ), so it is quite useful for
'normal people' too.

There have also been reported the first PBX-like Systems in Germany; this is
quite a sensation, because German Telekom laws don't allow PBX'es, or even the
linking of two phone lines (like 3-way calling). So in fact, these Systems
weren't real PBX'es, but Merial Mail VMB Systems with the Outdial feature.

PaRtY 0n!
---------

There are a couple of interesting get-togethers and parties.
I mentioned the annual Chaos Communication Congress after Christmas;
the CCC also has weekly meetings on Tuesday. There are the annual
CeBIT hacker parties, on the Tuesday at CeBIT in March. After the
CeBIT meeting and weekly, there are get-togethers  at the 'Bo22',
a cafe in Hannover. These meetings have tradition since the KGB
Hacks of Pengo and 'Hagbard Celine' Karl Koch, as I mentioned above.
You will still find friends of them there, if you drop by on a Tuesday.
Since a couple of months and with Emmanuel Goldstein's great support,
we are having 2600 meetings in Munich, Germany too! These are the first
2600 meetings outside of the US; the first meeting was quite successful
with over 30 people, and the next one in July will be successful too,
hopefully. Some international visitors from the US are expected, too.
These meetings are held at around 6pm in front of Burger King at
Central Station, Munich. I also like to thank Munich's Number One
Hit Radio Station 89 HIT FM at this point, for letting us into the
air for 3 minutes, talking about the 2600 meeting and a bit about 'hacking'.
There are also semi-annual IRC parties in Germany, but they are
'just' parties with usually 100-150 people. Hacking and phreaking
isn't a topic there; probably less than 10% of them know what H/P means.

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