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TUCoPS :: Phreaking Cellular - Misc. :: cellfone.txt

Cellular Telephone Channel Construction




This file is Public Domain, July, 1988 -- Distribution unlimited.
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Revision:                   March, 1989    (Part 2 added)
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Revision:                   April, 1989    (Part 3 added)
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Revision:                   December, 1988 (Part 4 added)
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Revision:                   March, 1990    (Part 5 added)
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Revision:                   March, 1989    (Part 6 added)
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Revision:                   June, 1990     (Part 7 added)
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CONTENTS:

Part 1 - Cellular phone channel construction
Part 2 - Cellular phone frequency and cell construction
Part 3 - The Electronic Communications Privacy Act and CMT
Part 4 - The ECPA
Part 5 - A lawyer's review and perspective of the ECPA
Part 6 - Modifying two scanners for cellular reception
Part 7 - How to discover other scanner modifications

===============================================================================

                      Cellular phone channel construction

===============================================================================

    Here is a method of determining which frequencies are used in a cellular
system, and which ones are in what cells.  If the system uses OMNICELLS, as
most do, you can readily find all the channels in a cell if you know just one
of them, using tables constructed with the instructions below.

    Cellular frequencies are assigned by channel number, and for all channel
numbers, in both wireline and non-wireline systems, the formula is:

   Transmit Frequency = (channel number x .030 MHz) + 870 MHz
    Receive Frequency = (channel number x .030 Mhz) + 825 Mhz
 
    "Band A" (one of the two blocks) uses channels 1 - 333.  To construct a
table showing frequency by cells, use channel 333 as the top left corner of a
table.  The next entry to the right of channel 333 is 332, the next is 331,
etc., down to channel 313.  Enter channel 312 underneath 333, 311 under 332,
etc.  Each channel across the top row is the first channel in each CELL of the
system; each channel DOWN from the column from the the first channel is the
next frequency assigned to that cell.  You may have noted that each channel
down is 21 channels lower in number.  Usually the data channel used is the
highest numbered channel in a cell.

    "Band B" uses channels from 334 to 666.  Construct your table in a similar
way, with channel 334 in the upper left corner, 335 the next entry to the
right.  The data channel should be the lowest numbered channel in each cell
this time.

Cellular Phone Band A (Channel 1 is Data)

Cell # 1
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(333)	Tx 879.990	Rx 834.990
Channel 2	(312)	Tx 879.360	Rx 834.360
Channel 3	(291)	Tx 878.730	Rx 833.730
Channel 4	(270)	Tx 878.100	Rx 833.100
Channel 5	(249)	Tx 877.470	Rx 832.470
Channel 6	(228)	Tx 876.840	Rx 831.840
Channel 7	(207)	Tx 876.210	Rx 831.210
Channel 8	(186)	Tx 875.580	Rx 830.580
Channel 9	(165)	Tx 874.950	Rx 829.950
Channel 10	(144)	Tx 874.320	Rx 829.320
Channel 11	(123)	Tx 873.690	Rx 828.690
Channel 12	(102)	Tx 873.060	Rx 828.060
Channel 13	(81)	Tx 872.430	Rx 827.430
Channel 14	(60)	Tx 871.800	Rx 826.800
Channel 15	(39)	Tx 871.170	Rx 826.170
Channel 16	(18)	Tx 870.540	Rx 825.540

Cell # 2
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(332)	Tx 879.960	Rx 834.960
Channel 2	(311)	Tx 879.330	Rx 834.330
Channel 3	(290)	Tx 878.700	Rx 833.700
Channel 4	(269)	Tx 878.070	Rx 833.070
Channel 5	(248)	Tx 877.440	Rx 832.440
Channel 6	(227)	Tx 876.810	Rx 831.810
Channel 7	(206)	Tx 876.180	Rx 831.180
Channel 8	(185)	Tx 875.550	Rx 830.550
Channel 9	(164)	Tx 874.920	Rx 829.920
Channel 10	(143)	Tx 874.290	Rx 829.290
Channel 11	(122)	Tx 873.660	Rx 828.660
Channel 12	(101)	Tx 873.030	Rx 828.030
Channel 13	(80)	Tx 872.400	Rx 827.400
Channel 14	(59)	Tx 871.770	Rx 826.770
Channel 15	(38)	Tx 871.140	Rx 826.140
Channel 16	(17)	Tx 870.510	Rx 825.510

Cell # 3
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(331)	Tx 879.930	Rx 834.930
Channel 2	(310)	Tx 879.300	Rx 834.300
Channel 3	(289)	Tx 878.670	Rx 833.670
Channel 4	(268)	Tx 878.040	Rx 833.040
Channel 5	(247)	Tx 877.410	Rx 832.410
Channel 6	(226)	Tx 876.780	Rx 831.780
Channel 7	(205)	Tx 876.150	Rx 831.150
Channel 8	(184)	Tx 875.520	Rx 830.520
Channel 9	(163)	Tx 874.890	Rx 829.890
Channel 10	(142)	Tx 874.260	Rx 829.260
Channel 11	(121)	Tx 873.630	Rx 828.630
Channel 12	(100)	Tx 873.000	Rx 828.000
Channel 13	(79)	Tx 872.370	Rx 827.370
Channel 14	(58)	Tx 871.740	Rx 826.740
Channel 15	(37)	Tx 871.110	Rx 826.110
Channel 16	(16)	Tx 870.480	Rx 825.480

Cell # 4
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(330)	Tx 879.900	Rx 834.900
Channel 2	(309)	Tx 879.270	Rx 834.270
Channel 3	(288)	Tx 878.640	Rx 833.640
Channel 4	(267)	Tx 878.010	Rx 833.010
Channel 5	(246)	Tx 877.380	Rx 832.380
Channel 6	(225)	Tx 876.750	Rx 831.750
Channel 7	(204)	Tx 876.120	Rx 831.120
Channel 8	(183)	Tx 875.490	Rx 830.490
Channel 9	(162)	Tx 874.860	Rx 829.860
Channel 10	(141)	Tx 874.230	Rx 829.230
Channel 11	(120)	Tx 873.600	Rx 828.600
Channel 12	(99)	Tx 872.970	Rx 827.970
Channel 13	(78)	Tx 872.340	Rx 827.340
Channel 14	(57)	Tx 871.710	Rx 826.710
Channel 15	(36)	Tx 871.080	Rx 826.080
Channel 16	(15)	Tx 870.450	Rx 825.450

Cell # 5
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(329)	Tx 879.870	Rx 834.870
Channel 2	(308)	Tx 879.240	Rx 834.240
Channel 3	(287)	Tx 878.610	Rx 833.610
Channel 4	(266)	Tx 877.980	Rx 832.980
Channel 5	(245)	Tx 877.350	Rx 832.350
Channel 6	(224)	Tx 876.720	Rx 831.720
Channel 7	(203)	Tx 876.090	Rx 831.090
Channel 8	(182)	Tx 875.460	Rx 830.460
Channel 9	(161)	Tx 874.830	Rx 829.830
Channel 10	(140)	Tx 874.200	Rx 829.200
Channel 11	(119)	Tx 873.570	Rx 828.570
Channel 12	(98)	Tx 872.940	Rx 827.940
Channel 13	(77)	Tx 872.310	Rx 827.310
Channel 14	(56)	Tx 871.680	Rx 826.680
Channel 15	(35)	Tx 871.050	Rx 826.050
Channel 16	(14)	Tx 870.420	Rx 825.420

Cell # 6
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(328)	Tx 879.840	Rx 834.840
Channel 2	(307)	Tx 879.210	Rx 834.210
Channel 3	(286)	Tx 878.580	Rx 833.580
Channel 4	(265)	Tx 877.950	Rx 832.950
Channel 5	(244)	Tx 877.320	Rx 832.320
Channel 6	(223)	Tx 876.690	Rx 831.690
Channel 7	(202)	Tx 876.060	Rx 831.060
Channel 8	(181)	Tx 875.430	Rx 830.430
Channel 9	(160)	Tx 874.800	Rx 829.800
Channel 10	(139)	Tx 874.170	Rx 829.170
Channel 11	(118)	Tx 873.540	Rx 828.540
Channel 12	(97)	Tx 872.910	Rx 827.910
Channel 13	(76)	Tx 872.280	Rx 827.280
Channel 14	(55)	Tx 871.650	Rx 826.650
Channel 15	(34)	Tx 871.020	Rx 826.020
Channel 16	(13)	Tx 870.390	Rx 825.390

Cell # 7
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(327)	Tx 879.810	Rx 834.810
Channel 2	(306)	Tx 879.180	Rx 834.180
Channel 3	(285)	Tx 878.550	Rx 833.550
Channel 4	(264)	Tx 877.920	Rx 832.920
Channel 5	(243)	Tx 877.290	Rx 832.290
Channel 6	(222)	Tx 876.660	Rx 831.660
Channel 7	(201)	Tx 876.030	Rx 831.030
Channel 8	(180)	Tx 875.400	Rx 830.400
Channel 9	(159)	Tx 874.770	Rx 829.770
Channel 10	(138)	Tx 874.140	Rx 829.140
Channel 11	(117)	Tx 873.510	Rx 828.510
Channel 12	(96)	Tx 872.880	Rx 827.880
Channel 13	(75)	Tx 872.250	Rx 827.250
Channel 14	(54)	Tx 871.620	Rx 826.620
Channel 15	(33)	Tx 870.990	Rx 825.990
Channel 16	(12)	Tx 870.360	Rx 825.360

Cell # 8
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(326)	Tx 879.780	Rx 834.780
Channel 2	(305)	Tx 879.150	Rx 834.150
Channel 3	(284)	Tx 878.520	Rx 833.520
Channel 4	(263)	Tx 877.890	Rx 832.890
Channel 5	(242)	Tx 877.260	Rx 832.260
Channel 6	(221)	Tx 876.630	Rx 831.630
Channel 7	(200)	Tx 876.000	Rx 831.000
Channel 8	(179)	Tx 875.370	Rx 830.370
Channel 9	(158)	Tx 874.740	Rx 829.740
Channel 10	(137)	Tx 874.110	Rx 829.110
Channel 11	(116)	Tx 873.480	Rx 828.480
Channel 12	(95)	Tx 872.850	Rx 827.850
Channel 13	(74)	Tx 872.220	Rx 827.220
Channel 14	(53)	Tx 871.590	Rx 826.590
Channel 15	(32)	Tx 870.960	Rx 825.960
Channel 16	(11)	Tx 870.330	Rx 825.330

Cell # 9
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(325)	Tx 879.750	Rx 834.750
Channel 2	(304)	Tx 879.120	Rx 834.120
Channel 3	(283)	Tx 878.490	Rx 833.490
Channel 4	(262)	Tx 877.860	Rx 832.860
Channel 5	(241)	Tx 877.230	Rx 832.230
Channel 6	(220)	Tx 876.600	Rx 831.600
Channel 7	(199)	Tx 875.970	Rx 830.970
Channel 8	(178)	Tx 875.340	Rx 830.340
Channel 9	(157)	Tx 874.710	Rx 829.710
Channel 10	(136)	Tx 874.080	Rx 829.080
Channel 11	(115)	Tx 873.450	Rx 828.450
Channel 12	(94)	Tx 872.820	Rx 827.820
Channel 13	(73)	Tx 872.190	Rx 827.190
Channel 14	(52)	Tx 871.560	Rx 826.560
Channel 15	(31)	Tx 870.930	Rx 825.930
Channel 16	(10)	Tx 870.300	Rx 825.300

Cell # 10
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(324)	Tx 879.720	Rx 834.720
Channel 2	(303)	Tx 879.090	Rx 834.090
Channel 3	(282)	Tx 878.460	Rx 833.460
Channel 4	(261)	Tx 877.830	Rx 832.830
Channel 5	(240)	Tx 877.200	Rx 832.200
Channel 6	(219)	Tx 876.570	Rx 831.570
Channel 7	(198)	Tx 875.940	Rx 830.940
Channel 8	(177)	Tx 875.310	Rx 830.310
Channel 9	(156)	Tx 874.680	Rx 829.680
Channel 10	(135)	Tx 874.050	Rx 829.050
Channel 11	(114)	Tx 873.420	Rx 828.420
Channel 12	(93)	Tx 872.790	Rx 827.790
Channel 13	(72)	Tx 872.160	Rx 827.160
Channel 14	(51)	Tx 871.530	Rx 826.530
Channel 15	(30)	Tx 870.900	Rx 825.900
Channel 16	(9)	Tx 870.270	Rx 825.270

Cell # 11
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(323)	Tx 879.690	Rx 834.690
Channel 2	(302)	Tx 879.060	Rx 834.060
Channel 3	(281)	Tx 878.430	Rx 833.430
Channel 4	(260)	Tx 877.800	Rx 832.800
Channel 5	(239)	Tx 877.170	Rx 832.170
Channel 6	(218)	Tx 876.540	Rx 831.540
Channel 7	(197)	Tx 875.910	Rx 830.910
Channel 8	(176)	Tx 875.280	Rx 830.280
Channel 9	(155)	Tx 874.650	Rx 829.650
Channel 10	(134)	Tx 874.020	Rx 829.020
Channel 11	(113)	Tx 873.390	Rx 828.390
Channel 12	(92)	Tx 872.760	Rx 827.760
Channel 13	(71)	Tx 872.130	Rx 827.130
Channel 14	(50)	Tx 871.500	Rx 826.500
Channel 15	(29)	Tx 870.870	Rx 825.870
Channel 16	(8)	Tx 870.240	Rx 825.240

Cell # 12
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(322)	Tx 879.660	Rx 834.660
Channel 2	(301)	Tx 879.030	Rx 834.030
Channel 3	(280)	Tx 878.400	Rx 833.400
Channel 4	(259)	Tx 877.770	Rx 832.770
Channel 5	(238)	Tx 877.140	Rx 832.140
Channel 6	(217)	Tx 876.510	Rx 831.510
Channel 7	(196)	Tx 875.880	Rx 830.880
Channel 8	(175)	Tx 875.250	Rx 830.250
Channel 9	(154)	Tx 874.620	Rx 829.620
Channel 10	(133)	Tx 873.990	Rx 828.990
Channel 11	(112)	Tx 873.360	Rx 828.360
Channel 12	(91)	Tx 872.730	Rx 827.730
Channel 13	(70)	Tx 872.100	Rx 827.100
Channel 14	(49)	Tx 871.470	Rx 826.470
Channel 15	(28)	Tx 870.840	Rx 825.840
Channel 16	(7)	Tx 870.210	Rx 825.210

Cell # 13
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(321)	Tx 879.630	Rx 834.630
Channel 2	(300)	Tx 879.000	Rx 834.000
Channel 3	(279)	Tx 878.370	Rx 833.370
Channel 4	(258)	Tx 877.740	Rx 832.740
Channel 5	(237)	Tx 877.110	Rx 832.110
Channel 6	(216)	Tx 876.480	Rx 831.480
Channel 7	(195)	Tx 875.850	Rx 830.850
Channel 8	(174)	Tx 875.220	Rx 830.220
Channel 9	(153)	Tx 874.590	Rx 829.590
Channel 10	(132)	Tx 873.960	Rx 828.960
Channel 11	(111)	Tx 873.330	Rx 828.330
Channel 12	(90)	Tx 872.700	Rx 827.700
Channel 13	(69)	Tx 872.070	Rx 827.070
Channel 14	(48)	Tx 871.440	Rx 826.440
Channel 15	(27)	Tx 870.810	Rx 825.810
Channel 16	(6)	Tx 870.180	Rx 825.180

Cell # 14
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(320)	Tx 879.600	Rx 834.600
Channel 2	(299)	Tx 878.970	Rx 833.970
Channel 3	(278)	Tx 878.340	Rx 833.340
Channel 4	(257)	Tx 877.710	Rx 832.710
Channel 5	(236)	Tx 877.080	Rx 832.080
Channel 6	(215)	Tx 876.450	Rx 831.450
Channel 7	(194)	Tx 875.820	Rx 830.820
Channel 8	(173)	Tx 875.190	Rx 830.190
Channel 9	(152)	Tx 874.560	Rx 829.560
Channel 10	(131)	Tx 873.930	Rx 828.930
Channel 11	(110)	Tx 873.300	Rx 828.300
Channel 12	(89)	Tx 872.670	Rx 827.670
Channel 13	(68)	Tx 872.040	Rx 827.040
Channel 14	(47)	Tx 871.410	Rx 826.410
Channel 15	(26)	Tx 870.780	Rx 825.780
Channel 16	(5)	Tx 870.150	Rx 825.150

Cell # 15
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(319)	Tx 879.570	Rx 834.570
Channel 2	(298)	Tx 878.940	Rx 833.940
Channel 3	(277)	Tx 878.310	Rx 833.310
Channel 4	(256)	Tx 877.680	Rx 832.680
Channel 5	(235)	Tx 877.050	Rx 832.050
Channel 6	(214)	Tx 876.420	Rx 831.420
Channel 7	(193)	Tx 875.790	Rx 830.790
Channel 8	(172)	Tx 875.160	Rx 830.160
Channel 9	(151)	Tx 874.530	Rx 829.530
Channel 10	(130)	Tx 873.900	Rx 828.900
Channel 11	(109)	Tx 873.270	Rx 828.270
Channel 12	(88)	Tx 872.640	Rx 827.640
Channel 13	(67)	Tx 872.010	Rx 827.010
Channel 14	(46)	Tx 871.380	Rx 826.380
Channel 15	(25)	Tx 870.750	Rx 825.750
Channel 16	(4)	Tx 870.120	Rx 825.120

Cell # 16
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(318)	Tx 879.540	Rx 834.540
Channel 2	(297)	Tx 878.910	Rx 833.910
Channel 3	(276)	Tx 878.280	Rx 833.280
Channel 4	(255)	Tx 877.650	Rx 832.650
Channel 5	(234)	Tx 877.020	Rx 832.020
Channel 6	(213)	Tx 876.390	Rx 831.390
Channel 7	(192)	Tx 875.760	Rx 830.760
Channel 8	(171)	Tx 875.130	Rx 830.130
Channel 9	(150)	Tx 874.500	Rx 829.500
Channel 10	(129)	Tx 873.870	Rx 828.870
Channel 11	(108)	Tx 873.240	Rx 828.240
Channel 12	(87)	Tx 872.610	Rx 827.610
Channel 13	(66)	Tx 871.980	Rx 826.980
Channel 14	(45)	Tx 871.350	Rx 826.350
Channel 15	(24)	Tx 870.720	Rx 825.720
Channel 16	(3)	Tx 870.090	Rx 825.090

Cell # 17
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(317)	Tx 879.510	Rx 834.510
Channel 2	(296)	Tx 878.880	Rx 833.880
Channel 3	(275)	Tx 878.250	Rx 833.250
Channel 4	(254)	Tx 877.620	Rx 832.620
Channel 5	(233)	Tx 876.990	Rx 831.990
Channel 6	(212)	Tx 876.360	Rx 831.360
Channel 7	(191)	Tx 875.730	Rx 830.730
Channel 8	(170)	Tx 875.100	Rx 830.100
Channel 9	(149)	Tx 874.470	Rx 829.470
Channel 10	(128)	Tx 873.840	Rx 828.840
Channel 11	(107)	Tx 873.210	Rx 828.210
Channel 12	(86)	Tx 872.580	Rx 827.580
Channel 13	(65)	Tx 871.950	Rx 826.950
Channel 14	(44)	Tx 871.320	Rx 826.320
Channel 15	(23)	Tx 870.690	Rx 825.690
Channel 16	(2)	Tx 870.060	Rx 825.060

Cell # 18
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(316)	Tx 879.480	Rx 834.480
Channel 2	(295)	Tx 878.850	Rx 833.850
Channel 3	(274)	Tx 878.220	Rx 833.220
Channel 4	(253)	Tx 877.590	Rx 832.590
Channel 5	(232)	Tx 876.960	Rx 831.960
Channel 6	(211)	Tx 876.330	Rx 831.330
Channel 7	(190)	Tx 875.700	Rx 830.700
Channel 8	(169)	Tx 875.070	Rx 830.070
Channel 9	(148)	Tx 874.440	Rx 829.440
Channel 10	(127)	Tx 873.810	Rx 828.810
Channel 11	(106)	Tx 873.180	Rx 828.180
Channel 12	(85)	Tx 872.550	Rx 827.550
Channel 13	(64)	Tx 871.920	Rx 826.920
Channel 14	(43)	Tx 871.290	Rx 826.290
Channel 15	(22)	Tx 870.660	Rx 825.660
Channel 16	(1)	Tx 870.030	Rx 825.030

Cell # 19
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(315)	Tx 879.450	Rx 834.450
Channel 2	(294)	Tx 878.820	Rx 833.820
Channel 3	(273)	Tx 878.190	Rx 833.190
Channel 4	(252)	Tx 877.560	Rx 832.560
Channel 5	(231)	Tx 876.930	Rx 831.930
Channel 6	(210)	Tx 876.300	Rx 831.300
Channel 7	(189)	Tx 875.670	Rx 830.670
Channel 8	(168)	Tx 875.040	Rx 830.040
Channel 9	(147)	Tx 874.410	Rx 829.410
Channel 10	(126)	Tx 873.780	Rx 828.780
Channel 11	(105)	Tx 873.150	Rx 828.150
Channel 12	(84)	Tx 872.520	Rx 827.520
Channel 13	(63)	Tx 871.890	Rx 826.890
Channel 14	(42)	Tx 871.260	Rx 826.260
Channel 15	(21)	Tx 870.630	Rx 825.630

Cell # 20
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(314)	Tx 879.420	Rx 834.420
Channel 2	(293)	Tx 878.790	Rx 833.790
Channel 3	(272)	Tx 878.160	Rx 833.160
Channel 4	(251)	Tx 877.530	Rx 832.530
Channel 5	(230)	Tx 876.900	Rx 831.900
Channel 6	(209)	Tx 876.270	Rx 831.270
Channel 7	(188)	Tx 875.640	Rx 830.640
Channel 8	(167)	Tx 875.010	Rx 830.010
Channel 9	(146)	Tx 874.380	Rx 829.380
Channel 10	(125)	Tx 873.750	Rx 828.750
Channel 11	(104)	Tx 873.120	Rx 828.120
Channel 12	(83)	Tx 872.490	Rx 827.490
Channel 13	(62)	Tx 871.860	Rx 826.860
Channel 14	(41)	Tx 871.230	Rx 826.230
Channel 15	(20)	Tx 870.600	Rx 825.600

Cell # 21
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(313)	Tx 879.390	Rx 834.390
Channel 2	(292)	Tx 878.760	Rx 833.760
Channel 3	(271)	Tx 878.130	Rx 833.130
Channel 4	(250)	Tx 877.500	Rx 832.500
Channel 5	(229)	Tx 876.870	Rx 831.870
Channel 6	(208)	Tx 876.240	Rx 831.240
Channel 7	(187)	Tx 875.610	Rx 830.610
Channel 8	(166)	Tx 874.980	Rx 829.980
Channel 9	(145)	Tx 874.350	Rx 829.350
Channel 10	(124)	Tx 873.720	Rx 828.720
Channel 11	(103)	Tx 873.090	Rx 828.090
Channel 12	(82)	Tx 872.460	Rx 827.460
Channel 13	(61)	Tx 871.830	Rx 826.830
Channel 14	(40)	Tx 871.200	Rx 826.200
Channel 15	(19)	Tx 870.570	Rx 825.570

**************************************************

Cellular Phone Band B (Channel 1 is Data)

Cell # 1
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1       (334)   Tx 880.020      Rx 835.020
Channel 2	(355)	Tx 880.650	Rx 835.650
Channel 3	(376)	Tx 881.280	Rx 836.280
Channel 4	(397)	Tx 881.910	Rx 836.910
Channel 5	(418)	Tx 882.540	Rx 837.540
Channel 6	(439)	Tx 883.170	Rx 838.170
Channel 7	(460)	Tx 883.800	Rx 838.800
Channel 8	(481)	Tx 884.430	Rx 839.430
Channel 9	(502)	Tx 885.060	Rx 840.060
Channel 10	(523)	Tx 885.690	Rx 840.690
Channel 11	(544)	Tx 886.320	Rx 841.320
Channel 12	(565)	Tx 886.950	Rx 841.950
Channel 13	(586)	Tx 887.580	Rx 842.580
Channel 14	(607)	Tx 888.210	Rx 843.210
Channel 15	(628)	Tx 888.840	Rx 843.840
Channel 16	(649)	Tx 889.470	Rx 844.470

Cell # 2
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(335)	Tx 880.050	Rx 835.050
Channel 2	(356)	Tx 880.680	Rx 835.680
Channel 3	(377)	Tx 881.310	Rx 836.310
Channel 4	(398)	Tx 881.940	Rx 836.940
Channel 5	(419)	Tx 882.570	Rx 837.570
Channel 6	(440)	Tx 883.200	Rx 838.200
Channel 7	(461)	Tx 883.830	Rx 838.830
Channel 8	(482)	Tx 884.460	Rx 839.460
Channel 9	(503)	Tx 885.090	Rx 840.090
Channel 10	(524)	Tx 885.720	Rx 840.720
Channel 11	(545)	Tx 886.350	Rx 841.350
Channel 12	(566)	Tx 886.980	Rx 841.980
Channel 13	(587)	Tx 887.610	Rx 842.610
Channel 14	(608)	Tx 888.240	Rx 843.240
Channel 15	(629)	Tx 888.870	Rx 843.870
Channel 16	(650)	Tx 889.500	Rx 844.500

Cell # 3
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(336)	Tx 880.080	Rx 835.080
Channel 2	(357)	Tx 880.710	Rx 835.710
Channel 3	(378)	Tx 881.340	Rx 836.340
Channel 4	(399)	Tx 881.970	Rx 836.970
Channel 5	(420)	Tx 882.600	Rx 837.600
Channel 6	(441)	Tx 883.230	Rx 838.230
Channel 7	(462)	Tx 883.860	Rx 838.860
Channel 8	(483)	Tx 884.490	Rx 839.490
Channel 9	(504)	Tx 885.120	Rx 840.120
Channel 10	(525)	Tx 885.750	Rx 840.750
Channel 11	(546)	Tx 886.380	Rx 841.380
Channel 12	(567)	Tx 887.010	Rx 842.010
Channel 13	(588)	Tx 887.640	Rx 842.640
Channel 14	(609)	Tx 888.270	Rx 843.270
Channel 15	(630)	Tx 888.900	Rx 843.900
Channel 16	(651)	Tx 889.530	Rx 844.530

Cell # 4
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(337)	Tx 880.110	Rx 835.110
Channel 2	(358)	Tx 880.740	Rx 835.740
Channel 3	(379)	Tx 881.370	Rx 836.370
Channel 4	(400)	Tx 882.000	Rx 837.000
Channel 5	(421)	Tx 882.630	Rx 837.630
Channel 6	(442)	Tx 883.260	Rx 838.260
Channel 7	(463)	Tx 883.890	Rx 838.890
Channel 8	(484)	Tx 884.520	Rx 839.520
Channel 9	(505)	Tx 885.150	Rx 840.150
Channel 10	(526)	Tx 885.780	Rx 840.780
Channel 11	(547)	Tx 886.410	Rx 841.410
Channel 12	(568)	Tx 887.040	Rx 842.040
Channel 13	(589)	Tx 887.670	Rx 842.670
Channel 14	(610)	Tx 888.300	Rx 843.300
Channel 15	(631)	Tx 888.930	Rx 843.930
Channel 16	(652)	Tx 889.560	Rx 844.560

Cell # 5
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(338)	Tx 880.140	Rx 835.140
Channel 2	(359)	Tx 880.770	Rx 835.770
Channel 3	(380)	Tx 881.400	Rx 836.400
Channel 4	(401)	Tx 882.030	Rx 837.030
Channel 5	(422)	Tx 882.660	Rx 837.660
Channel 6	(443)	Tx 883.290	Rx 838.290
Channel 7	(464)	Tx 883.920	Rx 838.920
Channel 8	(485)	Tx 884.550	Rx 839.550
Channel 9	(506)	Tx 885.180	Rx 840.180
Channel 10	(527)	Tx 885.810	Rx 840.810
Channel 11	(548)	Tx 886.440	Rx 841.440
Channel 12	(569)	Tx 887.070	Rx 842.070
Channel 13	(590)	Tx 887.700	Rx 842.700
Channel 14	(611)	Tx 888.330	Rx 843.330
Channel 15	(632)	Tx 888.960	Rx 843.960
Channel 16	(653)	Tx 889.590	Rx 844.590

Cell # 6
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(339)	Tx 880.170	Rx 835.170
Channel 2	(360)	Tx 880.800	Rx 835.800
Channel 3	(381)	Tx 881.430	Rx 836.430
Channel 4	(402)	Tx 882.060	Rx 837.060
Channel 5	(423)	Tx 882.690	Rx 837.690
Channel 6	(444)	Tx 883.320	Rx 838.320
Channel 7	(465)	Tx 883.950	Rx 838.950
Channel 8	(486)	Tx 884.580	Rx 839.580
Channel 9	(507)	Tx 885.210	Rx 840.210
Channel 10	(528)	Tx 885.840	Rx 840.840
Channel 11	(549)	Tx 886.470	Rx 841.470
Channel 12	(570)	Tx 887.100	Rx 842.100
Channel 13	(591)	Tx 887.730	Rx 842.730
Channel 14	(612)	Tx 888.360	Rx 843.360
Channel 15	(633)	Tx 888.990	Rx 843.990
Channel 16	(654)	Tx 889.620	Rx 844.620

Cell # 7
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(340)	Tx 880.200	Rx 835.200
Channel 2	(361)	Tx 880.830	Rx 835.830
Channel 3	(382)	Tx 881.460	Rx 836.460
Channel 4	(403)	Tx 882.090	Rx 837.090
Channel 5	(424)	Tx 882.720	Rx 837.720
Channel 6	(445)	Tx 883.350	Rx 838.350
Channel 7	(466)	Tx 883.980	Rx 838.980
Channel 8	(487)	Tx 884.610	Rx 839.610
Channel 9	(508)	Tx 885.240	Rx 840.240
Channel 10	(529)	Tx 885.870	Rx 840.870
Channel 11	(550)	Tx 886.500	Rx 841.500
Channel 12	(571)	Tx 887.130	Rx 842.130
Channel 13	(592)	Tx 887.760	Rx 842.760
Channel 14	(613)	Tx 888.390	Rx 843.390
Channel 15	(634)	Tx 889.020	Rx 844.020
Channel 16	(655)	Tx 889.650	Rx 844.650

Cell # 8
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(341)	Tx 880.230	Rx 835.230
Channel 2	(362)	Tx 880.860	Rx 835.860
Channel 3	(383)	Tx 881.490	Rx 836.490
Channel 4	(404)	Tx 882.120	Rx 837.120
Channel 5	(425)	Tx 882.750	Rx 837.750
Channel 6	(446)	Tx 883.380	Rx 838.380
Channel 7	(467)	Tx 884.010	Rx 839.010
Channel 8	(488)	Tx 884.640	Rx 839.640
Channel 9	(509)	Tx 885.270	Rx 840.270
Channel 10	(530)	Tx 885.900	Rx 840.900
Channel 11	(551)	Tx 886.530	Rx 841.530
Channel 12	(572)	Tx 887.160	Rx 842.160
Channel 13	(593)	Tx 887.790	Rx 842.790
Channel 14	(614)	Tx 888.420	Rx 843.420
Channel 15	(635)	Tx 889.050	Rx 844.050
Channel 16	(656)	Tx 889.680	Rx 844.680

Cell # 9
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(342)	Tx 880.260	Rx 835.260
Channel 2	(363)	Tx 880.890	Rx 835.890
Channel 3	(384)	Tx 881.520	Rx 836.520
Channel 4	(405)	Tx 882.150	Rx 837.150
Channel 5	(426)	Tx 882.780	Rx 837.780
Channel 6	(447)	Tx 883.410	Rx 838.410
Channel 7	(468)	Tx 884.040	Rx 839.040
Channel 8	(489)	Tx 884.670	Rx 839.670
Channel 9	(510)	Tx 885.300	Rx 840.300
Channel 10	(531)	Tx 885.930	Rx 840.930
Channel 11	(552)	Tx 886.560	Rx 841.560
Channel 12	(573)	Tx 887.190	Rx 842.190
Channel 13	(594)	Tx 887.820	Rx 842.820
Channel 14	(615)	Tx 888.450	Rx 843.450
Channel 15	(636)	Tx 889.080	Rx 844.080
Channel 16	(657)	Tx 889.710	Rx 844.710

Cell # 10
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(343)	Tx 880.290	Rx 835.290
Channel 2	(364)	Tx 880.920	Rx 835.920
Channel 3	(385)	Tx 881.550	Rx 836.550
Channel 4	(406)	Tx 882.180	Rx 837.180
Channel 5	(427)	Tx 882.810	Rx 837.810
Channel 6	(448)	Tx 883.440	Rx 838.440
Channel 7	(469)	Tx 884.070	Rx 839.070
Channel 8	(490)	Tx 884.700	Rx 839.700
Channel 9	(511)	Tx 885.330	Rx 840.330
Channel 10	(532)	Tx 885.960	Rx 840.960
Channel 11	(553)	Tx 886.590	Rx 841.590
Channel 12	(574)	Tx 887.220	Rx 842.220
Channel 13	(595)	Tx 887.850	Rx 842.850
Channel 14	(616)	Tx 888.480	Rx 843.480
Channel 15	(637)	Tx 889.110	Rx 844.110
Channel 16	(658)	Tx 889.740	Rx 844.740

Cell # 11
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(344)	Tx 880.320	Rx 835.320
Channel 2	(365)	Tx 880.950	Rx 835.950
Channel 3	(386)	Tx 881.580	Rx 836.580
Channel 4	(407)	Tx 882.210	Rx 837.210
Channel 5	(428)	Tx 882.840	Rx 837.840
Channel 6	(449)	Tx 883.470	Rx 838.470
Channel 7	(470)	Tx 884.100	Rx 839.100
Channel 8	(491)	Tx 884.730	Rx 839.730
Channel 9	(512)	Tx 885.360	Rx 840.360
Channel 10	(533)	Tx 885.990	Rx 840.990
Channel 11	(554)	Tx 886.620	Rx 841.620
Channel 12	(575)	Tx 887.250	Rx 842.250
Channel 13	(596)	Tx 887.880	Rx 842.880
Channel 14	(617)	Tx 888.510	Rx 843.510
Channel 15	(638)	Tx 889.140	Rx 844.140
Channel 16	(659)	Tx 889.770	Rx 844.770

Cell # 12
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(345)	Tx 880.350	Rx 835.350
Channel 2	(366)	Tx 880.980	Rx 835.980
Channel 3	(387)	Tx 881.610	Rx 836.610
Channel 4	(408)	Tx 882.240	Rx 837.240
Channel 5	(429)	Tx 882.870	Rx 837.870
Channel 6	(450)	Tx 883.500	Rx 838.500
Channel 7	(471)	Tx 884.130	Rx 839.130
Channel 8	(492)	Tx 884.760	Rx 839.760
Channel 9	(513)	Tx 885.390	Rx 840.390
Channel 10	(534)	Tx 886.020	Rx 841.020
Channel 11	(555)	Tx 886.650	Rx 841.650
Channel 12	(576)	Tx 887.280	Rx 842.280
Channel 13	(597)	Tx 887.910	Rx 842.910
Channel 14	(618)	Tx 888.540	Rx 843.540
Channel 15	(639)	Tx 889.170	Rx 844.170
Channel 16	(660)	Tx 889.800	Rx 844.800

Cell # 13
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(346)	Tx 880.380	Rx 835.380
Channel 2	(367)	Tx 881.010	Rx 836.010
Channel 3	(388)	Tx 881.640	Rx 836.640
Channel 4	(409)	Tx 882.270	Rx 837.270
Channel 5	(430)	Tx 882.900	Rx 837.900
Channel 6	(451)	Tx 883.530	Rx 838.530
Channel 7	(472)	Tx 884.160	Rx 839.160
Channel 8	(493)	Tx 884.790	Rx 839.790
Channel 9	(514)	Tx 885.420	Rx 840.420
Channel 10	(535)	Tx 886.050	Rx 841.050
Channel 11	(556)	Tx 886.680	Rx 841.680
Channel 12	(577)	Tx 887.310	Rx 842.310
Channel 13	(598)	Tx 887.940	Rx 842.940
Channel 14	(619)	Tx 888.570	Rx 843.570
Channel 15	(640)	Tx 889.200	Rx 844.200
Channel 16	(661)	Tx 889.830	Rx 844.830

Cell # 14
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(347)	Tx 880.410	Rx 835.410
Channel 2	(368)	Tx 881.040	Rx 836.040
Channel 3	(389)	Tx 881.670	Rx 836.670
Channel 4	(410)	Tx 882.300	Rx 837.300
Channel 5	(431)	Tx 882.930	Rx 837.930
Channel 6	(452)	Tx 883.560	Rx 838.560
Channel 7	(473)	Tx 884.190	Rx 839.190
Channel 8	(494)	Tx 884.820	Rx 839.820
Channel 9	(515)	Tx 885.450	Rx 840.450
Channel 10	(536)	Tx 886.080	Rx 841.080
Channel 11	(557)	Tx 886.710	Rx 841.710
Channel 12	(578)	Tx 887.340	Rx 842.340
Channel 13	(599)	Tx 887.970	Rx 842.970
Channel 14	(620)	Tx 888.600	Rx 843.600
Channel 15	(641)	Tx 889.230	Rx 844.230
Channel 16	(662)	Tx 889.860	Rx 844.860

Cell # 15
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(348)	Tx 880.440	Rx 835.440
Channel 2	(369)	Tx 881.070	Rx 836.070
Channel 3	(390)	Tx 881.700	Rx 836.700
Channel 4	(411)	Tx 882.330	Rx 837.330
Channel 5	(432)	Tx 882.960	Rx 837.960
Channel 6	(453)	Tx 883.590	Rx 838.590
Channel 7	(474)	Tx 884.220	Rx 839.220
Channel 8	(495)	Tx 884.850	Rx 839.850
Channel 9	(516)	Tx 885.480	Rx 840.480
Channel 10	(537)	Tx 886.110	Rx 841.110
Channel 11	(558)	Tx 886.740	Rx 841.740
Channel 12	(579)	Tx 887.370	Rx 842.370
Channel 13	(600)	Tx 888.000	Rx 843.000
Channel 14	(621)	Tx 888.630	Rx 843.630
Channel 15	(642)	Tx 889.260	Rx 844.260
Channel 16	(663)	Tx 889.890	Rx 844.890

Cell # 16
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(349)	Tx 880.470	Rx 835.470
Channel 2	(370)	Tx 881.100	Rx 836.100
Channel 3	(391)	Tx 881.730	Rx 836.730
Channel 4	(412)	Tx 882.360	Rx 837.360
Channel 5	(433)	Tx 882.990	Rx 837.990
Channel 6	(454)	Tx 883.620	Rx 838.620
Channel 7	(475)	Tx 884.250	Rx 839.250
Channel 8	(496)	Tx 884.880	Rx 839.880
Channel 9	(517)	Tx 885.510	Rx 840.510
Channel 10	(538)	Tx 886.140	Rx 841.140
Channel 11	(559)	Tx 886.770	Rx 841.770
Channel 12	(580)	Tx 887.400	Rx 842.400
Channel 13	(601)	Tx 888.030	Rx 843.030
Channel 14	(622)	Tx 888.660	Rx 843.660
Channel 15	(643)	Tx 889.290	Rx 844.290
Channel 16	(664)	Tx 889.920	Rx 844.920

Cell # 17
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(350)	Tx 880.500	Rx 835.500
Channel 2	(371)	Tx 881.130	Rx 836.130
Channel 3	(392)	Tx 881.760	Rx 836.760
Channel 4	(413)	Tx 882.390	Rx 837.390
Channel 5	(434)	Tx 883.020	Rx 838.020
Channel 6	(455)	Tx 883.650	Rx 838.650
Channel 7	(476)	Tx 884.280	Rx 839.280
Channel 8	(497)	Tx 884.910	Rx 839.910
Channel 9	(518)	Tx 885.540	Rx 840.540
Channel 10	(539)	Tx 886.170	Rx 841.170
Channel 11	(560)	Tx 886.800	Rx 841.800
Channel 12	(581)	Tx 887.430	Rx 842.430
Channel 13	(602)	Tx 888.060	Rx 843.060
Channel 14	(623)	Tx 888.690	Rx 843.690
Channel 15	(644)	Tx 889.320	Rx 844.320
Channel 16	(665)	Tx 889.950	Rx 844.950

Cell # 18
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(351)	Tx 880.530	Rx 835.530
Channel 2	(372)	Tx 881.160	Rx 836.160
Channel 3	(393)	Tx 881.790	Rx 836.790
Channel 4	(414)	Tx 882.420	Rx 837.420
Channel 5	(435)	Tx 883.050	Rx 838.050
Channel 6	(456)	Tx 883.680	Rx 838.680
Channel 7	(477)	Tx 884.310	Rx 839.310
Channel 8	(498)	Tx 884.940	Rx 839.940
Channel 9	(519)	Tx 885.570	Rx 840.570
Channel 10	(540)	Tx 886.200	Rx 841.200
Channel 11	(561)	Tx 886.830	Rx 841.830
Channel 12	(582)	Tx 887.460	Rx 842.460
Channel 13	(603)	Tx 888.090	Rx 843.090
Channel 14	(624)	Tx 888.720	Rx 843.720
Channel 15	(645)	Tx 889.350	Rx 844.350
Channel 16	(666)	Tx 889.980	Rx 844.980

Cell # 19
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(352)	Tx 880.560	Rx 835.560
Channel 2	(373)	Tx 881.190	Rx 836.190
Channel 3	(394)	Tx 881.820	Rx 836.820
Channel 4	(415)	Tx 882.450	Rx 837.450
Channel 5	(436)	Tx 883.080	Rx 838.080
Channel 6	(457)	Tx 883.710	Rx 838.710
Channel 7	(478)	Tx 884.340	Rx 839.340
Channel 8	(499)	Tx 884.970	Rx 839.970
Channel 9	(520)	Tx 885.600	Rx 840.600
Channel 10	(541)	Tx 886.230	Rx 841.230
Channel 11	(562)	Tx 886.860	Rx 841.860
Channel 12	(583)	Tx 887.490	Rx 842.490
Channel 13	(604)	Tx 888.120	Rx 843.120
Channel 14	(625)	Tx 888.750	Rx 843.750
Channel 15	(646)	Tx 889.380	Rx 844.380

Cell # 20
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(353)	Tx 880.590	Rx 835.590
Channel 2	(374)	Tx 881.220	Rx 836.220
Channel 3	(395)	Tx 881.850	Rx 836.850
Channel 4	(416)	Tx 882.480	Rx 837.480
Channel 5	(437)	Tx 883.110	Rx 838.110
Channel 6	(458)	Tx 883.740	Rx 838.740
Channel 7	(479)	Tx 884.370	Rx 839.370
Channel 8	(500)	Tx 885.000	Rx 840.000
Channel 9	(521)	Tx 885.630	Rx 840.630
Channel 10	(542)	Tx 886.260	Rx 841.260
Channel 11	(563)	Tx 886.890	Rx 841.890
Channel 12	(584)	Tx 887.520	Rx 842.520
Channel 13	(605)	Tx 888.150	Rx 843.150
Channel 14	(626)	Tx 888.780	Rx 843.780
Channel 15	(647)	Tx 889.410	Rx 844.410

Cell # 21
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1	(354)	Tx 880.620	Rx 835.620
Channel 2	(375)	Tx 881.250	Rx 836.250
Channel 3	(396)	Tx 881.880	Rx 836.880
Channel 4	(417)	Tx 882.510	Rx 837.510
Channel 5	(438)	Tx 883.140	Rx 838.140
Channel 6	(459)	Tx 883.770	Rx 838.770
Channel 7	(480)	Tx 884.400	Rx 839.400
Channel 8	(501)	Tx 885.030	Rx 840.030
Channel 9	(522)	Tx 885.660	Rx 840.660
Channel 10	(543)	Tx 886.290	Rx 841.290
Channel 11	(564)	Tx 886.920	Rx 841.920
Channel 12	(585)	Tx 887.550	Rx 842.550
Channel 13	(606)	Tx 888.180	Rx 843.180
Channel 14	(627)	Tx 888.810	Rx 843.810
Channel 15	(648)	Tx 889.440	Rx 844.440

===============================================================================

                 Cellular phone frequency and cell construction

===============================================================================
                                  __    __
                              \__/C \__/D \__
                           \__/G \__/A \__/
                          _/D \__/E \__/F \__
                           \__/B \__/C \__/
                          _/F \__/G \__/A \__
                           \__/D \__/E \__/
                          _/A \__/B \__/C \__
                           \__/  \__/  \__/

    This represents how a cellular system might be laid out.  Cells A and B
never share a common border.  Neither do B and C, A and G, etc.  Cells that
are next to each other are never assigned adjacent frequencies.  They always
differ by at least 60 kiloHertz.  To track a mobile phone as it changes cells,
let's put the mobile in a B cell.  When the mobile switches frequencies, you
know that he could only go to an D, E, F or G cell because A and C have
adjacent frequencies. The two tables below will help you determine which
channel cells can go next to each other.  You can contact your local cellular
phone company and see if they have any maps of the cells available.  This is
not a sure thing, but it couldn't hurt to try.

Cells that can go next to each other:

Cell      Compatible cells
 A         C, D, E, F
 B         D, E, F, G
 C         E, F, G, A
 D         F, G, A, B
 E         G, A, B, C
 F         A, B, C, D
 G         B, C, D, E

    Here is a frequency/cell layout chart.  The cell frequencies are used by
the cell site towers, and the mobile frequencies are the input frequencies
used by the cars.

               Wireline company cell frequencies (BAND B)

CELL A    CELL B    CELL C    CELL D    CELL E    CELL F    CELL G
=======   =======   =======   =======   =======   =======   =======
889.890   889.920   889.950   889.980                               ─┐
889.680   889.710   889.740   889.770   889.800   889.830   889.860  │
889.470   889.500   889.530   889.560   889.590   889.620   889.650  │
889.260   889.290   889.320   889.350   889.380   889.410   889.440  │
889.050   889.080   889.110   889.140   889.170   889.200   889.230  │
888.840   888.870   888.900   888.930   888.960   888.990   889.020  │
888.630   888.660   888.690   888.720   888.750   888.780   888.810  │
888.420   888.450   888.480   888.510   888.540   888.570   888.600  │
888.210   888.240   888.270   888.300   888.330   888.360   888.390  │
888.000   888.030   888.060   888.090   888.120   888.150   888.180  │
887.790   887.820   887.850   887.880   887.910   887.940   887.970  │
887.580   887.610   887.640   887.670   887.700   887.730   887.760  │
887.370   887.400   887.430   887.460   887.490   887.520   887.550  │
887.160   887.190   887.220   887.250   887.280   887.310   887.340  │
886.950   886.980   887.010   887.040   887.070   887.100   887.130  │
886.740   886.770   886.800   886.830   886.860   886.890   886.920  │
886.530   886.560   886.590   886.620   886.650   886.680   886.710  │
886.320   886.350   886.380   886.410   886.440   886.470   886.500  │Voice
886.110   886.140   886.170   886.200   886.230   886.260   886.290  │
885.900   885.930   885.960   885.990   886.020   886.050   886.080  │
885.690   885.720   885.750   885.780   885.810   885.840   885.870  │
885.480   885.510   885.540   885.570   885.600   885.630   885.660  │
885.270   885.300   885.330   885.360   885.390   885.420   885.450  │
885.060   885.090   885.120   885.150   885.180   885.210   885.240  │
884.850   884.880   884.910   884.940   884.970   885.000   885.030  │
884.640   884.670   884.700   884.730   884.760   884.790   884.820  │
884.430   884.460   884.490   884.520   884.550   884.580   884.610  │
884.220   884.250   884.280   884.310   884.340   884.370   884.400  │
884.010   884.040   884.070   884.100   884.130   884.160   884.190  │Channels
883.800   883.830   883.860   883.890   883.920   883.950   883.980  │
883.590   883.620   883.650   883.680   883.710   883.740   883.770  │
883.380   883.410   883.440   883.470   883.500   883.530   883.560  │
883.170   883.200   883.230   883.260   883.290   883.320   883.350  │
882.960   882.990   883.020   883.050   883.080   883.110   883.140  │
882.750   882.780   882.810   882.840   882.870   882.900   882.930  │
882.540   882.570   882.600   882.630   882.660   882.690   882.720  │
882.330   882.360   882.390   882.420   882.450   882.480   882.510  │
882.120   882.150   882.180   882.210   882.240   882.270   882.300  │
881.910   881.940   881.970   882.000   882.030   882.060   882.090  │
881.700   881.730   881.760   881.790   881.820   881.850   881.880  │
881.490   881.520   881.550   881.580   881.610   881.640   881.670  │
881.280   881.310   881.340   881.370   881.400   881.430   881.460  │
881.070   881.100   881.130   881.160   881.190   881.220   881.250  │
880.860   880.890   880.920   880.950   880.980   881.010   881.040  │
880.650   880.680   880.710   880.740   880.770   880.800   880.830 ─┘
-------------------------------------------------------------------
880.440   880.470   880.500   880.530   880.560   880.590   880.620 ─┐Digital
880.230   880.260   880.290   880.320   880.350   880.380   880.410  │Control
880.020   880.050   880.080   880.110   880.140   880.170   880.200 ─┘Channels

              Wireline company mobile frequencies (BAND B)

CELL A    CELL B    CELL C    CELL D    CELL E    CELL F    CELL G
=======   =======   =======   =======   =======   =======   =======
844.890   844.920   844.950   844.980                               ─┐
844.680   844.710   844.740   844.770   844.800   844.830   844.860  │
844.470   844.500   844.530   844.560   844.590   844.620   844.650  │
844.260   844.290   844.320   844.350   844.380   844.410   844.440  │
844.050   844.080   844.110   844.140   844.170   844.200   844.230  │
843.840   843.870   843.900   843.930   843.960   843.990   844.020  │
843.630   843.660   843.690   843.720   843.750   843.780   843.810  │
843.420   843.450   843.480   843.510   843.540   843.570   843.600  │
843.210   843.240   843.270   843.300   843.330   843.360   843.390  │
843.000   843.030   843.060   843.090   843.120   843.150   843.180  │
842.790   842.820   842.850   842.880   842.910   842.940   842.970  │
842.580   842.610   842.640   842.670   842.700   842.730   842.760  │
842.370   842.400   842.430   842.460   842.490   842.520   842.550  │
842.160   842.190   842.220   842.250   842.280   842.310   842.340  │
841.950   841.980   842.010   842.040   842.070   842.100   842.130  │
841.740   841.770   841.800   841.830   841.860   841.890   841.920  │
841.530   841.560   841.590   841.620   841.650   841.680   841.710  │
841.320   841.350   841.380   841.410   841.440   841.470   841.500  │Voice
841.110   841.140   841.170   841.200   841.230   841.260   841.290  │
840.900   840.930   840.960   840.990   841.020   841.050   841.080  │
840.690   840.720   840.750   840.780   840.810   840.840   840.870  │
840.480   840.510   840.540   840.570   840.600   840.630   840.660  │
840.270   840.300   840.330   840.360   840.390   840.420   840.450  │
840.060   840.090   840.120   840.150   840.180   840.210   840.240  │
839.850   839.880   839.910   839.940   839.970   840.000   840.030  │
839.640   839.670   839.700   839.730   839.760   839.790   839.820  │
839.430   839.460   839.490   839.520   839.550   839.580   839.610  │
839.220   839.250   839.280   839.310   839.340   839.370   839.400  │
839.010   839.040   839.070   839.100   839.130   839.160   839.190  │Channels
838.800   838.830   838.860   838.890   838.920   838.950   838.980  │
838.590   838.620   838.650   838.680   838.710   838.740   838.770  │
838.380   838.410   838.440   838.470   838.500   838.530   838.560  │
838.170   838.200   838.230   838.260   838.290   838.320   838.350  │
837.960   837.990   838.020   838.050   838.080   838.110   838.140  │
837.750   837.780   837.810   837.840   837.870   837.900   837.930  │
837.540   837.570   837.600   837.630   837.660   837.690   837.720  │
837.330   837.360   837.390   837.420   837.450   837.480   837.510  │
837.120   837.150   837.180   837.210   837.240   837.270   837.300  │
836.910   836.940   836.970   837.000   837.030   837.060   837.090  │
836.700   836.730   836.760   836.790   836.820   836.850   836.880  │
836.490   836.520   836.550   836.580   836.610   836.640   836.670  │
836.280   836.310   836.340   836.370   836.400   836.430   836.460  │
836.070   836.100   836.130   836.160   836.190   836.220   836.250  │
835.860   835.890   835.920   835.950   835.980   836.010   836.040  │
835.650   835.680   835.710   835.740   835.770   835.800   835.830 ─┘
-------------------------------------------------------------------
835.440   835.470   835.500   835.530   835.560   835.590   835.620  ─┐Digital
835.230   835.260   835.290   835.320   835.350   835.380   835.410   │Control
835.020   835.050   835.080   835.110   835.140   835.170   835.200  ─┘Channels

===============================================================================

             Non-wireline company cell frequencies (BAND A)

CELL A    CELL B    CELL C    CELL D    CELL E    CELL F    CELL G
=======   =======   =======   =======   =======   =======   =======
879.900   879.930   879.960   879.990                               ─┐Digital
879.690   879.720   879.750   879.780   879.810   879.840   879.870  │Control
879.480   879.510   879.540   879.570   879.600   879.630   879.660  │Channels
-------------------------------------   879.390   879.420   879.450 ─┘
879.270   879.300   879.330   879.360   --------------------------- ─┐
879.060   879.090   879.120   879.150   879.180   879.210   879.240  │
878.850   878.880   878.910   878.940   878.970   879.000   879.030  │
878.640   878.670   878.700   878.730   878.760   878.790   878.820  │
878.430   878.460   878.490   878.520   878.550   878.580   878.610  │
878.220   878.250   878.280   878.310   878.340   878.370   878.400  │
878.010   878.040   878.070   878.100   878.130   878.160   878.190  │
877.800   877.830   877.860   877.890   877.920   877.950   877.980  │
877.590   877.620   877.650   877.680   877.710   877.740   877.770  │
877.380   877.410   877.440   877.470   877.500   877.530   877.560  │
877.170   877.200   877.230   877.260   877.290   877.320   877.350  │
876.960   876.990   877.020   877.050   877.080   877.110   877.140  │
876.750   876.780   876.810   876.840   876.870   876.900   876.930  │
876.540   876.570   876.600   876.630   876.660   876.690   876.720  │
876.330   876.360   876.390   876.420   876.450   876.480   876.510  │
876.120   876.150   876.180   876.210   876.240   876.270   876.300  │
875.910   875.940   875.970   876.000   876.030   876.060   876.090  │
875.700   875.730   875.760   875.790   875.820   875.850   875.880  │ Voice
875.490   875.520   875.550   875.580   875.610   875.640   875.670  │
875.280   875.310   875.340   875.370   875.400   875.430   875.460  │
875.070   875.100   875.130   875.160   875.190   875.220   875.250  │
874.860   874.890   874.920   874.950   874.980   875.010   875.040  │
874.650   874.680   874.710   874.740   874.770   874.800   874.830  │
874.440   874.470   874.500   874.530   874.560   874.590   874.620  │
874.230   874.260   874.290   874.320   874.350   874.380   874.410  │
874.020   874.050   874.080   874.110   874.140   874.170   874.200  │
873.810   873.840   873.870   873.900   873.930   873.960   873.990  │
873.600   873.630   873.660   873.690   873.720   873.750   873.780  │
873.390   873.420   873.450   873.480   873.510   873.540   873.570  │ Channels
873.180   873.210   873.240   873.270   873.300   873.330   873.360  │
872.970   873.000   873.030   873.060   873.090   873.120   873.150  │
872.760   872.790   872.820   872.850   872.880   872.910   872.940  │
872.550   872.580   872.610   872.640   872.670   872.700   872.730  │
872.340   872.370   872.400   872.430   872.460   872.490   872.520  │
872.130   872.160   872.190   872.220   872.250   872.280   872.310  │
871.920   871.950   871.980   872.010   872.040   872.070   872.100  │
871.710   871.740   871.770   871.800   871.830   871.860   871.890  │
871.500   871.530   871.560   871.590   871.620   871.650   871.680  │
871.290   871.320   871.350   871.380   871.410   871.440   871.470  │
871.080   871.110   871.140   871.170   871.200   871.230   871.260  │
870.870   870.900   870.930   870.960   870.990   871.020   871.050  │
870.660   870.690   870.720   870.750   870.780   870.810   870.840  │
870.450   870.480   870.510   870.540   870.570   870.600   870.630  │
870.240   870.270   870.300   870.330   870.360   870.390   870.420  │
870.030   870.060   870.090   870.120   870.150   870.180   870.210 ─┘

            Non-wireline company mobile frequencies (BAND A)

CELL A    CELL B    CELL C    CELL D    CELL E    CELL F    CELL G
=======   =======   =======   =======   =======   =======   =======
834.900   834.930   834.960   834.990                               ─┐Digital
834.690   834.720   834.750   834.780   834.810   834.840   834.870  │Control
834.480   834.510   834.540   834.570   834.600   834.630   834.660  │Channels
-------------------------------------   834.390   834.420   834.450 ─┘
834.270   834.300   834.330   834.360   --------------------------- ─┐
834.060   834.090   834.120   834.150   834.180   834.210   834.240  │
833.850   833.880   833.910   833.940   833.970   834.000   834.030  │
833.640   833.670   833.700   833.730   833.760   833.790   833.820  │
833.430   833.460   833.490   833.520   833.550   833.580   833.610  │
833.220   833.250   833.280   833.310   833.340   833.370   833.400  │
833.010   833.040   833.070   833.100   833.130   833.160   833.190  │
832.800   832.830   832.860   832.890   832.920   832.950   832.980  │
832.590   832.620   832.650   832.680   832.710   832.740   832.770  │
832.380   832.410   832.440   832.470   832.500   832.530   832.560  │
832.170   832.200   832.230   832.260   832.290   832.320   832.350  │
831.960   831.990   832.020   832.050   832.080   832.110   832.140  │
831.750   831.780   831.810   831.840   831.870   831.900   831.930  │
831.540   831.570   831.600   831.630   831.660   831.690   831.720  │
831.330   831.360   831.390   831.420   831.450   831.480   831.510  │
831.120   831.150   831.180   831.210   831.240   831.270   831.300  │
830.910   830.940   830.970   831.000   831.030   831.060   831.090  │
830.700   830.730   830.760   830.790   830.820   830.850   830.880  │ Voice
830.490   830.520   830.550   830.580   830.610   830.640   830.670  │
830.280   830.310   830.340   830.370   830.400   830.430   830.460  │
830.070   830.100   830.130   830.160   830.190   830.220   830.250  │
829.860   829.890   829.920   829.950   829.980   830.010   830.040  │
829.650   829.680   829.710   829.740   829.770   829.800   829.830  │
829.440   829.470   829.500   829.530   829.560   829.590   829.620  │
829.230   829.260   829.290   829.320   829.350   829.380   829.410  │
829.020   829.050   829.080   829.110   829.140   829.170   829.200  │
828.810   828.840   828.870   828.900   828.930   828.960   828.990  │
828.600   828.630   828.660   828.690   828.720   828.750   828.780  │
828.390   828.420   828.450   828.480   828.510   828.540   828.570  │ Channels
828.180   828.210   828.240   828.270   828.300   828.330   828.360  │
827.970   828.000   828.030   828.060   828.090   828.120   828.150  │
827.760   827.790   827.820   827.850   827.880   827.910   827.940  │
827.550   827.580   827.610   827.640   827.670   827.700   827.730  │
827.340   827.370   827.400   827.430   827.460   827.490   827.520  │
827.130   827.160   827.190   827.220   827.250   827.280   827.310  │
826.920   826.950   826.980   827.010   827.040   827.070   827.100  │
826.710   826.740   826.770   826.800   826.830   826.860   826.890  │
826.500   826.530   826.560   826.590   826.620   826.650   826.680  │
826.290   826.320   826.350   826.380   826.410   826.440   826.470  │
826.080   826.110   826.140   826.170   826.200   826.230   826.260  │
825.870   825.900   825.930   825.960   825.990   826.020   826.050  │
825.660   825.690   825.720   825.750   825.780   825.810   825.840  │
825.450   825.480   825.510   825.540   825.570   825.600   825.630  │
825.240   825.270   825.300   825.330   825.360   825.390   825.420  │
825.030   825.060   825.090   825.120   825.150   825.180   825.210 ─┘

    Monitoring of the base sites is obviously going to be easier than
monitoring the mobiles.  The cell base sites are towers (usually blue) with a
triangle shaped "head" on top, and sporting a couple of what appear to be
vertical antennas.  These base sites have a range of 3-5 miles.  If you take a
look at the honeycomb diagram, you can see how they are laid out.  The cell
transmitter is in the middle of the cell.  It is possible to hear many, most,
or all of the cells in your city, depending on your location.  The closer you
live to a boundary, the greater the chances of your being able to receive more
cells.  Due to the nature of radio signals, the actual cell shape is more or
less round.  However, the hexagon shape lends itself better to show how the
system is laid out.  With a circular coverage area, there will be some
overlapping between adjacent cells.

                                 __    __
                             \__/C \__/D \__
                          \__/G \__/A \__/
                         _/D \__/E \__/F \__
                          \__/B \__*C \__/
                         _/F \__/G \__/A \__
                          \__/D \__/E \__/
                         _/A \__/B \__/C \__
                          \__/  \__/  \__/

    If, for example, you live near the asterisk (*) in the above diagram, you
will be able go easily hear the G, C, E, and A cells you're near.  Since the
maximum _practical_ range of a cell is 3-5 miles, you'll be able to hear them
a bit farther away.  However, due to the nature of the FM transceivers at the
cell sites (they capture only the _strongest_ signal), you should be able to
hear all seven cells.  Which _one_ of each cell you hear will depend on your
location and the strength of the received signal.  In the above diagram,
you'll most likely hear the F cell in the upper right, rather than the one on
the left.

    Mobile reception is almost a waste of time unless you have an outdoor
antenna.  And, since the mobile will be repeated on the cell site, it's better
to listen to the cell frequencies.  You may not be able to hear both sides of
the conversation if you listen only to the mobile frequencies!!! It is useful,
however, for determining which channel cell you're in.  If you use the antenna
that came with the scanner, mobile range will be decreased down to 1 or 2
miles.  By checking the scanner readout against the cell list above
(825.030-844.980 MHz), you can tell what cell the mobile is in. This is also
useful on the cell site frequencies.  If you hear someone say, "I'm at the
corner of highway FF and 37," and you know where the cell site antenna is in
that area, you can check the frequency listing above and determine what cell
that antenna belongs to.

===============================================================================

           The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 and CMT

===============================================================================

    The ECPA, passed in 1986, is partly responsible for the extreme interest
in CMT monitoring.  After all, if you tell someone they can't listen to these
phone calls, they'll immediately want to do so.  "There must be _something_
going on there that's either interesting or important.  Why else would they
want to keep us from listening?" seems to be the predominant reaction.

    Be assured that it is illegal under the ECPA to listen to cellular phone
calls. This law was passed mainly to satisfy the CMT manufacturers.  They can
now tell their customers that their conversations are 'protected by federal
law.' However, when this law was drawn up, it was obviously felt to be too
narrow in its views, since it protected only one service.  So it was amended
to include various services, such as microwaves, some satellites, broadcast
STL links (studio-transmitter links), and the descrambling of scrambled
signals.

    However, from the very beginning, the government has shown an extremely
bored attitude when it comes to the ECPA.  There is virtually no attempt at
enforcement, unless it's a case involving blackmail, or an overt attempt is
being made to provide radios with CMT-specific frequencies.  In the latter
case, a dealer was modifying the radios he was selling.  After a government
visit, he agreed not to modify the radios, but he was allowed to include
instructions on how to make the modification.  With the Pro-2005 and Pro-2005,
this consists of opening the radio and clipping one diode, an operation that
takes all of 15 minutes, including disassembly.

    What does all this mean?  You can receive any frequency you wish.  There
is literally no way to tell what you're listening to in the privacy of your
home.  Your scanner (as well as EVERY radio) _does_ transmit an extremely
small amount of RF energy from the local oscillator, but unless the radio is
in very bad shape, that energy won't go past 40 or 50 feet.  The "gummint"
would have to drive around in detection vans with beam antennas, and with
100,000 scanner owners, it's an extremely good bet that they're not even going
to consider thinking about the merest possibility that someone might put this
idea forward to be comtemplated.  They've got more important stuff to worry
about.  What it comes down to is this:  listen to whatever you want to, but
don't divulge it or use the information for personal or illegal gain.  That
will get you into deep doo-doo in double-quick time.

    Most people have the opinion that if it's unscrambled, and it's passing
freely through their home and body, that they have the right to receive it.
This sounds like good solid thinking.  The laws of this land provide for just
compensation to individuals.  Perhaps a few bills to CMT companies for
transmission rights would help to remove this silly law from the books.

===============================================================================

           The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986

===============================================================================

                                                 February 2, 1987


            TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

                         PART I.  CRIMES

Chapter                                                      Sec.
                     *          *          *
General provisions............................................. 1
                     *          *          *
119.    Wire and electronic communications interception and
        interception of oral communications................. 2510
                     *          *          *
121.    Stored Wire and Electronic Communications and Transactional
        Records Access...................................... 2701
                     *          *          *


                  PART II.  CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

201.    General provisions.................................. 3001
                     *          *          *
206.    Pen Registers and Trap and Trace Devices............ 3121
                     *          *          *


                 CHAPTER 65 - MALICIOUS MISCHIEF

Sec.
                        *          *          *
1367.    Interference with the operation of a satellite.
                        *          *          *

{ 1367.  Interference with the operation of a satellite

     (a)  Whoever, without the authority of the satellite operator,
intentionally or maliciously interferes with the authorized operation of a
communications or weather satellite or obstructs or hinders any satellite
transmission shall be fined in accordance with this title or imprisoned not
more than ten years of both.

     (b)  This section does not prohibit any lawfully authorized
investigative, protective, or intelligence activity of a law enforcement
agency or of an intelligence agency of the United States.

                        *          *          *
                  CHAPTER 109 - SEARCHES AND SEIZURES
                        *          *          *

{ 2232.  Destruction or removal of property to prevent seizure

     (a)  Physical Interference With Search. -- Whoever, before, during, or
after seizure of any property by any person authorized to make searches and
seizures, in order to prevent the seizure or securing of any goods, wares,
or merchandise by such person, staves, breaks, throws overboard, destroys,
or removes the same, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned more
than five years, or both.

     (b)  Notice of Search. -- Whoever, having knowledge that any person
authorized to make searches and seizures has been authorized or is otherwise
likely to make a search or seizure, in order to prevent the authorized
seizing or securing of any per- son, goods, wares, merchandise or other
property, gives notice or attempts to give notice of the possible search or
seizure to any person shall be fined not more than $100,000 or imprisoned
not more than five years, or both.

     (c)  Notice of Certain Electronic Surveillance. -- Whoever, having
knowledge that a Federal investigative or law enforcement officer has been
authorized or has applied for authorization under chapter 119 to intercept a
wire, oral, or electronic communication, in order to obstruct, impede, or
prevent such interception, gives notice or attempts to give notice of the
possible interception to any person shall be fined under this title or
imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

          Whoever, having knowledge that a Federal officer has been
authorized or has applied for authorization to conduct electronic
surveillance under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (50 U.S.C.
1801, et seq.), in order to obstruct, impede, or prevent such activity,
gives notice or attempts to give notice of the possible activity to any
person shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five
years, or both.

                        *          *          *

           CHAPTER 119 -- WIRE AND ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS
          INTERCEPTION AND INTERCEPTION OF ORAL COMMUNICATIONS

Sec.
2510.   Definitions.

2511.   Interception and disclosure of wire or oral communications
             prohibited.

2512.   Manufacture, distribution, possession, and advertising of
             wire or oral communication intercepting devices
             prohibited.

2513.   Confiscation of wire, oral, or electronic communication
             intercepting devices.

2514.   Immunity of witnesses.

2515.   Prohibition of use as evidence of intercepted wire, oral,
             or electronic communications.

2516.   Authorization for interception of wire, oral, or electronic
             communications.

2517.   Authorization for disclosure and use of intercepted wire,
             oral, or electronic communications.

2518.   Procedure for interception of wire, oral, or electronic
             communications.

2519.   Reports concerning intercepted wire, oral or electronic
             communications.

2520.   Recovery of civil damages authorized.

2521.   Injunction against illegal interception.


{ 2510.  Definitions

     As used in this chapter --

          (1)  "wire communication" means any aural transfer made in whole
     or in part through the use of facilities for the transmission of
     communications by the aid of wire, cable, or other like connection
     between the point of origin and the point of reception (including the
     use of such connection in a switching station) furnished or operated by
     any person engaged in providing or operating such facilities for the
     transmission of interstate or foreign communications or communications
     affecting interstate or foreign commerce and such term includes any
     electronic storage of such communication, but such term does not
     include the radio portion of a cordless telephone communication that is
     transmitted between the cordless telephone handset and the base unit;

          (2)  "oral communication" means any oral communication uttered by
     a person exhibiting an expectation that such communication is not
     subject to interception under circumstances justifying such
     expectation, but such term does not include any electronic
     communication;

                        *          *          *

          (4)  "intercept" means the aural or other acquisition of the
     contents of any wire, electronic, or oral communication through the use
     of any electronic, mechanical, or other device.

          (5)  "electronic mechanical, or other device" means any device or
     apparatus which can be used to intercept a wire, oral, or electronic
     communication other than --


               (a)  any telephone or telegraph instrument, equipment or
          facility, or any component thereof, (i) furnished to the
          subscriber or user by a provider of wire or electronic
          communication service in the ordinary course of its business and
          being used by the subscriber or user in the ordinary course of its
          business or furnished by such subscriber or user for connection to
          the facilities of such service and used in the ordinary course of
          its business; or (ii) being used by a communications common
          carrier in the ordinary course of its business, or by an
          investigative or law enforcement officer in the ordinary course of
          his duties;

                        *          *          *

          (8)  "contents", when used with respect to any wire, oral, or
     electronic communication, includes any information concerning the
     substance, purport, or meaning of that communication;

          (9)  "Judge of competent jurisdiction" means --

               (a)  a judge of a United States district court or a United
          States court of appeals; and

               (b)  a judge of any court of general criminal jurisdiction of
          a State who is authorized by a statute of that State to enter
          orders authorizing interceptions of wire, oral, or electronic
          communications;

          (10) "communication common carrier" shall have the same meaning
     which is given the term "common carrier" by section 153(h) of title 47
     of the United States Code;

          (11) "aggrieved person" means a person who was a party to any
     intercepted wire, oral, or electronic communication or a person against
     whom the interception was directed;

          (12) "electronic communication" means any transfer of signs,
     signals, writing, images, sounds, data, or intelligence of any nature
     transmitted in whole or in part by a wire, radio, electromagnetic,
     photoelectronic or photo optical system that affects interstate or
     foreign commerce, but does not include --

               (A)  the radio portion of a cordless telephone communication
          that is transmitted between the cordless telephone handset and the
          base unit;

               (B)  any wire or oral communication;

               (C)  any communication made through a tone-only paging
          device; or

               (D)  any communication from a tracking device (as defined in
          section 3117 of this title);

          (13) "user" means any person or entity who --

               (A)  uses an electronic communication service; and

               (B)  is duly authorized by the provider of such service to
          engage in such use;

          (14) "electronic communications system" means any wire, radio,
     electromagnetic, photooptical or photoelectronic facilities for the
     transmission of electronic communications, and any computer facilities
     or related electronic equipment for the electronic storage of such
     communications;

          (15) "electronic communication service" means any service which
     provides to users thereof the ability to send or receive wire or
     electronic communications;

          (16) "readily accessible to the general public" means, with
     respect to a radio communication, that such communication is not --

               (A)  scrambled or encrypted;

               (B)  transmitted using modulation techniques whose essential
          parameters have been withheld from the public with the intention
          of preserving the privacy of such communication;

               (C)  carried on a subcarrier or other signal subsidiary to a
          radio transmission;

               (D)  transmitted over a communication system provided by a
          common carrier, unless the communication is a tone only paging
          system communication; or

               (E)  transmitted on frequencies allocated under part 25,
          subpart D, E, or F of part 74, or part 94 of the Rules of the
          Federal Communications Commission, unless, in the case of a
          communication transmitted on a frequency allocated under part 74
          that is not exclusively allocated to broadcast auxiliary services,
          the communication is a two-way voice communication by radio;


          (17) "electronic storage" means --

               (A)  any temporary, intermediate storage of a wire or
          electronic communication incidental to the electronic transmission
          thereof; and

               (B)  any storage of such communication by an electronic
          communication service for purposes of backup protection of such
          communication; and

          (18) "aural transfer" means a transfer containing the human voice
     at any point between and including the point of origin and the point of
     reception.


{ 2511.  Interception and disclosure of wire or oral
                communications prohibited

     (1)  Except as otherwise specifically provided in this chapter any
     person who--

          (a)  intentionally intercepts, endeavors to intercept, or procures
     any other person to intercept or endeavor to intercept, any wire, oral,
     or electronic communication;

          (b)  intentionally uses, endeavors to use, or procures any other
     person to use or endeavor to use any electronic, mechanical, or other
     device to intercept any oral communication when --

               (i)  such device is affixed to, or otherwise transmits a
          signal through, a wire, cable, or other like connection used in
          wire communication; or

               (ii)  such device transmits communications by radio, or
          interferes with the transmission of such communication; or

               (iii)  such person knows, or has reason to know, that such
          device or any component thereof has been sent through the mail or
          transported in interstate or foreign commerce; or

               (iv)  such use or endeavor to use (A) takes place on the
          premises of any business or other commercial establishment the
          operations of which affect interstate or foreign commerce; or (B)
          obtains or is for the purpose of obtaining information relating to
          the operations of any business or other commercial establishment
          the operations of which affect interstate or foreign commerce; or

               (v)  such person acts in the District of Columbia, the
          Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any territory or possession of the
          United States;

          (c)  intentionally discloses, or endeavors to disclose, to any
     other person the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic
     communication, knowing or have reason to know that the information was
     obtained through the interception of a wire oral, or electronic
     communication in violation of this subsection; or

          (d)  intentionally uses, or endeavors to use, the contents of any
     wire, oral, or electronic communication, knowing or having reason to
     know that the information was obtained through the interception of a
     wire, oral, or electronic communication in violation of this
     subsection; shall be punished as provided in subsection (4) or shall be
     subject to suit as provided in subsection (5).

     (2)(a)(i)  It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for an operator
of a switchboard, or an officer, employee, or agent of a provider of wire or
electronic communication service, whose facilities are used in the
transmission of a wire communication, to intercept, disclose, or use that
communication in the normal course of his employment while engaged in any
activity which is a necessary incident to the rendition of his service or to
the protection of the rights or property of the provider of that service,
except that a provider of wire communication service to the public shall not
utilize service observing or random monitoring except for mechanical or
service quality control checks.

     (ii)  Notwithstanding any other law, providers of wire or electronic
communication service, their officers, employees, and agents, landlords,
custodians, or other persons, are authorized to provide information
facilities, or technical assistance to persons authorized by law to
intercept wire, oral, or electronic communications or to conduct electronic
surveillance, as defined in section 101 of the Foreign Intelligence
Surveillance Act of 1978, if such provider its officers, employees, or
agents, land- lord, custodian, or other specified person has been provided
with --

          (A)  a court order directing such assistance signed by the
     authorizing judge, or

          (B)  a certification in writing by a person specified in section
     2518(7) of this title or the Attorney General of the United States that
     no warrant or court order is required by law, that all statutory
     requirements have been met, and that the specified assistance is
     required.

setting forth the period of time during which the provision of the
information, facilities, or technical assistance is authorized and
specifying the information, facilities, or technical assistance required.
No provider of wire or electronic communication service officer, employee,
or agent thereof, or landlord, custodian, or other specified person shall
disclose the existence of any interception or surveillance of the device
used to accomplish the interception or surveillance with respect to which
the person has been furnished an order or certification under this
subparagraph, except as may otherwise be required by legal process and then
only after prior notification to the Attorney General or to the principal
prosecuting attorney of a State or any political subdivision of a State, as
may be appropriate.  Any such disclosure, shall render such person liable
for the civil damages provided for in section 2520.  No cause of action
shall lie in any court against any provider of wire or electronic
communication service its officers, employees, or agents, landlord,
custodian, or other specified person for providing information, facilities,
or assistance in accordance with the terms of a court order or certification
under this chapter.

     (b)  It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for an officer,
employee, or agent of the Federal Communications Commission, in the normal
course of his employment and in discharge of the monitoring responsibilities
exercised by the Commission in the enforcement of chapter 5 of title 57 of
the United States Code, to intercept a wire or electronic communication, or
oral communication transmitted by radio, or to disclose or use the
information thereby obtained.

     (c)  It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for a person acting
under color of law to intercept a wire, oral, or electronic communication,
where such person is a party to the communication or one of the parties to
the communication has given prior consent to such interception.

     (d)  It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for a person not
acting under color of law to intercept a wire, oral, or electronic
communication where such person is a party to the communication or where one
of the parties to the communication has given prior consent to such
interception unless such communication is intercepted for the purpose of
committing any criminal or tortious act in violation of the Constitution or
laws of the United States or of any State.

     (e)  Notwithstanding any other provision of this title or section 705
or 706 of the Communications Act of 1934, it shall not be unlawful for an
office, employee, or agent of the United States in the normal course of his
official duty to conduct electronic surveillance, as defined in section 101
of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, as authorized by that
Act.


     (f)  Nothing contained in this chapter or chapter 121, or section 705
of the Communications Act of 1934, shall be deemed to affect the acquisition
by the United States Government of foreign intelligence information from
international or foreign communication, or foreign intelligence activities
conducted in accordance with otherwise applicable Federal law involving a
foreign electronic communications system, utilizing a means other than
electronic surveillance as defined in section 101 of the Foreign
Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, and procedures in this chapter and
the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 shall be the exclusive
means by which electronic surveillance, as defined in section 101 of such
Act, and the interception of domestic wire and oral communications may be
conducted.

     (g)  It shall not be unlawful under this chapter or chapter 121 of this
title for any person --

          (i)  to intercept or access an electronic communication made
     through an electronic communication system that is configured so that
     such electronic communication is readily accessible to the general
     public;

          (ii)  to intercept any radio communication which is transmitted --

               (I)  by any station for the use of the general public, or
          that relates to ships, aircraft, vehicles, or persons in distress;

               (II)  by any governmental, law enforcement, civil defense
          private land mobile, or public safety communications system,
          including police and fire, readily accessible to the general
          public;

               (III)  by a station operating on an authorized frequency
          within the bands allocated to the amateur, citizens band, or
          general mobile radio services; or

               (IV)  by any marine or aeronautical communications system;

          (iii)  to engage in any conduct which --

               (I)  is prohibited by section 633 of the Communications Act
          of 1934; or

               (II)  is excepted from the application of section 705(a) of
          the Communications Act of 1934 by section 705(b) of that Act;

          (iv)  to intercept any wire or electronic communication the
     transmission of which is causing harmful interference to any lawfully
     operating station or consumer electronic equipment, to the extent
     necessary to identify the source of such interference; or

          (v)  for other users of the same frequency to intercept any radio
     communication made through a system that utilizes frequencies monitored
     by individuals engaged in the provision or the use of such system, if
     such communication is not scrambled or encrypted.

     (h)  It shall not be unlawful under this chapter --

          (i)  to use a pen register or a trap and trace device (as those
     terms are defined for the purposes of chapter 206 (relating to pen
     registers and trap and trace devices) of this title); or

          (ii)  for a provider of electronic communication service to record
     the fact that a wire or electronic communication was initiated or
     completed in order to protect such provider, another provider
     furnishing service toward the completion of the wire or electronic
     communication, or a user of that service, from fraudulent, unlawful or
     abusive use of such service.

     (3)(a)    Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection a
person or entity providing an electronic communication service to the public
shall not intentionally divulge the contents of any communication (other
than one to such person or entity, or an agent thereof) while in
transmission on that service to any person or entity other than an addressee
or intended recipient of such communication or an agent of such addressee or
intended recipient.

     (b)  A person or entity providing electronic communication service to
the public may divulge the contents of any such communication --

          (i)  as otherwise authorized in section 2511(2)(a) or 2517 of this
     title;

          (ii)  with the lawful consent of the originator or any addressee
     or intended recipient of such communication;

          (iii)  to a person employed or authorized, or whose facilities are
     used, to forward such communication to its destination; or

          (iv)  which were inadvertently obtained by the service provider
     and which appear to pertain to the commission of a crime, if such
     divulgence is made to a law enforcement agency.

     (4)(a)    Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection or in
subsection (5), whoever violates subsection (1) of this section shall be
fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

     (b)  If the offense is a first offense under paragraph (a) of this
subsection and is not for a tortious or illegal purpose or for purposes of
direct or indirect commercial advantage or private commercial gain, and the
wire or electronic communication with respect to which the offense under
paragraph (a) is a radio communication that is not scrambled or encrypted,
then --

          (i)  If the communication is not the radio portion of a cellular
     telephone communication, a public land mobile radio service
     communication or a paging service communication, and the conduct is not
     that described in subsection (5), the offender shall be fined under
     this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both, and

          (ii)  if the communication is the radio portion of a cellular
     telephone communication, a public land mobile radio service
     communication or a paging service communication, the offender shall be
     fined not more than $500.

     (c)  Conduct otherwise an offense under this subsection that consists
of or relates to the interception of a satellite transmission that is not
encrypted or scrambled and that is transmitted --

          (i)  to a broadcasting station for purposes of retransmission to
     the general public; or

          (ii)  as an audio subcarrier intended for redistribution to
     facilities open to the public, but not including data transmissions or
     telephone calls,

is not an offense under this subsection unless the conduct is for the
purposes of direct or indirect commercial advantage or private financial
gain.

     (5)(a)(i)  If the communication is --

          (A)  a private satellite video communication that is not scrambled
     or encrypted and the conduct in violation of this chapter is the
     private viewing of that communication and is not for a tortious or
     illegal purpose or for purposes of direct or indirect commercial
     advantage or private commercial gain; or

          (B)  a radio communication that is transmitted on frequencies
     allocated under subpart D of part 74 of the rules of the Federal
     Communications Commission that is not scrambled or encrypted and the
     conduct in violation of this chapter is not for a tortious or illegal
     purpose or for purposes of direct or indirect commercial advantage or
     private commercial gain.

then the person who engages in such conduct shall be subject to suit by the
Federal Government in a court of competent jurisdiction.

     (ii)  In an action under this subsection --

          (A)  if the violation of this chapter is a first offense for the
     person under paragraph (a) of subsection (4) and such person has not
     been found liable in a civil action under section 2520 of this title,
     the Federal Government shall be entitled to appropriate injunctive
     relief; and

          (B)  if the violation of this chapter is a second or subsequent
     offense under paragraph (a) of subsection (4) or such person has been
     found liable in any prior civil action under section 2520, the person
     shall be subject to a mandatory $500 civil fine.

     (b)  The court may use any means within its authority to enforce an
injunction issued under paragraph (ii)(A), and shall impose a civil fine of
not less than $500 for each violation of such an injunction,


{ 2512.   Manufacture, distribution, possession, and advertising of wire
               or oral communication intercepting devices prohibited

     (1)  Except as otherwise specifically provided in this chapter, any
person who intentionally --

          (a)  sends through the mail, or sends or carriers in interstate or
     foreign commerce, any electronic, mechanical, or other device, knowing
     or having reason to know that the design of such device renders it
     primarily useful for the purpose of the surreptitious interception of
     wire, oral, or electronic communications;

          (b)  manufacturers, assembles, possesses, or sells any electronic,
     mechanical, or other device, knowing  or having reason to know that the
     design of such device renders it primarily useful for the purpose of
     the surreptitious interception of wire, oral, or electronic
     communications, and that such device or any component thereof has been
     or will be sent through the mail or transported in interstate or
     foreign commerce; or

          (c)  places in any newspaper, magazine, handbill, or other
     publication any advertisement of--

               (i)  any electronic, mechanical, or other device knowing or
          having reason to know that the design of such device renders it
          primarily useful for the purpose of the surreptitious interception
          of wire, oral, or electronic communications; or

               (ii) any other electronic, mechanical, or other device, where
          such advertisement promotes the use of such device for the purpose
          of the surreptitious interception of wire, oral, or electronic
          communications,

     knowing or having reason to know that such advertisement will be sent
     through the mail or transported in interstate or foreign commerce,

shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than five years,
or both.

     (2)  It shall not be unlawful under this section for-

          (a)  a  provider of wire or electronic communication service or an
     officer, agent, or employee of, or a person under contract with, such a
     provider, in the normal course of the business of providing that wire
     or electronic communication service, or

          (b)  an officer, agent, or employee of, or a person under contract
     with, the United States, a State, or a political subdivision thereof,
     in the normal course of the activities of the United States, a State,
     or a political subdivision thereof, to send through the mail, send or
     carry in interstate or foreign commerce, or manufacture, assemble,
     possess, or sell any electronic, mechanical, or other device knowing or
     having reason to know that the design of such device renders it
     primarily useful for the purpose of the surreptitious interception of
     wire, oral, or electronic communications.

{ 2513.   Confiscation of wire, oral, or electronic communication
               intercepting devices

     Any electronic, mechanical, or other device used, sent, carried,
manufactured, assembled, possessed, sold, or advertised in violation of
section 2511 or section+ 2512 of this chapter may be seized and forfeited to
the United States.  All provisions of law relating to (1) the seizure,
summary and judicial forfeiture, and condemnation of vessels, vehicles,
merchandise, and baggage for violations of the customs laws contained in
title 19 of the United States Code, (2) the disposition of such vessels, -
vehicles, merchandise, and baggage or the proceeds from the sale thereof,
(3) the remission or mitigation of such forfeiture, (4) the compromise of
claims, and (5) the award of compensation to informers in respect of such
forfeitures, shall apply to seizures and forfeitures incurred, or alleged to
have been incurred, under the provisions of this section, insofar as
applicable and not inconsistent with the provisions of this section; except
that such duties as are imposed upon the collector of customs or any other
person with respect to the seizure and forfeiture of vessels, vehicles,
merchandise, and baggage under the provisions of the customs laws contained
in title 19 of the United States Code shall be performed with respect to
seizure and forfeiture of electronic, mechanical, or other intercepting
devices under this section by such officers, agents, or other persons as may
be authorized or designated for that purpose of the Attorney General.

{ 2515.   Prohibition of use as evidence of intercepted wire, oral, or
               electronic communications

     Whenever any wire, oral, or electronic communications has been
intercepted, no part of the contents of such communication and no evidence
derived therefrom may be received in evidence in any trial, hearing, or
other proceeding in or before any court, grand jury, department, officer,
agency, regulatory body, legislative committee, or other authority of the
United States, a State, or a political subdivision thereof if the disclosure
of that information would be in violation of this chapter.


{ 2516.   Authorization for interception of wire, oral, or electronic
               communications

     (1)  The Attorney General, Deputy Attorney General, Associate Attorney
General, any Assistant Attorney General, any acting Assistant Attorney
General, or any Deputy Assistant Attorney General in the Criminal Division
specially designated by the Attorney General, may authorize an application
to a Federal judge of competent jurisdiction for, and such judge may grant
in conformity with section 2518 of this chapter an order authorizing or
approving the interception of wire of oral communications by the Federal
Bureau of Investigation, or a Federal agency having responsibility for the
investigation of the offense as to which the application is made, when such
interception may provide or has provided evidence of-

          (a)  any offense punishable by death or by imprisonment for more
     than one year under sections 2274 through 2277 of title 42 of the
     United States Code (relating to the enforcement of the Atomic Energy
     Act of 1954), section 2284 of title 42 of the United States Code
     (relating to sabotage of nuclear facilities or fuel), or under the
     following chapters of this title:  chapter 37 (relating to espionage),
     chapter 105 (relating to sabotage), chapter 115 (relating to treason),
     chapter 192 (relating to riots), chapter 65 (relating to malicious
     matter mischief), chapter 111 (relating to destruction of vessels), or
     chapter 81 (relating to piracy);

          (b)  a violation of section 186 or section 501(c) of title 29,
     United States Code (dealing with restrictions on payments and loans to
     labor organizations), or any offense which involves murders,
     kidnapping, robbery, or extortion, and which is punishable under this
     title;

          c)   any offense which is punishable under the following section
     of this title:  section 201 (bribery of public officials and
     witnesses), section 224 (bribery in sporting contests), subsection (d),
     (e), (f), (g), (h), or (i) of section 844 (unlawful use of explosives),
     section 1084 (transmission of wagering information), section 751
     (relating to escape), sections 1503, 1512, and 1513 (influencing or
     injuring an officer, juror, or witness generally), section 1510
     (obstruction of criminal investigations), section 1511 (obstruction of
     State or local law enforcement), section 1751 (Presidential and
     Presidential staff assassination, kidnapping, and assault), section
     1951 (interference with commerce by threats or violence), section 1952
     (interstate and foreign travel or transportation in aid of racketeering
     enterprises), section 1952A (relating to use of interstate commerce
     facilities in the commission of murder for hire), section 1952B
     (relating to violent crimes in aid of racketeering activity), section
     1954 (offer acceptance, or solicitation to influence operations of
     employee benefit plan), section 1955 (prohibition of business
     enterprises of gambling), section 659 (theft from interstate shipment),
     section 664 (embezzlement from pension and welfare funds), section 1343
     (fraud by wire, radio, or television), section 2252 or 2253 (sexual
     exploitation of children), Section 2251 and 2252 (sexual exploitation
     of children), section 2312, 2313, 2314, and 2315 (interstate
     transportation of stolen property), the second section 2320 (relating
     to trafficking in certain motor vehicles or motor vehicle parts),
     section 1203 (relating to hostage taking), section 1029 (relating to
     fraud and related activity in connection with access devices), section
     3146 (relating to penalty for failure to appear), section 3521(b)(3)
     (relating to witness relocation and assistance), section 32 (relating
     to destruction of aircraft or aircraft facilities), section 1963
     violations with respect to racketeer influenced and corrupt
     organizations), section 115 (relating to threatening or retaliating
     against a Federal official), the section in chapter 65 relating to
     destruction of an energy facility, and section 1341 (relating to mail
     fraud), section 351 (violations with respect to congressional, Cabinet,
     or Supreme Court assassination, kidnapping, and assault), section 831
     (relating to prohibited transaction involving nuclear materials),
     section 33 (relating to destruction of motor vehicles or motor vehicle
     facilities), or section 1992 (relating to wrecking trains);

          (d)  any offense involving counterfeiting punishable under section
     471, 472, or 473 of this title;

          (e)  any offense involving fraud connected with a case under title
     11 or the manufacture, importation, receiving, concealment, buying,
     selling, or otherwise dealing in narcotic drugs, marijuana, or other
     dangerous drugs, punishable under any law of the United States;

          (f)  any offense including extortionate credit transactions under
     sections 892, 893, or 894 of this title;

          (g)  a violation of section 5322 of title 31, United States Code
     (dealing with the reporting of currency transactions);

          (h)  any felony violation of sections 511 and 2512 (relating to
     interception and disclosure of certain communications and to certain
     intercepting devices) of this title;

          (i)  any violation of section 1679(c)(2) (relating to destruction
     of a natural gas pipeline) or subsection (i) or (n) of the United
     States Code;

          (j)  any criminal violation of section 2778 of title 22 (relating
     to the Arms Export Control Act); or

          (k)  the location of any fugitive from justice from an offense
     described in this section; or

          (l)  any conspiracy to commit any of the foregoing offenses.

     (2)  The principal prosecuting attorney of any State, or the principal
prosecuting attorney of any political subdivision thereof, if such attorney
is authorized by a statute of that State to make application to a State
court judge of competent jurisdiction for an order authorizing or approving
the interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications, may apply to
such judge for, and such judge may grant in conformity with section 2518 of
this chapter and with the applicable State statute an order authorizing, or
approving the interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications by
investigative or law enforcement of officers having responsibility for the
investigation of the offense as to which the application is made, when such
interception may provide or has provided evidence of the commission of the
offense of murder, kidnapping, gambling, robbery, bribery, extortion, or
dealing in narcotic drugs, marijuana or other dangerous drugs, or other
crime dangerous to life, limb, or property, and punishable by imprisonment
for more than one year, designated in any applicable State statute
authorizing such interception, or any conspiracy to commit any of the
foregoing offenses.

     (3)  Any attorney for the Government (as such term is defined for the
purposes of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure) may authorize an
application to a Federal judge of competent jurisdiction for, and such judge
may grant, in conformity with section 2518 of this title, an order
authorizing or approving the interception of electronic communications by an
investigative or law enforcement officer having responsibility for the
investigation of the offense s to which the application is made, when such
interception may provide or has provided evidence of any Federal felony.

{ 2517.   Authorization for disclosure and use of intercepted
               wire, oral, or electronic communication

     (1)  Any investigative or law enforcement officer who, by any means
authorized by this chapter, has obtained knowledge of the contents of any
wire, oral, or electronic communication, or evidence derived therefrom may
disclose such contents to another investigative or law enforcement officer
to the extent that such disclosure is appropriate to the proper performance
of the official duties of the officer making or receiving the disclosure.

     (2)  Any investigative or law enforcement officer who, by an means
authorized by this chapter, has obtained knowledge of the contents of any
wire, oral, or electronic communication or evidence derived therefrom any
use such contents to the extent such use is appropriate to the proper
performance of his official duties.

     (3)  Any person who has received, by any means authorized by this
chapter, any information concerning a wire, oral, or electronic
communication, or evidence derived therefrom intercepted in accordance with
the provisions of this chapter may disclose the contents of that
communication or such derivative evidence while giving testimony under oath
or affirmation in any proceeding held under the authority of the United
States of of any State or political subdivision thereof.

     (4)  No otherwise privileged wire, oral, or electronic communication
intercepted in accordance with, or in violation of, the provisions of this
chapter shall lose its privileged character.

     (5)  When an investigative or law enforcement officer, while engaged in
intercepting wire or oral communications in the manner authorized herein,
intercepts wire, oral, or electronic communications relating to offenses
other than those specified in the order of authorization or approval, the
contents thereof, and evidence derived therefrom, may be disclosed or used
as provided in subsections (1) and (2) of this section.  Such contents and
any evidence derived therefrom may be used under subsection (3) of this
section when authorized or approved by a judge of competent jurisdiction
where such judge finds on subsequent application that the contents were
otherwise intercepted in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.
Such application shall be made as soon as practicable.


{ 2518.   Procedure for interception of wire, oral, or electronic
               communications

     (1)  Each application for an order authorizing or approving the
interception of a wire, oral, or electronic communication under this chapter
shall be made in writing upon oath or affirmation to a judge of competent
jurisdiction and shall state the applicant's authority to make such
application.  Each application shall include the following information:

          (a)  the identity of the investigative or law enforcement officer
     making the application, and the officer authorizing the application;

          (b)  a full and complete statement of the facts and circumstances
     relied upon by the applicant, to justify his belief that an order
     should be issued, including (i) details as to the particular offense
     that has been, is being, or is about to be committed, (ii) except as
     provided in subsection (11), a particular description of the nature and
     location of the facilities from which or the place where the
     communication is to be intercepted, (iii) a particular description of
     the type of communications sought to be intercepted, (iv) the identity
     of the person, if known, committing the offense and whose
     communications are to be intercepted;

          (c)  a full and complete statement as to whether or not other
     investigative procedures have been tried and failed or why they
     reasonably appear to be unlikely to succeed if tried or to be too
     dangerous;

          (d)  a statement of the period of time for which the interception
     is required to be maintained.  If the nature of the investigation is
     such that the authorization for interception should not automatically
     terminate when the described type of communication has been first
     obtained, a particular description of facts establishing probable cause
     to believe that additional communications of the same type will occur
     thereafter;

          (e)  a full and complete statement of the facts concerning all
     previous applications known to the individual authorizing and making
     the application, made to any judge for authorization to intercept, or
     for approval of interceptions of, wire, oral, or electronic
     communications involving any of the same persons, facilities or places
     specified in the application; and

          (f)  where the application is for the extension of an order, a
     statement setting forth the results thus far obtained from the
     interception, or a reasonable explanation of the failure to obtain such
     results.

     (2)  The judge may require the applicant to furnish additional
testimony or documentary evidence in support of the application.

     (3)  Upon such application the judge may enter an ex parte order, as
requested or as modified, authorizing or approving interception of wire,
oral or electronic communications within the territorial jurisdiction of the
court in which the judge is sitting (and outside that jurisdiction but
within the United States in the case of a mobile interception device
authorized by a Federal court within such jurisdiction) if the judge
determines on the basis of the facts submitted by the applicant that-

          (a)  there is probable cause for belief that an individual is
     committing, has committed, or is about to commit a particular offense
     enumerated in section 2516 of this chapter;

          (b)  there is probable cause for brief that particular
     communications concerning that offense will be obtained through such
     interception;

          (c)  normal investigative procedures have been tried and have
     failed or reasonably appear to be unlikely to succeed if tried or to be
     too dangerous;

          (d)  except as provided in subsection (11), there is probable
     cause for belief that the facilities from which, or the place where the
     wire, oral, or electronic communications are to be intercepted are
     being used, or are about to be used, in connection with the commission
     of such offense, or are leased to, listed in the name of, or commonly
     used by such person.

     (4)  Each order authorizing or approving the interception of any wire,
oral, or electronic communication under this chapter shall specify-

          (a)  the identity of the person, if known, whose communications
     are to be intercepted;

          (b)  the nature and location of the communications facilities as
     to which, or the place where, authority to intercept is granted;

          (c)  a particular description of the type of communication sought
     to be intercepted, and a statement of the particular offense to which
     it relates;

          (d)  the identity of the agency authorized to intercept the
     communications, and of the person authorizing the application; and

          (e)  the period of time during which such interception is
     authorized, including a statement as to whether or not the interception
     shall automatically terminate when the described communication has been
     first obtained.

An order authorizing the interception of a wire, oral, or electronic
communication under this chapter shall, upon request of the applicant,
direct that a provider of wire or electronic communication service,
landlord, custodian or other person shall furnish the applicant forthwith
all information, facilities, and technical assistance necessary to
accomplish the interception unobtrusively and with a minimum of interference
with the services that such service provider, landlord, custodian, or person
is according the person whose communications are to be intercepted.  Any
provider of wire or electronic communication service, landlord, custodian or
other person furnishing such facilities or technical assistance shall be
compensated therefor by the applicant for reasonable express incurred in
providing such facilities or assistance.

     (5)  No order entered under this section may authorize or approve the
interception of any wire, oral, or electronic communication for any period
longer than is necessary to achieve the objective of the authorization nor
in any event longer than thirty days.  Such thirty-day period begins on the
earlier of the day on which the investigative or law enforcement officer
first begins to conduct an interception under the order or ten days after
the order is entered.  Extensions of an order may be granted, but only upon
application for an extension made in accordance with subsection (1) of this
section and the court making the findings required by subsection (3) of this
section.  The period of extension shall be no longer than the authorizing
judge deems necessary to achieve the purposes for which it was granted and
in no event for longer than thirty days.  Every order and extension thereof
shall contain a provision that the authorization to intercept shall be
executed as soon as practicable, shall be conducted in such a way as to
minimize the interception of communications not otherwise, subject to
interception under this chapter, and must terminate upon attainment of the
authorized objective, or in any event in thirty days.  In the event the
intercepted communications is in a code or foreign language, and an expert
in that foreign language or code is not reasonably available during the
interception period, minimization may be accomplished as soon as practicable
after such interception.  An interception under this chapter may be
conducted in whole or in part by Government personnel, or by an individual
operating under a contract with the Government, acting under the supervision
of an investigative or law enforcement officer authorized to conduct the
interception.

     (6)  Whenever an order authorizing interception is entered pursuant to
this chapter, the order may require reports to be made to the judge who
issued the order showing what progress has been made toward achievement of
the authorized objective and the need for continued interception.  Such
reports shall be made at such intervals as the judge may require.

     (7)  Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, any
investigative or law enforcement officer, specially designated by the
Attorney General, the Deputy Attorney General, the Associate Attorney
General, or by the principal prosecuting attorney of any State or
subdivision thereof acting pursuant of that State, who reasonably determines
that-

          (a)  an emergency situation exists that involves-

               (i)  immediate danger of death or serious physical injury to
          any person;

               (ii)  conspiratorial activities threatening the national
          security interest; or

               (iii)  conspiratorial activities characteristic of organized
          crime,

     that requires a wire, oral, or electronic communication to be
     intercepted before an order authorizing such interception can, with due
     diligence, be obtained, and

          (b)  there are grounds upon which an order could be entered under
     this chapter to authorize such interception.

may intercept such wire, oral, or electronic communication if an application
for an order approving the interception is made in accordance with this
section within forty-eight hours after the interception has occurred, or
begins to occur.  In the absence of an order, such interception shall
immediately terminate when the communication sought is obtained or when the
application for the order is denied, whichever is earlier.  In the event
such application for approval is denied, or in any other case where the
interception is terminated without an order having been issued, the contents
of any wire, oral, or electronic communication intercepted shall be treated
as having been obtained in violation of this chapter, and an inventory shall
be served as provided for in subsection (d) of this section on the person
named in the application.

     (8)(a)    The contents of any wire, oral, or  electronic communication
intercepted by any means authorized by this chapter shall, if possible, be
recorded on tape or wire or other comparable device. The recording of the
contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication under this
subsection shall be done in such a way as will protect the recording from
editing or other alterations.  Immediately upon the expiration of the period
of the order, or extensions thereof, such recordings shall be made available
to the judge issuing such order and sealed under this directions.  Custody
of the recordings shall be wherever the judge orders.  They shall not be
destroyed except upon an order of the issuing or denying judge and in any
event shall be kept for ten years.  Duplicate recordings may be made for use
or disclosure pursuant to the provisions of subsections (2) and (2) of
section 2517 of this chapter for investigations.  The presence of the seal
provided for by this section, or a satisfactory explanation for the absence
thereof, shall be a prerequisite for the use or disclosure of the contents
of any wire, oral, or electronic communication or evidence derived therefrom
under subsection (3) of section 2517.

     (b)  Applications made and orders granted under this chapter shall be
sealed by the judge.  Custody of the applications and orders shall be
wherever the judge directs.  Such applications and orders shall be disclosed
only upon a showing of good cause before a judge of competent jurisdiction
and shall not be destroyed except on order of the issuing or denying judge,
and in any event shall be kept for ten years.

     (c)  Any violation of the provisions of this subsection may be punished
as contempt of the issuing or denying judge.

     (d)  Within a reasonable time but not  later than ninety days after the
filing of an application for an order of approval under section 2518(7)(b)
which is denied or the termination of the period of an order or extensions
thereof, the issuing or denying judge shall cause to be served, on the
persons named in the order or the application, and such other parties to
intercepted communications as the judge may determine in his discretion that
is in the interest of justice, and inventory which shall include notice of-

          (1)  the fact of the entry of the order or the application;

          (2)  the date of the entry and the period of authorized, approved
     or disapproved interception, or the denial of the application, and

          (3)  the fact that during the period wire, oral, or electronic
     communications were or were not intercepted.

The judge, upon the filing of a motion, may in his discretion make available
to such person or his counsel for inspection such portions of the
intercepted communications, applications and orders as the judge determines
to be in the interest of justice. On an ex parte showing of good cause to a
judge of competent jurisdiction the serving of the inventory required by
this subsection may be postponed.

     (9)  The contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication
intercepted pursuant to this chapter or evidence derived therefrom shall not
be received in evidence or otherwise disclosed in any trial, hearing, or
other proceeding in a Federal or State court unless each party, not less
then ten days before the trial, hearing, or proceeding, has been furnished
with a copy of the court order, and accompanying application, under which
the interception was authorized or approved. This ten-day period may be
waived by the judge if he finds that it was not possible to furnish the
party with the above information ten days before the trial, hearing, or
proceeding and that the party will not be prejudiced by the delay in
receiving such information.

     (10)(a)   Any aggrieved person in any trial, hearing, or proceeding in
or before the any court, department, officer, agency, regulatory body, or
other authority of the United States, a State, or a political subdivision
thereof, may move to suppress the contents of any wire or oral communication
intercepted pursuant to this chapter, or evidence derived therefrom, on the
grounds that-

          (i)  the communication was unlawfully intercepted;

          (ii)  the order of authorization or approval under which it was
          intercepted is insufficient on its face; or

          (iii)  the interception was not made in conformity with the order
          of authorization or approval.

Such motion shall be made before the trial, hearing, or proceeding unless
there was no opportunity to make such motion or the person was not aware of
the grounds of the motion.  If the motion is granted, the contents of the
intercepted wire or oral communication, or evidence derived therefrom, shall
be treated as having been obtained in violation of this chapter.  The judge,
upon the filing of such motion by the aggrieved person, may in his
discretion make available to the aggrieved person or his counsel for
inspection such portions of the intercepted communication or evidence
derived therefrom as the judge determines to be in the interests of justice.

     (b)  In addition to any other right to appeal, the United States shall
have the right to appeal from an order granting a motion to suppress made
under paragraph (a) of this subsection, or the denial of an application for
an order of approval, if the United States attorney shall certify to the
judge or other official granting such motion or denying such application the
the appeal is not taken for purposes of delay.  Such appeal shall be taken
within thirty days after the date the order was entered and shall be
diligently prosecuted.

     (c)  The remedies and sanctions described in this chapter with respect
to the interception of electronic communications are the only judicial
remedies and sanctions for nonconstitutional violations of this chapter
involving such communications.

     (11) The requirements of subsections (1)(b)(ii) and (3)(d) of the
section relating to the specification of the facilities from which, or the
place where, the communication is to be intercepted do not apply if-

          (a)  in the case of an application with respect to the
     interception of an oral communication-

               (i)  the application is by a federal investigative or law
          enforcement officer and is approved by the Attorney General, the
          Deputy Attorney General, the Associate Attorney General, an
          Assistant Attorney General, or an acting Assistant Attorney
          General;

               (ii)  the application contains a full and complete statement
          as to why such specification is not practical and identifies the
          person committing the offense and whose communications are to be
          intercepted; and

               (iii)  the judge finds that such specification is not
          practical; and

          (b)  in the case of an application with respect to a wire or
     electronic communication-

               (i)  the application is by a Federal investigative or law
          enforcement officer and is approved by the Attorney General, the
          Deputy Attorney General, the Associate Attorney General, and
          Assistant Attorney General, or an acting Assistant Attorney
          General;

               (ii)  the application identifies the person believed to be
          committing the offense and whose communications are to be
          intercepted and the applicant makes a showing of a purpose, on the
          part of that person, to thwart interception by changing
          facilities; and

               (iii)  the judge finds that such purpose has been adequately
          shown.

     (12) An interception of a communication under an order with respect to
which the requirements of subsections (1)(b)(ii) and (3)(d) of this section
do not apply by reason of subsection (11) shall not begin until the
facilities from which, or the place where, the communication is to be
intercepted is ascertained by the person implementing the interception
order.  A provider of wire or electronic communications service that has
received an order as provided for in subsection (11)(b) may move the court
to modify or quash the order on the ground that its assistance with respect
to the interception cannot be performed in a timely or reasonable fashion.
The court, upon notice to the government, shall decide such a motion
expeditiously.

{ 2519.   Reports concerning intercepted wire, oral, or electronic
               communications

     (1)  Within thirty days after the expiration of an order (or each
extension thereof) entered under  section 2518, or the denial of an order
approving an interception, the issuing or denying judge shall report to the
Administrative Office of the United States Courts-

          (a)  the fact that an order or extension was applied for;

          (b)  the kind of order or extension was applied for (including
     whether or not the order was an order with respect to which the
     requirements of sections 2518(1)(b)(ii) and 2581(3)(d) of this title
     did not apply by reason of section 2518(11) of title);

          (c)  the fact that the order or extension was granted as applied
     for, was modified, or was denied;

          (d)  the period of interceptions authorized by the order, and the
     number and duration of any extensions of the order;

          (e)  the offense specified in the order or application, or
     extension or an order;

          (f)  the identity of the applying investigative or law enforcement
     officer and agency making the application and the person authorizing
     the application; and

          (g)  the nature of the facilities from which or the place where
     communications were to be intercepted.

     (2)  In January of each year the Attorney General, an Assistant
Attorney General specially designated by the Attorney General, or the
principal prosecuting attorney of a State, or the principal prosecuting
attorney for any political subdivision of a State, shall report to the
Administrative Office of the United States Courts-

          (a)  the information required by  paragraphs (a) through (g) of
     subsection (1) of this section with respect to each application for an
     order or extension made during the preceding calendar year;

          (b)  a general description of the interceptions made under such
     order or extension, including (i) the approximate nature and frequency
     of incriminating communications intercepted, (ii) the approximate
     nature and frequency of other communications intercepted, (iii) the
     approximate number of persons whose communications were intercepted,
     and (iv) the approximate nature, amount, and cost of the manpower and
     other resources used in the interceptions;

          (c)  the number of arrests resulting from interceptions made under
     such order or extension, and the offenses for which arrests were made;

          (d)  the number of trials resulting from such interceptions;

          (e)  the number of motions to suppress made with respect to such
     interceptions, and the number granted or denied;

          (f)  the number of convictions resulting from such interceptions
     and the offenses for which the convictions were obtained and a general
     assessment of the importance of the interceptions; and

          (g)  the information required by paragraphs (b) through (f) of
     this subsection with respect to orders or extensions obtained in a
     preceding calendar year.

     (3)  In April of each year the Director of the Administrative Office of
the United States Courts shall transmit to the Congress a full and complete
report concerning the number of applications for orders authorizing or
approving the interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications
pursuant to this chapter and the number of orders and extensions granted or
denied pursuant to this chapter during the preceding calendar year. Such
report shall include a summary and analysis of the data required to be filed
with the Administrative Office by subsections (1) and (2) of this section.
The Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts is
authorized to issue binding regulations dealing with the content and form of
the reports required to be filed by subsections (1) and (2) of this section.


{ 2520.   Recovery of civil damages authorized

     (a)  IN GENERAL,--Except as provided in section 2511(2)(a)(ii), any
person whose  wire, oral, or electronic communication is intercepted,
disclosed, or intentionally used in violation of this chapter may in a civil
action recover from the person or entity which engaged in that violation
such relief as may be appropriate.

     (b)  RELIEF.--In an action under this section, appropriate relief
includes-

          (1)  such preliminary and other equitable or declaratory relief as
     may be appropriate;

          (2)  damages under subsection (c) and punitive damages in
     appropriate cases; and

          (3)  a reasonable attorney's fee and other litigation costs
     reasonably incurred.

     (c)  COMPUTATION OF DAMAGES.--(1)  In an action under this section, if
the conduct is in violation of this chapter is the private viewing of a
private satellite video communication that is not scrambled or encrypted or
if the communication is a radio communication that is transmitted on
frequencies allocated under subpart D of part 74 of the rules of the Federal
Communications Commission that is not scrambled or encrypted and the conduct
is not for a tortious or illegal purpose or for purposes of direct or
indirect commercial advantage or private commercial gain, then the court
shall assess damages as follows:

          (A)  If the person who engaged in that conduct has not previously
     been enjoined under section 2511(5) and has not been found liable in a
     prior civil action under this section, the court shall assess the
     greater of the sum of actual damages suffered by the plaintiff, or
     statutory damages of not less than $50 and not more than $500.

          (B)  If, on one prior occasion, the person who engaged in that
     conduct has been enjoined under section 2511(5) or has been found
     liable in a civil action under this section, the court shall assess the
     greater of the sum of actual damages suffered by the plaintiff, or
     statutory damages of not less than $100 and not more than $1,000.

     (2)  In any other action under this section, the  court may assess as
damages whichever is the greater of-

          (A)  the sum of the actual damages suffered by the plaintiff and
     any profits made by the violator as a result of the violation; or

          (B)  statutory damages of whichever is the greater of $100 a day
     for each day of violation or $10,000.

     (d)  DEFENSE.--A good faith reliance on-

          (1)  a court warrant or order, a grand jury subpoena, a
     legislative authorization, or a statutory authorization;

          (2)  a request of an investigative or law enforcement officer
     under section 2518(7) of this title; or

          (3)  a good faith determination that section 2511(3) of this title
     permitted the conduct complained of;

is a complete defense against any civil or criminal action brought under
this chapter or any other law.

     (e)  LIMITATION.--A civil action under this section may not be
commenced later than two years after the date upon which the claimant first
has a reasonable opportunity to discover the violation.


{ 2521.   Injunction against illegal interception

     Whenever it shall appear that any person is engaged or is about to
engage in any act which constitutes or will constitute a felony violation of
this chapter, the Attorney General may initiate a civil action in a district
court of the United States to enjoin such violation.  The court shall
proceed as soon as practicable to the hearing and determination of such an
action, and may, at any time before final determination, enter such a
restraining order or prohibition, or take such other action, as is warranted
to prevent a continuing and substantial injury to the United States or to
any person or class of persons for whose protection the action is brought.
A proceeding under this section is governed by the Federal Rules of Civil
Procedure, except that, if an indictment has been returned against the
respondent, discovery is governed by the federal Rules of Criminal
Procedure.


CHAPTER 121- STORED WIRE AND ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS AND TRANSACTIONAL
             RECORDS ACCESS

Sec.
2701. Unlawful access to stored communications.
2702. Disclosure of contents.
2703. Requirements for governmental access.
2704. Backup preservation.
2705. Delayed notice.
2706. Cost reimbursement.
2707. Civil action.
2708. Exclusivity of remedies.
2709. Counterintelligence access to telephone toll and
          transactional records.
2710. Definitions

2701. Unlawful access to stored communications

     (a) OFFENSE.- Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section
whoever-

     (1) intentionally accesses without authorization a facility through
which an electronic communication service is provided; or

     (2) intentionally exceeds an authorization to access that facility;

and thereby obtains, alters, or prevents authorized access to a wire or
electronic communication while it is in electronic storage in such system
shall be punished as provided in subsection (b) of this section.

     (b) PUNISHMENT.- The punishment for an offense under subsection (a) of
this section is-

     (1) if the offense is committed for purposes of commercial advantage,
malicious destruction or damage, or private commercial gain-

     (A) a fine of not more than $250,000 or imprisonment for not more than
one year, or both, in the case of a first offense under this subparagraph;
and

     (B) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than two
years, or both, for any subsequent offense under this subparagraph; and

     (2) a fine of not more than $5,000 or imprisonment for not more than
six months, or both, in any case.

     (c) EXCEPTIONS.- Subsection (a) of this section does not apply with
respect to conduct authorized-

     (1) by the person or entity providing a wire or electronic
communications service;

     (2) by a user of that service with respect to a communication of or
intended for that user; or

     (3) in section 2703, 2704 or 2518 of this title.

{ 2702. Disclosure of contents

     (a) PROHIBITIONS.- Except as provided in subsection (b)-

     (1) a person or entity operating an electronic communication service to
the public shall not knowingly divulge to any person or entity the contents
of a communication while in electronic storage by that service; and

     (2) a person or entity providing remote computing service to the public
shall not knowingly divulge to any person or entity the contents of any
communication which is carried or maintained on that service-

     (A) on behalf of, and received by means of electronic transmission from
(or created by means of computer processing of communications received by
means of electronic transmission from), a subscriber or customer of such
service; and

     (B) solely for the purpose of providing storage or computer processing
services to such subscriber or customer, if the provider is not authorized
to access the contents of any such communications for purposes of providing
any services other than storage or computer processing.

     (b) EXCEPTIONS.- A person or entity may divulge the contents of a
communication-

     (1) to an addressee or intended recipient of such communication or an
agent of such addressee or intended recipient;

     (2) as otherwise authorized in section 2516, 2511(2)(a), or 2703 of
this title;

     (3) with the lawful consent of the originator or an addressee or
intended recipient of such communication, or the subscriber in the case of
remote computing service;

     (4) to a person employed or authorized or whose facilities are used to
forward such communication to its destination;

     (5) as may be necessarily incident to the rendition of the service or
to the protection of the rights or property of the provider of that service;
or

     (6) to a law enforcement agency, if such contents-

     (A) were inadvertently obtained by the service provider; and

     (B) appear to pertain to the commission of a crime.

{ 2703. Requirements for governmental access

     (a) CONTENTS OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS IN ELECTRONIC STORAGE.- A
governmental entity may require the disclosure by a provider of electronic
communication service of the contents of an electronic communication, that
is in electronic storage in an electronic communications system for one
hundred and eighty days or less, only pursuant to a warrant issued under the
Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure or equivalent State warrant.  A
governmental entity may require the disclosure by a provider of electronic
communications services of the contents of an electronic communication that
has been in storage in an electronic communications system for more than one
hundred and eighty days by the means available under subsection (b) of this
section.

     (b) CONTENTS OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS IN A REMOTE COMPUTING
SERVICE.- (1) A governmental entity may require a provider of remote
computing service to disclose the contents of any electronic communication
to which this paragraph is made applicable by paragraph (2) of this
subsection-

     (A) without required notice to the subscriber or customer, if the
governmental entity obtains a warrant issued under the Federal Rules of
Criminal Procedure or equivalent State warrant; or

     (B) with prior notice from the governmental entity to the subscriber or
customer if the governmental entity-

     (i) uses an administrative subpoena authorized by a Federal or State
statute or a Federal or State grand jury subpoena; or

     (ii) obtains a court order for such disclosure under subsection (d) of
this section; except that delayed notice may be given pursuant to section
2705 of this title.

     (2) Paragraph (1) is applicable with respect to any electronic
communication that is held or maintained on that service-

     (A) on behalf of, and received by means of electronic transmission from
(or created by means of computer processing of communications received by
means of electronic transmission from), a subscriber or customer of such
remote computing service; and

     (B) solely for the purpose of providing storage or computer processing
services to such subscriber or customer, if the provider is not authorized
to access the contents of any such communications for purposes of providing
any services other than storage or computer processing.

     (c) RECORDS CONCERNING ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION SERVICE OR REMOTE
COMPUTING SERVICE.-  (1)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), a
provider of electronic communication service or remote computing service may
disclose a record or other information pertaining to a subscriber to or
customer of such service (not including the contents of communications
covered by subsection (a) or (b) of this section) to any person other than a
governmental entity.

     (B) A provider of electronic communication service or remote computing
service shall disclose a record or other information pertaining to a
subscriber to or customer of such service (not including the contents of
communications covered by subsection (a) or (b) of this section) to a
governmental entity only when the governmental entity-

     (i) uses an administrative subpoena authorized by a Federal or State
statute, or a Federal or State grand jury subpoena;

     (ii) obtains a warrant issued under the Federal Rules of Criminal
Procedure or equivalent State warrant;

     (iii) obtains a court order for such disclosure under subsection (d) of
this section; or

     (iv) has the consent of the subscriber or customer to such disclosure.

     (2) A governmental entity receiving records or information under this
subsection is not required to provide notice to a subscriber or customer.

     (d) REQUIREMENTS FOR COURT ORDER.- A court order for disclosure under
subsection (b) or (c) of this section shall issue only if the governmental
entity shows that there is reason to believe the contents of a wire or
electronic communication, or the records or other information sought, are
relevant to a legitimate law enforcement inquiry.  In the case of a State
governmental authority, such a court order shall not issue if prohibited by
the law of such State.  A court issuing an order pursuant to this section,
on a motion made promptly by the service provider, may quash or modify such
order, if the information or records requested are unusually voluminous in
nature or compliance with such order otherwise would cause an undue burden
on such provider.

     (e) NO CAUSE OF ACTION AGAINST A PROVIDER DISCLOSING INFORMATION UNDER
THIS CHAPTER.- No cause of action shall lie in any court against any
provider of wire or electronic communication service, its officers,
employees, agents, or other specified persons for providing information,
facilities, or assistance in accordance with the terms of a court order,
warrant, subpoena or certification under this chapter.

{ 2704. Backup preservation

     (a) BACKUP PRESERVATION.- (1) A governmental entity acting under
section 2703(b)(2) may include in its subpoena or court order a requirement
that the service provider to whom the request is directed create a backup
copy of the contents of the electronic communications sought in order to
preserve those communications.  Without notifying the subscriber or customer
of such subpoena or court order, such service provider shall create such
backup copy as soon as practicable consistent with its regular business
practices and shall confirm to the governmental entity that such backup copy
has been made.  Such backup copy shall be created within two business days
after receipt by the service provider of the subpoena or court order.

     (2) Notice to the subscriber or customer shall be made by the
governmental entity within three days after receipt of such confirmation,
unless such notice is delayed pursuant to section 2705(a).

     (3) The service provider shall not destroy such backup copy until the
later of --

     (A) the delivery of the information; or

     (B) the resolution of any proceedings (including appeals of any
proceeding) concerning the government's subpoena or court order.

     (4) The service provider shall release such backup copy to the
requesting governmental entity no sooner than fourteen days after the
governmental entity's notice to the subscriber or customer if such service
provider --

     (A) has not received notice from the subscriber or customer that the
subscriber or customer has challenged the governmental entity's request; and

     (B) has not initiated proceedings to challenge the request of the
governmental entity.

     (5) A governmental entity may seek to require the creation of a backup
copy under subsection (a)(1) of this section if in its sole discretion such
entity determines that there is reason to believe that notification under
section 2703 of this title of the existence of the subpoena or court order
may result in destruction of or tampering with evidence.  This determination
is not subject to challenge by the subscriber or customer or service
provider.

     (b) CUSTOMER CHALLENGES -- (1) Within fourteen days after notice by the
governmental entity to the subscriber or customer under subsection (a)(2) of
this section, such subscriber or customer may file a motion to quash such
subpoena or vacate such court order, with copies served upon the
governmental entity and with written notice of such challenge to the service
provider.  A motion to vacate a court order shall be filed in the court
which issued such order.  A motion to quash a subpoena shall be filed in the
appropriate United States district court or State court. Such motion or
application shall contain an affidavit or sworn statement --

     (A) stating that the applicant is a customer or subscriber to the
service from which the contents of electronic communications maintained for
him have been sought; and

     (B) stating the applicant's reasons for believing that the records
sought are not relevant to a legitimate law enforcement inquiry or that
there has not been substantial inquiry or that there has not been
substantial compliance with the provisions of this chapter in some other
respect.

     (2) Service shall be made under this section upon a governmental entity
by delivering or mailing by registered or certified mail a copy of the
papers to the person, office, or department specified in the notice which
the customer has received pursuant to this chapter.  For the purposes of
this section, the term "delivery" has the meaning given that term in the
Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

     (3) If the court finds that the customer has complied with paragraphs
(1) an (2) of this subsection, the court shall order the governmental entity
to file a sworn response, which may be filed in camera if the governmental
entity includes in its response the reasons which make in camera review
appropriate.  If the court is unable to determine the motion or application
on the basis of the parties' initial allegations and response, the court may
conduct such additional proceedings as it deems appropriate. All such
proceedings shall be completed and the motion or application decided as soon
as practicable after the filing of the governmental entity's response.

     (4) If the court finds that the applicant is not the subscriber or
customer for whom the communications sought by the governmental entity are
maintained, or that there is a reason to believe that the law enforcement
inquiry is legitimate and that the communications sought are relevant to
that inquiry, it shall deny the motion or application and order such process
enforced. If the court finds that the applicant is the subscriber or
customer for whom the communications sought by the governmental entity are
maintained, and that there is not a reason to believe that the
communications sought are relevant to a legitimate law enforcement inquiry,
or that there has not been substantial compliance with the provisions of
this chapter, it shall order the process quashed.

     (5) A court order denying a motion or application under this section
shall not be deemed a final order and no interlocutory appeal may be taken
therefrom by the customer.

{ 2705.  Delayed notice

     (a) DELAY OF NOTIFICATION --(1) A governmental entity acting under
section 2703(b) of this title may --

     (A) where a court order is sought, include in the application a
request, which the court shall grant, for an order delaying the notification
required under section 2703(b) of this title for a period not to exceed
ninety days, if the court determines that there is reason to believe that
notification of the existence of the court order may have an adverse result
described in paragraph (2) of this subsection; or

     (B) where an administrative subpoena authorized by a Federal or State
statute or a Federal or State grand jury subpoena is obtained, delay the
notification required under section 2703(b) of this title for a period not
to exceed ninety days upon the execution of a written certification of a
supervisory official that there is reason to believe that notification of
the existence of the subpoena may have an adverse result described in
paragraph (2) of this subsection.

     (2) An adverse result for the purposes of paragraph (1) of this
subsection is --

     (A) endangering the life or physical safety of an individual;

     (B) flight from prosecution;

     (C) destruction of or tampering with evidence;

     (D) intimidation of potential witnesses; or

     (E) otherwise seriously jeopardizing an investigation or unduly
delaying a trial.

     (3) The governmental entity shall maintain a true copy of certification
under paragraph (1)(B).

     (4) Extensions of the delay of notification provided in section 2703 of
up to ninety days each may be granted by the court upon application, or by
certification by a governmental entity, but only in accordance with
subsection (b) of this section.

     (5) Upon expiration of the period of delay of notification under
paragraph (1) or (4) of this subsection, the governmental entity shall serve
upon, or deliver by registered or first-class mail to, the customer or
subscriber a copy of the process or request together with notice that --

     (A) states with reasonable specificity the nature of the law
enforcement inquiry; and

     (B) informs such customer or subscriber --

     (i) that information maintained for such customer or subscriber by the
service provider named in such process or request was supplied to or
requested by that governmental authority and the date on which the supplying
or request took place.

     (ii) that notification of such customer or subscriber was delayed;

     (iii) what governmental entity or court made the certification or
determination pursuant to which that delay was made; and

     (iv) which provision of this chapter allowed such delay.

     (6) As used in this subsection, the term "supervisory official" means
the investigative agent in charge or assistant investigative agent in charge
or an equivalent of an investigating agency's headquarters or regional
office, or the chief prosecuting attorney or the first assistant prosecuting
attorney or an equivalent of a prosecuting attorney's headquarters or
regional office.

     (b) PRECLUSION OF NOTICE TO SUBJECT OF GOVERNMENTAL ACCESS. -- A
governmental entity acting under section 2703, when it is not required to
notify the subscriber or customer under section 2703(b)(1), or to the extent
that it may delay such notice pursuant to subsection (a) of this section,
may apply to a court for an order commanding a provider of electronic
communications service or remote computing service to whom a warrant,
subpoena, or court order is directed, for such period as the court deems
appropriate, not to notify any other person of the existence of the warrant,
subpoena, or court order.  The court shall enter such an order if it
determines that there is reason to believe that notification of the
existence of the warrant, subpoena, or court order will results in --

     (1) endangering the life or physical safety of an individual;

     (2) flight from prosecution;

     (3) destruction of or tampering with evidence;

     (4) intimidation of potential witnesses; or

     (5) otherwise seriously jeopardizing an investigation or unduly
delaying a trial.

{ 2706.  Cost reimbursement

     (a) PAYMENT -- Except as otherwise provided in subsection (c), a
governmental entity obtaining the contents of communications, records, or
other information under section 2702, 2703, or 2704 of this title shall pay
to the person or entity assembling or providing such information a fee for
reimbursement for such costs as are reasonably necessary and which have been
directly incurred in searching for, assembling, reproducing, or otherwise
providing such information.  Such reimbursable costs shall include any costs
due to necessary disruption of normal operations of any electronic
communication service or remote computing service in which such information
may be stored.

     (b) AMOUNT -- The amount of the fee provided by subsection (a) shall be
as mutually agreed by the governmental entity and the person or entity
providing the information, or in the absence of agreement, shall be as
determined by the court which issued the order for production of such
information (or the court before which a criminal prosecution relating to
such information would be brought, if no court order was issued for
production of the information).

     (c) The requirement of subsection (a) of this section does not apply
with respect to records or other information maintained by a communications
common carrier that relate to telephone toll records and telephone listings
obtained under section 2703 of this title.  The court may, however, order a
payment as described in subsection (a) if the court determines the
information required is unusually voluminous in nature or otherwise caused
an undue burden on the provider.

{ 2707.  Civil action

     (a) CAUSE OF ACTION. -- Except as provided in section 2703(e), any
provider of electronic communication service, subscriber, or customer
aggrieved by any violation of this chapter in which the conduct constituting
the violation is engaged in with a knowing or intentional state of mind may,
in a civil action, recover from the person or entity which engaged in that
violation such relief as may be appropriate.

     (b) RELIEF. -- IN a civil action under this section, appropriate relief
includes --

     (1) such preliminary and other equitable or declaratory relief as may
be appropriate;

     (2) damages under subsection (c); and

     1/2 of (b), all of (c) & (d) omitted see p. 514,447

     (e) LIMITATION. -- A civil action under this section may not be
commenced later than two years after the date upon which the claimant first
discovered or had a reasonable opportunity to discover the violation.

{ 2708.  Exclusivity of remedies

     The remedies and sanctions described in this chapter are the only
judicial remedies and sanctions for nonconstitutional violations of this
chapter.

{ 2709.  Counterintelligence access to telephone toll and transactional
records

     (a) DUTY TO PROVIDE. -- A wire or electronic communication service
provider shall comply with a request for subscriber information and toll
billing records information, or electronic communication transactional
records in its custody or possession made by the Director of the Federal
Bureau of Investigation under subsection (b) of this section.

     (b) REQUIRED CERTIFICATION. -- The Director of the Federal Bureau of
Investigation (or an individual within the Federal Bureau of Investigation
designated for this purpose by the Director) may request any such
information and records if the Director (or the Director's designee)
certifies in writing to the wire or electronic communication service
provider to which the request is made that --

     (1) the information sought is relevant to an authorized foreign
counterintelligence investigation; and

     (2) there are specific and articulable facts giving reason to believe
that the person or entity to whom the information sought pertains is a
foreign power or an agent of a foreign power as defined in section 101 of
the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1801).

     (c) PROHIBITION OF CERTAIN DISCLOSURE. -- No wire or electronic
communication service provider, or officer, employee, or agent thereof,
shall disclose to any person that the Federal Bureau of Investigation has
sought or obtained access to information or records under this section.

     (d) DISSEMINATION BY BUREAU. -- The Federal Bureau of Investigation may
disseminate information and records obtained under this section only as
provided in guidelines approved by the Attorney General for foreign
intelligence collection and foreign counterintelligence investigations
conducted by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and, with respect to
dissemination to an agency of the United States, only if such information is
clearly relevant to the authorized responsibilities of such agency.

     (e) REQUIREMENT THAT CERTAIN CONGRESSIONAL BODIES BE INFORMED. -- On a
semi-annual basis the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation shall
fully inform the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of
Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate
concerning all requests made under subsection (b) of this section.

{ 2710.  Definitions for chapter

     As used in this chapter -

     (1) the terms defined in section 2510 of this title have, respectively,
the definitions given such terms in that section; and

     (2) the term "remote computing service" means the provision to the
public of computer storage or processing services by means of an electronic
communications system.

CHAPTER 205-SEARCHES AND SEIZURES

Sec. 3101.  Effect of rules of court--Rules

                    *              *              *

3117.  Mobile tracking devices.

                    *              *              *

{ 3117.  Mobile tracking devices

     (a).  IN GENERAL.--If a court is empowered to ussue a warrant or other
order for the installation of a mobile tracking device, such order may
authorize the use of that device within the jurisdiction of the court, and
outside that jurisdiction if the device is installed in that jurisdiction.

     (b).  DEFINITION.--As used in this section, the term "tracking device"
means an electronic or mechanical device which permits the tracking of the
movement of a person or object.

CHAPTER 206-PEN REGISTERS AND TRAP TRACE DEVICES

Sec.

3121.  General prohibition on pen register on trap and trace device use;
     exception.

3122.  Application for an order for a pen register or a trap and trace
     device.

3123.  Issuance of an order for a pen register or a trap or trace
     device.

3124.  Assistance in installation and use of a pen register or a trap and
     trace device.

3125.  Reports concerning pen registers and trap and trace devices.

3126.  Definitions for chapter.

{ 3121. General prohibition on pen register and trap and trace device use;
exception

     (a)  In General.-Except as provided in this section, no person may
install or use a pen register or a trap and trace device without first
obtaining a court order under section 3123 of this title or under the
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.).

     (b)  Exception.-The prohibition of subsection (a) does not apply with
respect to the use of a pen register or a trap and trace device by a
provider of electronic or wire communication service-

     (1)  relating to the operation, maintenance, and testing of a wire or
electronic communication service or to the protection of the rights or
property of such provider, or to the protection of users of that service
from abuse of service or unlawful use of service; or

     (2)  to record the fact that a wire or electronic communication was
initiated or completed in order to protect such provider, another provider
furnishing service toward the completion of the wire communication, or a
user of that service, from fraudulent, unlawful or abusive use of service;
or with the consent of the user of that service.

     (c)  Penalty.-Whoever knowingly violates subsection (a) shall be fined
under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

{ 3122.  Application for an order for a pen register or a trap and trace
device

     (a)  Application.-(1) An attorney for the Government may make
application for an order or an extension of an order under section 3123 of
this title authorizing or approving the installation and use of a pen
register or a trap and trace device under this chapter, in writing under
oath or equivalent affirmation, to a court of competent jurisdiction.

     (2)  Unless prohibited by State law, a State investigative law
enforcement officer may make application for an order or an extension of an
order under section 3123 of this title authorizing or approving the
installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device under this
chapter, in writing under oath or equivalent affirmation, to a court of
competent jurisdiction of such State.

     (b)  Contents Of Application.-An application under subsection (a) of
this section shall include-

     (1)  the identity of the attorney for the Government or the State law
enforcement or investigative officer making the application and the identity
of the law enforcement agency conducting the investigation; and

     (2)  a certification by the applicant that the information likely to be
obtained is relevant to an ongoing criminal investigation being conducted by
that agency.

{ 3123.  Issuance of an order for a pen register or a trap and trace device

     (a)  In General.-Upon an application made under section 3122 of this
title, the court shall enter an ex parte order authorizing the installation
and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device within the jurisdiction
of the court if the court finds that the attorney for the Government or the
State law enforcement or investigative officer has certified to the court
that the information likely to be obtained by such installation and use is
relevant to an ongoing criminal investigation.

     (b)  Contents Of Order.-An order issued under this section-

     (1)  shall specify-

     (A)  the identity, if known, of the person to whom is leased or in
whose name is listed the telephone line to which the pen register or trap
and trace device is to be attached;

     (B)  the identity, if known, of the person who is the subject of the
criminal investigation;

     (C)  the number and, if known, physical location of the telephone line
to which the pen register or trap and trace device is to be attached and, in
the case of a trap and trace device, the geographic limits of the trap and
trace order; and

     (D)  a statement of the offense to which the information likely to be
obtained by the pen register or trap and trace device relates; and

     (2)  shall direct, upon the request of the applicant, the furnishing of
information, facilities, and technical assistance necessary to accomplish
the installation of the pen register or trap and trace device under section
3124 of this title.

     (c)  Time Period And Extensions.-(1) An order issued under this section
shall authorize the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and
trace device for a period not to exceed sixty days.

     (2)  Extensions of such an order may be granted, but only upon an
application for an order under section 3122 of this title and upon the
judicial finding required by subsection (a) of this section.  The period of
extension shall be for a period not to exceed sixty days.

     (d)  Non-disclosure Of Existence Of Pen Register Or A Trap And Trace
Device.-An order authorizing or approving the installation and use of a pen
register or a trap and trace device shall direct that-

     (1)  the order be sealed until otherwise ordered by the court; and

     (2)  the person owning or leasing the line to which the pen register or
a trap and trace device is attached, or who has been ordered by the court to
provide assistance to the applicant, not disclose the existence of the pen
register or trap and trace device or the existence of the investigation to
the listed subscriber, or to any other person, unless or until otherwise
ordered by the court.

{ 3124.  Assistance in installation and use of a pen register or a trap and
trace device

     (a)  Pen Registers.-Upon the request of an attorney for the Government
or an officer of a law enforcement agency authorized to install and use a
pen register under this chapter, a provider of wire or electronic
communication service, landlord, custodian, or other person shall furnish
such investigative or law enforcement officer forthwith all information,
facilities, and technical assistance necessary to accomplish the
installation of the pen register unobtrusively and with a minimum of
interference with the services that the person so ordered by the court
accords the party with respect to whom the installation and use is to take
place, if such assistance is directed by a court order as provided in
section 3123(b)(2) of this title.

     (b)  Trap And Trace Device.-Upon the request of an attorney for the
Government or an officer of a law enforcement agency authorized to receive
the results of a trap and trace device under this chapter, a provider of a
wire or electronic communication service, landlord, custodian, or other
person shall install such device forthwith on the appropriate line and shall
furnish such investigative or law enforcement officer all additional
information, facilities and technical assistance including installation and
operation of the device unobtrusively and with a minimum of interference
with the services that the person so ordered by the court accords the party
with respect to whom the installation and use is to take place, if such
installation and assistance is directed by a court order as provided in
section 3123(b)(2) of this title.  Unless otherwise ordered by the court,
the results of the trap and trace device shall be furnished to the officer
of a law enforcement agency, designated in the court, at reasonable
intervals during regular business hours for the duration of the order.

     (c)  Compensation.-A provider of a wire or electronic communication
service, landlord, custodian, or other person who furnishes facilities or
technical assistance pursuant to this section shall be reasonably
compensated for such reasonable expenses incurred in providing such
facilities and assistance.

     (d)  No Cause Of Action Against A Provider Disclosing Information Under
This Chapter.-No cause of action shall lie in any court against any provider
of a wire or electronic communication service, its officers, employees,
agents, or other specified persons for providing information, facilities, or
assistance in accordance with the terms of a court order under this chapter.

     (e)  Defense.-A good faith reliance on a court order, a legislative
authorization, or a statutory authorization is a complete defense against
any civil or criminal action brought under this chapter or any other law.

{ 3125.  Reports concerning pen registers and trap and trace devices

     The Attorney General shall annually report to Congress on the number of
pen register orders and orders for trap and trace devices applied for by law
enforcement agencies of the Department of Justice.

{ 3126.  Definitions for chapter

     As used in this chapter-

     (1)  the terms "wire communication", "electronic communication", and
"electronic communication service" have the meanings set forth for such
terms in section 2510 of this title;

     (2)  the term "court of competent jurisdiction" means-

     (A)  a district court of the United States (including a magistrate of
such a court) or a United States Court of Appeals; or

     (B)  a court of general criminal jurisdiction of a State authorized by
the law of that State to enter orders authorizing the use of a pen register
or a trap and trace device;

     (3)  the term "pen register" means a device which records or decodes
electronic or other impulses which identify the numbers dialed or otherwise
transmitted on the telephone line to which such device is attached, but such
term does not include any device used by a provider or customer of a wire or
electronic communication service for billing, or recording as an incident to
billing, for communications services provided by such provider or any device
used by a provider or customer of a wire communication service for cost
accounting or other like purposes in the ordinary course of its business;

     (4)  the term "trap and trace" device means a device which captures the
incoming electronic or other impulses which identify the originating number
of an instrument or device from which a wire or electronic communication was
transmitted;

     (5)  the term "attorney for the Government" has the meaning given such
term for the purposes of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure; and

     (6)  the term "State" means a State, the District of Columbia, Puerto
Rico, and any other possession or territory of the United States.


===============================================================================

             A lawyer's review and perspective of the ECPA

===============================================================================

                WHEN IS LISTENING TO THE RADIO A CRIME?

                         By FRANK TERRANELLA

    The federal Electronic Communications Privacy Act has turned many radio
listeners into criminals.  The problem is, most of them don't know about it. I
will attempt here to describe in very non-legalistic and general terms
(extremely difficult for a lawyer), exactly what listening is legal and what
is illegal.

    Section 2511 of the Federal Criminal Statutes (18 U.S.C.) is where most of
the action is in this field.  The statute is primarily a wiretap and bug
statute and only recently has been expanded to include radio listening.  I
will not be discussing the provisions dealing with oral communications or
wiretaps and bugging devices here.

    The statute starts out by saying that it is illegal to intentionally
intercept, disclose or use the contents of any wire or electronic
communication.  The statute then goes on to carve out exceptions to this
general rule.

    It is important to understand what the law means by wire or electronic
communication.  A wire communication is any communication over a telephone or
other wire.  However, the definition specifically includes cellular telephones
and excludes cordless telephones (even though both involve the use of radio
and wire transmission).  An electronic communication includes all radio
transmissions, but excludes cordless telephones and pagers.

    After making a blanket prohibition of intercepting all electronic (i.e.
radio) transmissions, the statute lists the exceptions.  The first exception
is that it is legal to listen to all radio transmissions which are "readily
accessible to the general public."  This term is defined in the statute to
mean radio signals which are (1) not encrypted, scrambled, carried on a
subcarrier or other signal subsidiary to a radio transmission; (2) not
transmitted over a common carrier communications system (such as the phone
company); (3) not special transmissions such as point-to-point private relay
transmissions for the broadcast services, not meant for reception by the
general public.

    The next exception to the general rule is that it is legal to listen to
all radio broadcasts "relating to ships, aircraft, vehicles or persons in
distress." The statute also says that it is legal to listen to a broadcast by
any governmental, law enforcement, civil defense, private land mobile or
public safety communications system, including police and fire, which are
readily accessible to the general public.  It is also legal to listen to
transmissions on the amateur bands, citizens band or general mobile radio
services as well as any marine or aeronautical communications system and
cordless telephone transmission.
  
    Finally, it is not illegal to intercept satellite transmissions of cable
programming as long as the transmission is not encrypted, there is no monetary
gain by the viewer, and there is no marketing system available (meaning no one
is selling the rights to view the programming via satellite).

    There is also an interesting section of the statute which may provide a
loophole for lawyers defending clients charged with a violation of this law.
The statute says that it is not illegal to intercept a radio transmission
which is causing interference with any lawfully operating station (including
ham radio operators), or is causing interference with any consumer electronic
equipment, to the extent necessary to identify the source of the interference.
I can see a lawyer arguing that his client was only listening to that cellular
telephone transmission because it was interfering with his client's reception
on the 23 centimeter band.

    After all of the exceptions are carved out, the bottom line is that the
only radio frequency transmissions which are off limits are those which are
not readily accessible to the general public, as that term is defined in the
statute.  The definition of "readily accessible to the general public" is
stated in the statute as follows:

     (a)  not scrambled or encrypted;

     (b)  not transmitted using modulation techniques whose essential
          parameters have been withheld from the public with the intention of
          preserving the privacy of such communication;

     (c)  not carried on a subcarrier or other signal subsidiary to a radio
          transmission;

     (d)  not transmitted over a communication system provided by a common
          carrier, unless the communication is a tone only paging system
          communication;

     (e)  not transmitted on frequencies allocated under part 25; subpart
          D,E, or F of part 74; or part 94 of the Rules of the Federal
          Communications Commission, unless, in the case of a communication
          transmitted on a frequency allocated under part 74 that is not
          exclusively allocated to broadcast auxiliary services, the
          communication is a two-way voice communication by radio.

    The first two of these are no problem.  If the signal is scrambled,
law-abiding DXers will leave it alone.  Paragraph (c) begins the real
restrictions on DXers.  Under the statutory definition, signals on a
subcarrier, such as the types being experimented with in television at the
moment, are not readily accessible to the general public and are not permitted
listening.

    The next section poses the greatest problem for DXers.  Under the
definition, any signal, other than a tone, which is transmitted by a common
carrier is off limits.  The FCC defines a common carrier as "any person
engaged in rendering communication service for hire to the public." (47 CFR
21.2) The statutory definition given in 47 U.S.C. 153(h) is a bit more
specific in that it specifically excludes radio broadcasters who, through sale
of commercials, do render a communication service for hire.  But, even with
the removal of broadcasters, this definition is very broad and will include,
beyond obvious services such as cellular telephone, just about every utility
station on the face of the earth.

    The types of radio transmissions made off limits to DXers by paragraph (e)
are certain satellite communications, certain microwave communications, and
auxiliary stations to broadcasters used for such things as feeds from the
mobile van back to the studio or from the studio to the transmitter. The
frequencies of these services are all above 1 Gigahertz except for the bands
928-929 MHz and 944-960 Mhz.  The exception to this is the frequency
assignment given to remote broadcast pickup stations under subpart D of part
74.  This service, which is off-limits to DXers, is assigned bits and pieces
of the radio spectrum from 1606 kHz through 455.925 Mhz.  Twenty-six
frequencies in the shortwave bands are allocated to this service.  The
allocations are scattered between 25.87 Mhz and 26.47 Mhz, but unless you have
a copy of the FCC Rules and Regulations, there is no easy way for a DXer to
know that listening to these transmissions is a federal offense.

    This is precisely why I maintain that this law is unenforceable.  In order
for a prosecution under 18 U.S.C. 2511 to be successful, the government must
prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the DXer intentionally intercepted a
protected transmission.  Since even attorneys are unsure what frequencies are
off-limits, how can the government hope to prove that a DXer who happens upon
one of these federally-legislated minefields in the radio spectrum, actually
intended to do so?

    It should be noted that the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 605) has
not been repealed by the new law.  It is still illegal, as it has been since
at least 1934, to divulge the contents of any transmission except for general
broadcast stations, amateur radio and CB transmissions, and transmissions
relating to ships, aircraft, vehicles or persons in distress. A recent case
(Edwards v. State Farm Insurance Co., 833 F.2d 535) concluded that in order to
prove an offense under this statute, the speaker must have held a subjective
expectation of privacy that was justifiable under the circumstances.

    I hope that this brief trip through the legal maze of communications
privacy has been useful.  I can see the day coming when some industrious
lawyer, defending a client of means, decides to challenge this unjust law. The
basis is very simple.  Just as there is no Fourth Amendment right of privacy
where there is no reasonable expectation of privacy, so too there should not
be a statutory right of privacy where anyone with a receiver can listen in.
To use an analogy, the providers of cellular service want the right to parade
down Main Street with no clothes on and then prosecute anyone who looks.  This
is simply unfair and unrealistic.

    And beyond that, our First Amendment freedom of speech has a corollary
freedom to be informed and to gather information.  This freedom must extend to
the spoken as well as the printed word, as long as no reasonable expectations
of privacy are violated.  Anyone with a receiver should be entitled to hear
anything which is broadcast in the clear over the "public" airwaves for the
simple reason that it is not reasonable for anyone to transmit in this manner
and expect this transmission to be private.  An expectation of privacy can
only be achieved by scrambling the signal, not by governmental decree.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
FRANK TERRANELLA is an attorney, ham radio operator and short wave listener
(not necessarily in that order).


===============================================================================

             Modifying two scanners for cellular reception

===============================================================================

    The word "modifying" in this case is wrong.  That implies that there is a
_conversion_ process whereby you can cause your scanner to suddenly begin
receiving cellular mobile telephone calls.  This is wrong thinking.  A scanner
that is _designed_ to receive those frequencies above 512 MHz can have those
frequencies RESTORED (_sometimes_).  A scanner that covers from 30-512 MHz can
NEVER receive 800-900 MHz frequencies without the aid of an external RF
converter.  Many times you will see messages from people asking how to modify
such-and-such a receiver to pick up CMT.  The sad truth is, the answer is $$$,
as that's what it will take to get a new scanner that covers those
frequencies.

    Some older scanners (most of them in fact) have no modifications so that
they will cover these frequencies.  There may be cosmetic changes, such as the
addition of an S-meter, or squelch or tone improvement, but there will never,
ever be anything that can be done to most of them to make them cover CMT.  The
PRO-2004/2005/34 receivers originally had those frequencies, but had them
blocked out.  Restoring those frequencies was simply a matter of _unblocking_
them.  There was really no "modifying" taking place.  If a scanner was never
intended to cover 800 MHz, it never will.  You can get RF converters that will
convert 800-912 MHz down to 400-512 MHz, however, and these should work on all
scanners.

MOST SCANNERS CANNOT BE MODIFIED OR CHANGED TO RECEIVE THE CMT FREQUENCIES.

    There are a handful of exceptions to this.  It started out with the
Realistic PRO-2004 and the PRO-34, and went to the PRO-2005.  To restore CMT
for the 2004, open the radio and turn it upside down.  You'll see a large
metal box. Carefully remove the cover.  Find diode D-513.  It may be in the
line of diodes, or it may be on the bottom of the PC board, in which case
you'll have to VERY carefully remove the board.  In either case, the cure is
the same. Clip one leg of D-513 to restore CMT frequencies.

    If you're careful, you can unsolder this diode and place it in the empty
spot at D-510. That will give you 400 channels instead of 300.

    For the PRO-2005, the procedure is the same, except you clip one leg of
D-502 to restore cellular reception.  In the 2004, put a 1N914 diode in D-514
and you'll increase your scan/search speed by 25%.  Watch your diode polarity!
For the PRO-2005, it's D-501, which is on the display board behind the
keyboard. Adding D-504 to the PRO-2005 will DELETE 66-88 MHz coverage -- TV
channels, radio control, etc., so don't add D-504!!!!  As far as is known,
there is no channel expansion capability on the order of the PRO-2004 for the
PRO-2005.  400 channels appears to be its limit.

    The PRO-34 handheld can also have CMT restored, and all can be modified to
receive 6,400 channels (3,200 on the PRO-34), but that's beyond the capability
of this article.  I could have typed in the directions for restoring CMT to
the PRO-34, but you really need pictures to go with the modification.  The
original article was in "Popular Communications." All these are described in
great detail in the "Scanner Modification Handbook" by Bill Cheek, available
from CRB Research Books, Inc., PO Box 56, Commack, New York, 11725.  It's
$17.95 + $2.00 postage and handling, but is well worth the price due to the
treasure trove of info that's in it.

===============================================================================

                  How to discover other scanner modifications

===============================================================================

                HOW TO 'DISCOVER' THOSE NEAT RADIO MODIFICATIONS

                              by Bob Parnass, AJ9S

    How do the people that discover modifications to radios go about finding
them?  Good question!

    The first rule of thumb is to obtain service manuals, as they contain more
than just troubleshooting information.  For example, the alignment procedure
outlined in the Regency K500 and M400 service manuals describes how to
circumvent the frequency limit checking firmware, which allows out of band
frequency programming.  The Uniden 200/205XLT service manual describes a
keyboard sequence that clears most of the 200 memory channels, and loads the
others with bizarre test frequencies.

    Service manuals often describe the circuit changes in models intended for
export to other countries.  This can reveal features disabled for some
customers but  enabled for others.

    A good library of IC and semiconductor data books is very helpful,
although radio service manuals can also include IC internal diagrams. Old TTL
databooks are no longer enough.  The transition to surface mount components in
radios like the Uniden/Bearcat 760XLT is motivation for acquiring data books
for leadless components.

    Although some modifications involve discovery of "hidden" features, many
others involve designing new circuitry or applying old circuitry from another
radio.  I can't claim credit for many "add/delete a diode" modifications, but
here are the factors that accounted for a few other modifications.

              ***** Recognize Common Radio Circuits *****

Modification:  Improve the squelch on the PRO-24, PRO-2004, 800XLT, etc.
Motivation: Unsatisfied with stock performance.

    Almost all modern scanners use MC3357, MC3359, or Japanese pin equivalent
chips, which contain the IF, squelch, limiter & discriminator circuitry.
Older Bearcat and Regency scanners, like the BC300 and M400, often hid the
identity of their IC with "house numbers" painted over them.  I compared these
ICs pin for pin with the MC3357 and other known radio ICs to unmask their true
identity.  Having the Motorola IC data sheet and scanner service manuals made
learning the chip internals easy, so I found the way to decrease hysteresis
involved changing one resistor.

                         ***** Be Curious *****

Modification: Trick the Icom R-71A to tune below 100 kHz.
Motivation: Curiosity.

    Tried manipulating several front panel controls at the same time to see if
I could confuse the microprocessor into doing something neat.  I did.

         ***** Study the Schematic, Look for Unused Pins *****

Modification:  Double the memory in the R-7000 (also published by another
               radio hobbyist).
Motivation: curiosity.

    I studied the schematic of the R-7000, and looked up the memory IC in a
data book.  Icom grounded an address lead, so only 1/2 the  chip capacity was
used.  Not having enough time to try the idea on my own radio, I suggested the
idea Jack Albert, who writes the RTTY column in "Monitoring Times", who used
his R-7000 as a guinea pig.

          ***** Borrow Circuits from Other Radio Models *****

Modification:  S-meter circuit for Bearcat scanners (unpublished).
Motivation:  wanted to use scanners for transmitter hunting.

    I looked for other radios that used the same IF/squelch chip and already
featured S-meters (like the Kenwood TR- 2600A, IC-28A, IC228H, etc.) I grafted
their S-meter circuitry to my scanners.

           ***** Vary Parameters and Measure the Impact *****

Modification: Speed up the R-7000 scan rate.
Motivation: dissatisfied with stock performance.

    I studied the radio schematic, found the components that determined scan
rate, and substituted various values of resistance, measuring the affect of
each change.

                    ***** Apply Simple Theory *****

Modification: COR light for  the  PRO-2004.
Motivation: make scanner easier to use in a roomful of other active radios.

    Having studied the schematics of many scanners, I was familiar with FM
receiver and scanner circuitry.  I used service manual and found the proper
point in the circuit where a logic level signal was produced depending on
whether a signal was absent or present.  Again, the PRO-2004 used a popular
IF/squelch chip.  I used the simplest transistor switching principles to
design a COR light circuit.

                   ***** Fashion a Test Harness *****

    Marvin Moss used an interesting approach to explore his portable scanner.
He wired the diodes in the diode matrix of his Radio Shack PRO-34 to separate
DIP switches so he could experiment with switching in and out different
combinations of diodes.

               ***** All That Glitters is Not Gold *****

    I always find other peoples' modifications very interesting, although not
all are meritorious.  For instance, avoid changing the crystal or RC time
constant circuitry used as a clock for the microprocessor controller in your
receiver.  The controller performs many functions, so this alteration can
produce undesirable side effects which outweigh any small increase in scan
rate.


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