TUCoPS :: Truly Miscellaneous :: hackenc.txt

Logik Bomb's Hackers Encyclopedia

_Paradise Lost_, book III, line 18

++++++++++Hacker's Encyclopedia++++++++
===========by Logik Bomb (FOA)========
---------------(1997- Revised Second Edition)--------

"[W]atch where you go
once you have entered here, and to whom you turn!
	Do not be misled by that wide and easy passage!"
	And my Guide [said] to him: "That is not your concern;
it is his fate to enter every door.
	This has been willed where what is willed must be, 
	and is not yours to question. Say no more."
	-Dante Alighieri
	_The Inferno_, 1321
	Translated by John Ciardi

	Dedicated to all those who disseminate information, forbidden or otherwise. Also, I should note that a few of these entries are taken from "A Complete List of Hacker Slang and Other Things," Version 1C, by Casual, Bloodwing and Crusader; this doc started out as an unofficial update. However, I've updated, altered, expanded, re-written and otherwise torn apart the original document, so I'd be surprised if you could find any vestiges of the original file left. I think the list is very informative; it came out in 1990, though, which makes it somewhat outdated. I also got a lot of information from the works listed in my bibliography, (it's at the end, after all the quotes) as well as many miscellaneous back issues of such e-zines as _Cheap Truth _, _40Hex_, the _LOD/H Technical Journals_ and _Phrack Magazine_; and print magazines such as _Internet Underground_, _Macworld_, _Mondo 2000_, _Newsweek_, _2600: The Hacker Quarterly_, _U.S. News & World Report_, _Time_, and _Wired_; in addition to various people I've consulted. My alpha testers were Einsteinium, Remorseless and Manual Override, and my only beta tester was Space Rogue of L0phT fame (who also helped me out with revisions to the second edition). I've also received input from Acid Phreak, Anton Chernoff, John Perry Barlow, Dead Lord, John Draper, The Mentor and Nightmare.
	I've also gotten a lot of information on (non-cyber) punks and the surrounding subculture from Ronald DuPlanty II, who was in my fourth-period drama class when I was in ninth grade. Besides having the most piercings I've ever seen, writing a really cool monologue that was more cyberpunk than he ever considered, and being an all-around great guy, Ron also taught me more about Throbbing Gristle than _Cyberia_ ever came close to, indeed more than I ever wanted to know. I also got lots of information on the rave/drug scene from my cousin Sean Krueger.
	Finally, thanks to Nine Inch Nails, Rage Against the Machine, and Iggy Pop, for giving me good background music while I was writing this.

	If anyone has any entries they want me to add, or a newer version of any of the etexts in my bibliography, please send it to me at logikbomb@hackers.com so that I can include changes in the 1998 edition. Don't change anything if you distribute this to other sites (and please do; I want this distributed all over the place); if you find any typos or errors I may have made, notify me and I will make the change in the next edition. I cannot make any guarantees as to the accuracy of any of these entries, but if you see a way I've screwed up, please tell me. All of my information is based on written material by journalists or other writers; I know that journalists are often very wrong. I also welcome new information; this document is supposed to be information relevant to "cyberpunks" for lack of a better word; specifically, science fiction, hacking, phreaking, cracking, virii and subculture info (I am using my own discretion as far as the latter; while I have chosen to enter such questionable material as information on goths and Zippies, I don't want this to turn into _Mondo 2000: A User's Guide to Being a Fashionpunk_.) I am not including information on basic Net culture, such as IRC acronyms and emoticons; this sort of thing is already covered in other files. Also, I'm a Mac user, and even though I have some Wintel and Unix knowledge and the rest is usually taken up by my testers, I may have some incorrect information, so I welcome corrections. Note: I am using aliases that were meant to fool law enforcement and were not meant as handles under the form Lastname, Firstname, but I am using handles, even those in the form of proper names (such as Emmanuel Goldstein), without putting the last name first. Handles that look like proper names are also indexed with last name first, but that just references to the other entry. (What, you want me to write LIGHTNING, KNIGHT and PHREAK, ACID? Doesn't really work, even though John Perry Barlow refers to "Mr. Phreak" and "Mr. Optik.") I can't believe I'm spending my time on this crap.
	Oh, yeah, and so you know who I am and what my personal biases are, I'm Logik Bomb, pleased to meet you. I'm in high school, I own an Apple Power Macintosh 4400/200 (32/2) (as well as a 33.6 internal modem, a Zip drive and an internal twelve-speed CD-ROM drive), and I am a hacker (by definitions one, two, three and five in my entry). I have written for _Phrack Magazine_ (volume seven, issue forty-eight). I read a lot of cyberpunk fiction. I was a member of a fairly influential group called the Legion of the Apocalypse (LOA); I'm currently a member of a polymorphous group that changes it's name every three months or so, the current incarnation being F0ne phreaks Of America (FOA). My handle comes from the usually destructive program; however, I use the name more for an affinity for the imagery of the abolition of standard linear logic than interest in virii or similar programs; the "k" is in there in homage to Phiber Optik. (By the way, John Perry Barlow said I had a cool handle. So there.) Finally, I'm one of the very few hacker types in the entire world who knows how to spell. :)

SPECIAL NOTE: Perhaps I should take this as flattery, but it gets annoying. There are a lot of people now with "Logik" or "Logic" in their handles. There are even a few people who have taken the handle "Logik Bomb" other than me. There are also a number of people who use my handle and actually pretend to be me, which is a problem in some cases. So, for the record, I have used this handle since 1994, and to the very best of my exhaustive hacker knowledge, no one else had a handle even similar to that before I did. Accept no impostors.



ACID PHREAK (1970-Present)- Handle of Elias Ladopoulos. Current "leader" of MOD. Could be reached until recently at ap@gti.net, though I think that account no longer exists. [Name comes from "phreak," as in phone phreak, and "acid," so that it is a pun on acid freak, as in someone who takes a lot of LSD. He doesn't take acid, though; he listens to acid house music.]

ACTS [Automated Coin Toll System]- Used in payphones to show that you have indeed put money in, so that you can make a call. Can be fooled by a Red Box.

THE ADMINISTRATION- One of the largest hack/phreak groups to ever exist. It also had a sister group called Team Hackers '86. Members included Adolf Hitler, Alpha Centauri, Author Unknown, British Bloke, Dark Priest, David Lightman 214, Dr. Pepper, Hewlett Hackard, Major Havoc, Mane Phrame, Mark Twain, Phoneline Phantom 1, Red Baron, Renegade Rebel, Sasha Kinski, The President and Walter Mitty.

_ADVENTURE_- An old Atari 2600 video game that Knight Lightning played when he was seven years old and discovered secret rooms. This led to an interest in finding secrets in computers. Interestingly, the secret room KL found (which contained the initials of a programmer) is often considered to be the first easter egg ever put in a commercial program.

AGENT STEAL (1961-Present)- Handle of Justin Tanner Peterson, alias Samuel Grossman, alias Eric Heinz. Hacker and Los Angeles club promotor who apparently worked for the FBI as a nark after being jailed for credit card fraud; gathered info on big guns like Mitnick and Poulsen for the Bureau. Went on the run for ten months before being apprehended in 1994. A number of interviews with Agent Steal appear in Jonathon Littman's _The Fugitive Game: Online with Kevin Mitnick_.

AGORAPHOBIA- An abnormal fear of open spaces (opposite of claustrophobia); extreme agoraphobes are confined to a small space such as their room indefinitely. (Among other things, the Finn in Gibson's Sprawl Series in agoraphobic.) [From Latin, combining the Greek "agora" (meaning "open space" and Latin "phobia," fear.]

AGRAJAG THE PROLONGED- Former member of the Hitchhikers and the Legion of Doom. He was also a programmer for old gaming machines. [Handle is from a character in _Life, the Universe and Everything_, the third book in the increasingly inaccurately named Hitchhiker's Trilogy by Douglas Adams. I believe the person using the handle has combined the names of the characters of Agrajag and Wowbanger the Infinitely Prolonged.]

AI [Artifical Intelligence]- see ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

AL [Artificial Life]- see ARTIFICIAL LIFE

ALLIANCE- Former AT&T trademark referring to teleconferencing systems.

ALTAIR- The very first personal computer, introduced 1975. Really pathetic by our standards, but the first computer at all available to the common person. [From the name of a particularly bright star; I belive the designers got the name because the star was a destination in the Romulan neutral zone in the classic _Star Trek_ episode "Balance of Terror."]

ALT.2600- Usenet newsgroup concerned with hacking. From the magazine, _2600: The Hacker Quarterly_. There are a few variants: alt.2600.moderated, alt.2600.hackerz, alt.2600.phreakz and alt.2600hz. [In USENET form, "alt," for "alternative," and "2600," for the subgroup 2600.]


AMERICA ONLINE [AOL]- Very evil commercial online service that rose from the ashes of a BBS called QuantumLink in 1990, and the largest commercial service. They've had an enormous problem with hackers, and their solution is to try and stop the flow of programs they don't like and shut down any chat room involving hacking. A number of programs have been written to rip them off, most notably AOHell and AOL4Free.

ANAC [Automated Number Announcement Circuit]- A circuit which can be called that will tell you the number of the phone you are calling from. Obviously not useful when using your own phone, but helpful for beige boxing.

ANALOG- A way of representing information that uses a continuous range of values. Opposite of digital-- while a CD is digital, a tape is analog; while a computer is digital, an abacus is analog.

ANARCHY- (1) Total chaos and disorder.
	(2) A time in a country, usually after a revolution, where there is no government, the most recent example probably being the current lack of government in Albania. This condition has never been prolonged for very long.
	(3) The tenets of the political science of anarchism, the ultimate goal of which is the removal of any rule by anyone or anything; there are many schools of thought in anarchism, including anarcho-capitalism, communo-anarchism, anarcho-syndicalism and anarcho-nihilism. ("We're not a kingdom! We're an anarcho-syndicalist commune!" -_Monty Python and the Holy Grail_)
	(4) [Anarchy file] A file (usually text) that details such actions as how to brew nitroglycerin and other destructive things; the name is most likely inspired by the venerable _Anarchist Cookbook_, which deals with explosives and makes reference to militant anarchism and anarcho-nihilism. [From Greek, "a," meaning nobody, and "-archy," meaning "rule." The "n" is in there because it's too hard to pronounce "aarchy."]

AOHELL- Most famous program for hacking America Online; first coded in 1994 and contains a full suite of utilities. AOL's attempts at shutting down its distribution haven't worked very well.

AOL [America Online]- see AMERICA ONLINE

APPLE COMPUTER, INCORPORATED- Very large computer corporation whose main product is the Macintosh and its associated system software, the Mac OS. Founded in 1976 by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak (incidentally, former phone phreaks) and created the Apple IIe in 1979, which became the standard personal computer. In 1984, they released the Macintosh ("and you'll see why 1984 won't be like 1984"). While Apple is the second largest computer manufacturer in the world, the Mac OS continues to lose market share, currently down around five percent.

APPLEGATE, CHRISTINA- Former model and actress, notably on the television show _Married With Children_. Rumors were spread that Erik Bloodaxe dated her or went to high school with her (he says they aren't true), and her credit report was pulled by MOD.

AREA CODE- The prefix in a phone number, based on location, to add to the number of possible phone numbers. When two or more hackers have the same handle and it is in dispute as to who had it first or who deserves it, it is used to differentiate, or at least it was in the 1980s. (This is used in this file as well, as with the two Knightmares and Dr. Who.) You're billed a lot more when you call a telephone in a different area code, for reasons unclear to everyone but profiteering gluttons.

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE [AI]- The part of a program which governs how "smart" a program is; how much it can accomplish without user commands. Also used to refer to system software that can reason like a human being. The best examples of this are the insane AIs  in _Neuromancer_ and HAL 9000 in _2001: A Space Odyssey_.

ARTIFICIAL LIFE [AL]- Living programs or robots; viruses are primitive forms of artificial life. Maxis makes programs using relatively advanced artificial life (notably _SimLife_). The author/scientist Rudy Rucker deals with AL a lot. In theory, better programs could be developed if software was designed in a somewhat biological manner in a lot of different versions, and the versions "survived" based on which did their job the best until a very good, evolved program was left after "natural" selection.


ASCII ART- Art done in plain text. This is fairly difficult. Portraits of people done in ASCII art usually only work if the person has some major distinguishing characteristics; for instance, while my friend Einsteinium might come across fairly recognizable because he has long hair and glasses; I would not be at all distinguishable because I have contact lenses and fairly normal length hair, and my only really distinguishing feature is my red hair, which cannot be shown in ASCII because it can't support colors. [From American Standard Code for Information Interchange, the set of bits created in the 1980s to represent characters.]

AT&T [American Telephone and Telegraph]- Originally American Bell Telephone, the company that started the telephone. It was bought and, under the tutelage of another huge company, became a monopolous phone provider. The Microsoft of the Seventies and early Eighties. It was broken up by the justice department in 1982, which created lots of little baby RBOCS. In 1990 their phone network crashed temporarily, which got them into a lot of trouble, but since then they've been doing pretty well.

THE ATLANTA THREE- Urvile, Leftist and Prophet, members of the Atlanta chapter of LOD that were thrown in jail during the Hacker Crackdown of 1990 for events involving the theft of the E911 document.


AVATAR- An icon which represents a user in a virtual reality/Internet setting, currently attempted with varying success. The term is adopted from Neal Stephenson; another word used for the same concept is Rudy Rucker's term "tuxedo." [First used from an Internet perspective in 1992 in _Snow Crash_, by Neal Stephenson, in one of those self-fulfilling SF prophecies. Stephenson got the name from the Hindu concept of avatars, which are the personification of various deities or entities.]

AXE- To reformat a disk or delete a file.

BABBAGE, [Professor] CHARLES- Professor of mathematics at Cambridge who designed the Analytical Engine, a huge, grinding, steam-driven machine to do mathematical calculations in the 1830s. _The Difference Engine_, by William Gibson and Bruce Sterling, takes place in an alternate 1855 where the Analytical Engine was advanced nearly as far as our personal computers.

BABY- (1) Any program that is less than full-blown. A baby word processor would be a program that does just the bare essentials. (Apple's SimpleText is a baby word processor.) 
	(2) A hardware device that is smaller than normal.

BANG- (1) To lose your temper, usually in a very violent manner. In the extreme, destruction of hardware may result. [From banging something, or hitting it; also from the onomotopeotic word for a loud noise.]
	(2) Lots of exclamation points to add emphasis. Sometimes other weird characters are used as bangs. Also used to pronounce exclamation points; for instance, "Go to hell!!!!" would be pronounced "go to hell bang bang bang bang."

BANK- Cache memory; a section of memory not normally used that is utilized for high speed operations in certain programs. [From "databank;" I think this word has been replaced by the term "cache."]

BARLOW, JOHN PERRY- Grateful Dead lyricist from 1970 until the band broke up in 1995; ex-cattle rancher. Co-founder of the Electronic Frontier Foundation; civil libertarian, "cognitive dissident," buddy of a lot of members of MOD. (After that little misunderstanding with Phiber when Barlow called Phiber a punk and compared him to a skateboarder, and Phiber ILFed Barlow's TRW credit report. Good hack, that.) Also wrote the essay "Crime and Puzzlement," as well as a declaration of the independence of cyberspace and a _Time_ essay (notable for using the word "shit" for the first time in _Time_ without quotes around it. Barlow later said it felt like a revolutionary act.) Also, he's one of the few people I've met over the Net who I've also actually met in person, and the only real description I can give is that he looks exactly the way you'd think that he would knowing that he's a civil libertarian from Wyoming. Currently lecturer, EFF operative and contributing writer for _Wired_.

BASE- (1) Contraction for the word "database."
	(2) In most programming languages, a pointer; a set of memory locations that point to the start of an array (another memory location). The pointer is the "base" from which the array starts.

BASIC [Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code]- Not very powerful programming language for beginners. Used a lot in the Eighties. Currently, there is Visual Basic, which is a more powerful version of the same language.

BAUD [rate]- Obsolete measurement of the speed of a modem; sometimes erroneously used to refer to bits per second because at low rates they are equivalent. It really means "the number of signal events per second occuring on a communications channel." (That's what my modem's manual says.) [Named in honor of Emile Baudot, "telecommunications pioneer."]

BBS [Bulletin Board System]- A computer that is set up to act as a system where other people call in using phone lines to post messages; sometimes software is traded, and usually archives are kept of software on the board. The first board worthy of the name was Ward Christensen and Randy Suess's board in 1978.

BEDBUG- A virus type program that another programmer inserts into an existing program, with the intention of causing havoc. Usually not serious-- it is coded so the results look like a software bug, not a true virus. Sometimes makes copies of itself.


BELL, [Professor] ALEXANDER GRAHAM- The guy who invented the telephone in 1876. The man who created cyberspace, in its early, pathetic stage when no one thought it would be anything.

BELLSOUTH- Atlanta RBOC that was supposedly very easy to hack; some rumors claim they eventually spent two million dollars on security.

BERNIE S.- Handle of Edward "Ed" Cummings. Phreak put in an uncomfortable and unConstitutional imprisonment for possession of computer programs that "could be used for fraud" by the United States Secret Service. This essentially happened because Bernie had info on the USSS, including their names and pictures, that was an embarassment to the USSS despite its legality. 2600 posted his info on their web site to emphasize the fact that it was legal and harmless; he's since been released. Bernie S. can be emailed at bernies@2600.com.

BIG BLUE- Slang for IBM, from their blue logo.

BIG BROTHER (1)- Name for a police state government that spies on every aspect of a citizen's life and commandeers their very thoughts. The NSA's not so secret wish. [From the name of the non-existent leader of the evil state of Oceania in George Orwell's _1984_-- in the book, posters are placed almost everywhere with his face and the words "Big Brother is Watching You."]

BIG BROTHER (2)- The handle of a sysop who ran Varnet International BBS (c.1986 - c.1993), a long time favorite H/P/A BBS in area code 617 (Massachusetts).Currently sysops the L0phT BBS. Also a former member of Fargo 4A. (Submitted by Space Rogue)

BILLY IDOL- Stage name of William Broad, a punk singer who was a success in the 1970s and Eighties; former member of Generation X. Supposedly he used to be cool, but everything I've ever seen him do after Generation X was pretty lame. Jumped on the "cyber" bandwagon with his album _Cyberpunk_, which was a total failure as far as I can figure. You can reach him at idol@phantom.com.


BIT [Binary Digit]- Contraction of binary digit. Smallest unit of measurement in cyberspace. A 1 or 0; representing on or off, true or false to a computer.


THE BLACK BARON- Handle of Christopher Pile. British virus author who was sentenced to a jail term under the Computer Misuse Act for writing the viruses Pathogen and Queeg, which included an engine called SMEG. Also apparently a fan of the science fiction/comedy series _Red Dwarf_.

BLACK WIDOW- A Java applet capable of sinister acts including uploading files to the victim's hard drive and consuming RAM and CPU cycles.

_BLADE RUNNER_- 1982 movie directed by Ridley Scott that many cyberpunks just love to death. It has a great re-creation of Los Angeles in 2019 that William Gibson has said mirrors his vision of the Sprawl in _Neuromancer_;  just about every film using a dystopian urban environment has been inspired at least in part by the one in _Blade Runner_. The plot concerns a former bounty hunter/cop that hunts replicants, androids designed for off-world colonies. A sequel was also written (_Blade Runner 2: The Edge of Human_ by K.W. Jeter, followed by the sequel to that, _Replicant Night_) recently (don't waste your money on it), and Ridley Scott says he is going to make a follow-up film tentatively titled _Metropolis_. [Loosely based on Phillip K. Dick's _Do Android's Dream of Electric Sheep_; title comes from the name of a totally unrelated William S. Burroughs novel about black market surgeons, which was itself based on a story by Alan E. Nourse.]


BLESSED FOLDER- Slang for the System Folder on Macintosh computers. Comes from the fact that everything is run by that folder, and you mess with at your own risk. 


BLUE BOX- Infamous box that pretty much no longer works (though it still does in certain areas), but kicked ass in the 1960s, Seventies and Eighties. It is a device that plays a sound at a frequency of 2600 hertz, which allows a phreak to control a phone trunk and make free world-wide phone calls. (Entry modified with help from Space Rogue)


BOT- (1) A benevolent search bot such as an infobot or knowbot.
	(2) A bot which hacks IRC, giving the user special abilities on a channel he is not authorized to have. Many servers will boot you if you attempt to use a bot. [Short for "robot."]

BOX- A hardware device that allows abnormal telephone operation, like free calls or anti-tracing, used by phreaks. The ultimate box is the rainbow box, which combines the blue box, red box, green box, and black box. There are also a lot of weird variant boxes. Boxes, though the most pure form of phreaking, are rarely used now because of the phone company's changes to stop it, both on purpose and as a serendipitious result of the digitization of the phone system.

BPS [Bits Per Second]- Measurement of the speed of a modem, based on the number of binary digits that can be transferred by the modem under ideal circumstances in one second. More frequently referred to as kbps (kilobits per second) because of the high speeds now available.

BRAND, STEWART- Editor of the _Whole Earth Catalog_ and contributing writer for _Wired_; one of the hippies that decided cyberspace was pretty cool. Described cyberpunk as "technology with an attitude."

BRIDGE- A hack into the phone company's PBX, often used so that many phreaks can talk in a huge conference. This was a much more common practice in the 1980s, when massive party lines were held, people occasionally dropping out to go to work or school and someone else taking their place.


BRUTE FORCE ATTACK- A classic hacking technique; guessing an exhaustive number of passwords to try and enter a system. This does not work as much anymore, because even idiot sysadmins don't use quite so simple passwords. It was very successful about ten years ago, though.


BUG- A mistake in programming or hardware design that results in unfavorable results. Microsoft Word 6.0 was notorious for this. [Original origin unknown; the term has been used in design since the nineteenth century.]


BUM- The act of rewriting a program or section of a program to run in a smaller memory area. May also mean changing the code to remove unused sections and try to improve running speed. [From an old MIT hacker term.]

BURKE [, Carter J.]- A total asshole who causes more trouble than he's worth. [From the name of a treacherous company man in the film _Aliens_.]

BURROUGHS, WILLIAM SEWARD (1914-1997)- Famous proto-cyberpunk writer. Author of _Junky_, _Queer_, _The Naked Lunch_, _The Soft Machine_, _Nova Express_, _The Wild Boys_, _The Ticket That Exploded_, and _The Blade Runner_. Burroughs began as one of the original Beat Generation writers, along with Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsburg, Neal Cassady, Gregory Corso and Lawrence Ferlinghetti, and eventually outlived all of them, despite the fact that he was older and more obviously self-destructive then any of them. His novel _The Naked Lunch_ made him famous because it was involved in the last case of overt government censorship of books; name given by Jack Kerouac, written shortly after Burroughs accidentally killed his wife, and while he was addicted to heroin. Good reading. The book also may or may not have coined the term "heavy metal." Burroughs went on to be heavily involved in music, and has influenced or collaborated with artists as diverse as Patti Smith, Ministry, Kurt Cobain, R.E.M. and U2.

BYTE- A sequence of adjacent bits operated on as a unit by a computer. Very small unit of virtual measurement. On most personal computers, a byte is made up of eight bits; however, on the Internet, a byte is transferred as seven bits, which can fuck everything up. [Comes from an alteration and blend of the words bit, a binary digit, and bite, meaning to grab something with one's teeth; I have no idea why computer guys decided to blend those words.]

CAFFEINE- Natural "smart drug;" enough of it makes you hyperactive. Present in chocolate, soft drinks and coffee. A gateway drug.

CALEA [Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act]- Bill which concerns the development of a government wiretapping infrastracture; notably bans possession of "hardware or software used for altering or modifying telecommunications instruments to obtain unauthorized access to telecommunications services;" used to prosecute Bernie S. This legislation also makes most of the people reading this document criminals, as most of us have a modem or even (gasp) a cracking program of some sort. Yeah, right, like most of us hackers aren't criminals anyway, this just gives them license to lock us up for no provable reason. I wonder if CALEA is what they got Joseph K. on in _The Trial_ . . .

CANDYMAN- Archiver of forbidden information; administrator of CandyLand (was, rather; it was recently shut down). Computer science student. His stuff is often cited by Congress and the like as examples of why we should make the Net a police state.



CAPTAIN MIDNIGHT- A Dallas, Texas hacker who, in 1986, cracked an HBO presentation of _The Falcon and the Snowman_ with a message decrying HBO's practice of encrypting transmissions so that they could not be picked up with a satellite dish. According to an unsubstantiated report, he later used this to ask his girlfriend to marry him, and was eventually caught. [Probably from the 1930s radio show character.]

CARBON [or carbon dioxide] CHIP- The 80486 or 65C02 CPU chip.  The "carbon" comes from the "C," as in "CO2," (one carbon molecule, two oxygen molecules) which is the chemical formula for carbon dioxide.

CARDING- Using illicit credit card numbers. The underground is divided as far as the ethics of this; most think it is common thievery and does not follow the freedom of information ethic that drives other hacking.

CASE [, Henry Dorsett]- Anti-hero of _Neuromancer_, the William Gibson SF book; one of his few characters that only appeared in one book. Adopted as a hero by some and an allegory for the hacker; a ueberhacker who stole from his employees, has his nerves damaged so that he can not go back to cyberspace, but takes a deal with an AI to get them fixed.


CCC [Chaos Computer Club]- see CHAOS COMPUTER CLUB [CCC]

CCIS [Common Channel Interoffice Signalling]- Fairly new form of trunk for high-volume phone lines; a direct connect line to an ESS switch, usually at about 1.2 kbps. Blue boxes do not work on CCIS.

CDA [Communications Decency Act]- see COMMUNICATIONS DECENCY ACT [CDA]

cDc [cult of the Dead cow]- see THE CULT OF THE DEAD COW [cDc]


CERT [Computer Emergency Response Team]- see COMPUTER EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM

CFP [Computers, Freedom and Privacy conference]- see COMPUTERS, FREEDOM AND PRIVACY CONFERENCE

CHAOS COMPUTER CLUB [CCC]- Infamous West German hacking group founded in 1984 that is now trying to be kind of sort of legit. Members have included Wau Holland (leader), Steffen Wernery, Christian Wolf, Pengo, Obelix, Dob, Zombie and Hagbard Celine. Can be reached at ccc@ccc.de.



CHICAGO COMPUTER FRAUD AND ABUSE TASK FORCE- Possibly the first hacker tracker team, formed in 1987 by William J. Cook. A major part of the Hacker Crackdown of 1990.

CHIP- Shorthand for microprocessor. The hardware that runs the machine. The PowerPC and the Pentium are examples of chips.

CHRP [Common Hardware Reference Platform]- Temporarily known as PowerPC Microprocessor Common Reference Platform, or PPCP (for "PowerPC Platform.") Initiative by Apple, IBM, and Motorola that was supposedly finalised in 1995 but mired in problems; the idea is/was a new type of hardware that would run virtually all powerful OS's and be the next generation of hardware. This initiative has taken a very long time and has been altered and changed in scope. It was originally meant to run Mac OS, OS/2, Windows NT, and Unix (IBM's AIX flavor), but has since been changed to BeOS, Mac OS and all forms of Unix. Supposedly, CHRP systems will become available Fall 1997 from such vendors as Motorola, Power Computing, Tatung RISC Systems and UMAX. (Often referred to as "the Power Computer" in semi-lucid rants in 1994 issues of Phrack Magazine.)

CLASS TEN TOOLS- Really nasty programs that can thouroughly trash a system-- if information war is coming, these would be the Stealth bombers and atom bombs. Tsutomu Shimomura built many of these, which is one of the reasons why the SDSC is such a huge target for hackers. [Term coined by Brosl Haslacher.]


CLIPPER CHIP- Encryption plan endorsed by the Clinton-Gore administration, begun in 1990 by the NSA, currently in its third incarnation (the current proposal is sometimes mockingly known as Clipper 3.1.1). The way it's supposed to work is that we stick this cool thing called the Clipper chip in every computer and fax machine and communications tool ever made, which would save us from commies and those evil hackers. Of course, our benevolent Big Brother the Government of the United States of America would keep the keys to these chips, so in case anyone did anything the government designated to be illegal (or someone did something a government employee wanted to find out), the government could look at all our files and every email we ever sent. Of course, the government would never abuse this, would it? Phillip Zimmermann created PGP 1.0 in response to this.

COCOT [Customer Owned Customer Operated Telephone]- A payphone which does not use ACTS, usually maintained at a restaurant or other private location.

C0DEZ D00DZ [sometimes K0DEZ D00DZ]- The phreak equivalent of a pirate. Someone who finds out phone codes and distributes them to the electronic underground. There is also a derogatory term, "c0dez kidz."

COGNITIVE DISSIDENTS- The name of a "chill," or bar where people hang out, in _Virtual Light_. John Perry Barlow and some other people have taken to calling themselves "cognitive dissidents," I believe inspired by _VL_. [The name is obviously a play on the phrase "cognitive dissonance."]

COMMODORE- A computer company which eventually bought Amiga; popular in the 1980s. People who used their computers were often berated by people with the superior (but still awful by today's standards) Apple IIe. However, according to _The Cyberpunk Handbook (The Real Cyberpunk Fakebook)_, Phiber Optik used a Commodore. That's sort of like turning stone to bread or feeding ten thousand people with one fish. [From the Naval wartime rank above a captain and below a rear admiral, I assume.]

COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT [CALEA]- see CALEA [Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act]

COMMUNICATIONS DECENCY ACT [CDA]- A poorly written and fascist law passed as part of the Telecommunications Bill of 1996 making indecent speech and information illegal in cyberspace in the United States, which AOL, Microsoft and CompuServe (never thought I'd be on their side), as well as the EFF and ACLU and numerous other plaintiffs, recently overturned in the Supreme Court case ACLU et. al. v. Reno, 7-2. It sparked a day of protest on the Internet (Black Thursday), when many major sites draped their pages in black.

COMPUSERVE- Very old online service that is the second biggest in America; founded in 1979 and currently owned by H & R Block. It is very conspicuous because edresses are set up with annoying numbers like 76543.1700.  They created an uproar when they banned many sexually explicit newsgroups because a German user said they violated Germany obscenity laws and threatened to sue. Its days are essentially numbered. [Name obviously comes from combination of "computer" and "serve."]

COMPUTER EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM [CERT]- Anti-hacking group which sets up security and tracks people; managed by Dain Gary. Reachable at cert@cert.org.

COMPUTER MISUSE ACT- British law on the books since 1990, among other things outlawing virus writing. The Black Baron was prosecuted with this law.

COMPUTER PROFESSIONALS FOR SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY [CPSR]- Group that is what it says it is; notable for vocal opposition to the "Star Wars" defense project on the grounds that it is putting too much trust in computers; and for filing suit with the US government in the 2600 case.


COMPUTERS, FREEDOM AND PRIVACY CONFERENCE [CFP]- Annual security/privacy con; in 1994, the FBI arrested Brian Merrill, an innocent man, because it was also an alias of Kevin Mitnick, there.

COMPUTERVREDEBREUK- Dutch word for hackers; literally, computer peace disturbance. Kind of a cool word.

COMSEC [Computer Security]- Network security firm founded by the remnants of LOD; went out of business in 1994. Replaced by the ISP LOD Communications, Inc.

CON- A convention; in this context, a hacker convention. Begun in the mid-1980s by such groups as LOD. Recent, high-profile Cons included Hacking at the End of the Universe and HOPE, and most recently, Beyond HOPE. Notable annual cons also include SummerCon and HoHoCon.


"THE CONSCIENCE OF A HACKER"- A legendary manifesto written by the Mentor shortly after his arrest in 1986, published in _Phrack Inc._ magazine, volume one, issue seven. It was later reprinted in _Phrack_ again and in _Teleconnect Magazine_, _The Hacker Crackdown_, _Mondo 2000: A User's Guide to the New Edge_, the film _Hackers_, T-shirts worn at Cons, and numerous ftp sites, web pages and BBS's, as well as numerous other places.

CONSOLE COWBOY- A hacker. From SF novels. This term has remained relatively unmolested by the media.

CONTROL C- Infamous hacker and member of LOD who was busted by Michigan Bell and actually did get a security job from them. Also known as Phase Jitter, Master of Impact, Dual Capstan, Richo Sloppy, Cosmos Dumpster Driver, Poster Boy and Whacky Wally. Disciple of Bill From RNOC.

COOKBOOK- A detailed document on exactly what to do when hacking a certain type of system, written by piecing together computer manuals and personal experience. [From the type of book giving detailed instructions on cooking.]

COOPERATING FULLY- When hackers tell every illegal act and the names of all of their cohorts because they think it will save them. While this occasionally works, to many law enforcement officers, "cooperating fully" generally means you bend over.


CORRUPT (1971-Present)- Handle of John Lee. Member of MOD; former member of a New York gang called the Decepticons. VAXEN expert. [Handle obviously comes from the adjective for being morally bankrupt.]

COSMOS [COmputer System for Mainframe OperationS]- Database program used by telcos to store information; staple of the elite phreaker; or at least it was.


COUNT ZERO- The handle of several hackers. I know of several; one who wrote an article for _Phrack_ about a lecture by John Markoff; one who said "Information yearns to be free" (quoted at Space Rogue's Whacked Mac Archives a while back, before he changed the quotes); the guy who defined k-rad as "a thousand points of rad" (quoted in _The Cyberpunk Handbook (The Real Cyberpunk Fakebook)_); the member of cDc; the member of Phalcon/Skism mentioned in some issues of _40Hex_; and the writer for _2600_. (Some of which may be the same person.) [All handles come from the name of the protagonist of William Gibson's second novel, also titled _Count Zero_, who also appeared in _Mona Lisa Overdrive_. The character is a cyberspace hacker with the handle Count Zero Interrupt, whose birth name is Bobby Newmark. According to the book, this comes from an old programmer term (probably related to the opening line about returning the marker to zero); however, I am not blessed with this knowledge. Wow, that's scary. Gibson knows something about computers that I don't.]

COWBOY- One of the legendary figures hackers tend to latch on to as role-models. Spawned the term "console cowboy." As a result, many hackers tend to give themselves gunfighter-type names (i.e. Datastream Cowboy, Doc Holliday).

CPSR [Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility]- see COMPUTER PROFESSIONALS FOR SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

CRACK [sometimes "krack"]- (1) To remove the copy protection from a commercial program, so that the resultant program (or file) is "cracked." Also covers modifying any program illegally, such as when Netscape Navigator 2.0b4 was cracked when the expiration date was surgically removed a while back.
	(2) To crack a password using a cracking program and a dictionary. Involves using crypt-and-compare; the program encrypts various words and compares the encrypted form of the words to the encrypted password. On UNIX the most commonly used crack program is Crack, on DOS it is CrackerJack, and on Mac it is MacKrak.

CRACKER- Term given to so-called "malicious" hackers by the original MIT hackers, hoping the media would leave the name "hacker" alone and not damage the original hackers' pristine, snow-white reputation. Never really got picked up, probably because it sounds a lot like a wheat consumable or a derogatory term for a white hick. While (I think, at least) this is a really lame word, it is occasionally used by those wishing to seem knowledgable. (Apologies to the editors of the alt.cyberpunk FAQ. No offense.) [Comes from "cracking" into systems.]

CRASHER- Someone who not only hacks systems, he crashes them. Not very widely used.

"CRIME AND PUZZLEMENT: THE LAW COMES TO THE ELECTRONIC FRONTIER"- Essay by John Perry Barlow about LOD and hackers and his relationship with Phiber Optik and Acid Phreak. Also touches on the Apple/NuPrometheus League debacle. [Name obviously inspired by Fyodor Dostoyevsky's _Crime and Punishment_.]

CRIMSON DEATH (1970-Present)- Also known as the Sorceror. Hacker/phreak who was editor of _Phrack_ for a short time. He was the sysop of Hell Phrozen Over, Missing Link, Skull Kingdom, the Forgotten Realm and CyberWaste, and a disciple of the Videosmith. He was also known for having a nose ring, back when that was really shocking and cool. [Handle comes from _Advanced Dungeons & Dragons Monster Manual II_.]

CRUNCH- (1) The act of using a program such as PKZip or StuffIt to compress another program into a smaller disk space.
	(2) The act of re-writing sections of a program to run in a smaller memory space.

CRYP- Used by Rudy Rucker to refer to illegal hackers who do it for money or power in some of his science fiction. (Not derogatory; Rucker is one of the real scientist hackers who thankfully doesn't look down on us obnoxious punks.) [I'm not sure where this came from, but I'd guess it comes from "Crips," as in the violent street gang, in an amalgram with "cryp[t]," as in cryptography.]

_THE CUCKOO'S EGG: TRACKING A SPY THROUGH THE MAZE OF COMPUTER ESPIONAGE_- Novel by Clifford Stoll about his tracking down of renegade members of the Chaos Computer Club. Disliked by many in the electronic underground because of his constant black-or-white approach to computer ethics, painting hackers as totally evil. He is kind of a jerk that way, but it's a fairly interesting book. [The name comes from a type of program the first hacker that cracked Stoll's system used that lets the system give priveleges to it; named after the cuckoo bird, who lays eggs in other birds' nests and lets them raise them.]

THE CULT OF THE DEAD COW [cDc]- Anarchist occult goth hacker group that writes a lot of weird text files with a lot of profanity and ASCII art. Have their own USENET newsgroup dedicated to them- alt.fan.cult-dead-cow, as well as an irc channel, #cdc, and a web page, <http://www.l0pht.com/~veggie>. Members have included Swamp Ratte (current leader), Count Zero, Deth Vegetable, The Nightstalker, Red Knight, Tweety Fish, Iskra and Mudge.



CYBERDECK- In cyberpunk fiction, notably Gibson (though I don't know where it appeared first; the term has also been used in the works of Rudy Rucker and cyberpunk role-playing games) the futuristic modem that allows characters to run through cyberspace. Though descriptions vary, it is usually described as being keyboard sized, and sometimes has a plug that inserts into the character's head (jacking in).

_CYBERIA: LIFE IN THE TRENCHS OF HYPERSPACE_- Novel by Douglas Rushkoff about ravers and hackers and stuff. It was berated by many in the electronic underground, and Erik Bloodaxe said "Imagine a book about drugs written by someone who's never inhaled. Imagine a book about raves written by someone saw a flyer once [sic]. Imagine a book about computers written by someone who thinks a mac is complex [...] and there you have Cyberia, by Douglas Rushkoff. This book should have been called 'Everything I Needed to Know About Cyber-Culture I Learned in Mondo-2000.'" Brutal, but accurate.

CYBERNETICS- The study of the feedback loop that informs any control system of the results of its actions; communication theory. Coined by Norbert Weiner of MIT in the 1940s when he was working on anti-aircraft guns. Often erroneously used now to refer to bionic parts. Supposedly (I got this from _The Hacker and the Ants_ by Rudy Rucker) it has meant "bullshit" from the beginning; Weiner was trying to think of what to call his paper, and a colleague suggested "cybernetics" because it didn't mean anything and would intimidate people. [From kybernetes, Greek for "helmsman."]

CYBERPUNK- 1) A literary term referring to a certain subgenre of science fiction. Specifically, the term often refers to the works of the so-called "Mirrorshades Group," particularly in the 1980s-- Bruce Sterling, William Gibson, Rudy Rucker, John Shirley, Tom Maddox, Pat Cadigan, Greg Bear, Lewis Shiner and others. Cyberpunk fiction is (or was, if you agree with Norman Sprinrad that cyberpunk is dead) concerned with a realistic (sometimes surrealistic), usually pessimistic future where technology is incredibly enhanced and humans are controlled by a System-- huge zaibatus or a fundamentalist religion. These are all generalizations; one cyberpunk novel took place in 1855. There hasn't really been a "classic" cyberpunk novel since 1987, with Gibson's _Mona Lisa Overdrive_; the most recent notable cyberpunk work was Neal Stephenson's really weird, theological technological comedy _Snow Crash_ in 1992, in addition to Gibson, Sterling, Shirley and Rucker's most recent offerings. [From Gardner Dozois, who coined the term to refer to science fiction while working at _Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine_, probably inspired by the title of a short story by Bruce Bethke, who has since proclaimed himself an "anti-cyberpunk," whatever the fuck that means.]
	(2) A noun for a hacker. This was used just because the media thought it sounded like a good name for a computer criminal, though it is now used by hackers themselves, journalists and law enforcement officials.
	(3) A member of the "cyberpunk social movement." Specific people thought to be part of the subculture are hackers, phreaks, cypherpunks and ravers. Gareth Branwyn's description of a cyberpunk worldview is as follows:
A. The future has imploded onto the present. There was no nuclear Armaggeddon. There's too much real estate to lose. The new battlefield is people's minds.
B. The megacorps _are_ the new governments.
C. The U.S. is a big bully with lackluster economic power.
D.The world is splintering into a trillion subcultures and designer cults with their own languages, codes and lifestyles.
E. Computer generated info-domains are the next frontiers.
F. There _is_ better living through chemistry.
G. Small groups or individual "console cowboys" can wield tremendous power over governments, corporations, etc.
H. The coalescence of a computer "culture" is expressed in self-aware computer music, art, virtual communities, and a hacker/street tech subculture. The computer nerd image is passe, and people are not ashamed anymore about the role the computer has in this subculture. The computer is a cool tool, a friend, important human augmentation.
I. We're becoming cyborgs. Our tech is getting smaller, closer to us, and it will soon merge with us.
J. Some attitudes that seem to be related [a number of which are inspired by Steven Levy's Hacker Ethic]:
	Information wants to be free.
	Access to computer and anything which may teach you something about how the world works should be unlimited and total.
	Always yield to the hands-on imperative.
	Mistrust Authority.
	Promote Decentralization.
	Do It Yourself.
	Fight the Power.
	Feed the noise back into the system.
	Surf the Edges.

No one really calls themself a cyberpunk anymore, because it sounds stupid and invites people to spit on you like the trendy out-of-it loser you are.

_CYBERPUNK_ [2020]- The first cyberpunk role-playing game, created in 1989 by R. Talsorian Games. Originally called just _Cyberpunk_, but that had the possibility of violating copyrights, so the second edition was called _Cyberpunk version, or _Cyberpunk 2020_. [From the literary and social movements described in detail in the rest of this document.]

CYBERPUNK BUST- Mocking term used in the science fiction community for the raid on Steve Jackson Games where _GURPS Cyberpunk_ was seized.

_CYBERPUNK: OUTLAWS AND HACKERS ON THE COMPUTER FRONTIER_- Novel by Katie Hafner and John Markoff about hackers, specifically, three case studies: Kevin Mitnick, Pengo and Robert Morris.  Much better than I'd thought it would be.


CYBERSPACE- The Internet or a virtual reality system; often (and most correctly, in my opinion) to refer to all digital entities that can be entered, including the Internet and BBS's. Overused, but still kind of cool. Popularized by John Perry Barlow around 1990. [Invented by William Gibson in the short story "Burning Chrome;" from "cybernetic" (the science of communication and control theory) and "space" (you know what "space" is, I hope.) He got the idea from watching kids play video games.]


CYBORG- A cybernetic organism; an android, or human with machine or computer parts. The term is also metaphorically used to refer to the modern state of technologically advanced mankind, which has figuratively if not literally fused with machinery. [From "cybernetic organism," a term coined by Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline in 1960; actually a redundancy, because actually all organisms are by definition cybernetic, but we get the point.]

_CYBORGASM_- Really stupid CD. There are others like it, but this is the most popular. It is a recording of a bunch of people making sounds while having sex. In the words of a reviewer for _Mondo 2000_, in one of their more witty moments, "There is nothing cyber about this. It's a fucking CD. _Literally_."

CYPHERPUNK- Someone who thinks that encryption should be used by all, and advocates the removal of all laws restricting cryptographic technology. They are sometimes called crypto-anarchists, because their ideal of free encryption would likely destroy the effectiveness of government. [From "cyberpunk," as in a member of the electronic underground, and "cypher," a code made up of symbols.]

DAEMON9 (1973-Present)- Also known as Route and Infinity. Member of the Guild. One of the current co-editors of _Phrack Magazine_. Owner of Information Nexus (infonexus.com). Can be reached at route@infonexus.com.

DANCE- The art of typing very rapidly without errors.


DARK AVENGER- Bulgarian virus writer who has achieved cult hero status. His most famous virus is Eddie, AKA Dark Avenger (named after the author). He is a major heavy metal person, and many of his virii contain references to Iron Maiden.


DARK PHIBER [ninja.techwood.org]- Internet community grown out of a BBS created in 1991 by the White Ninja and Wild Child and shut down (temporarily) in 1994. Currently administered by Decius 6i5 and Musashi. [From a deliberate misspelling of "dark fiber," the term for fiber optic lines in place but not in use.]

DARK TANGENT- Handle of Jeffery Moss. Organizer of many hacker cons, including DefCon. Also occasionally writes for _Wired_.

DATACOPS- Any agency in charge of keeping information expensive. Notable datacops include the NSA, FBI and the Secret Service, as well as independant agencies such as CERT. [From "data," meaning information, and "cops," a slang term coming from the acronym "constable on patrol."]

DATASTREAM COWBOY- British hacker noted for hacking the Royal Air Force; he was tracked when the Air Force Office of Special Investigations (OSI) hacked the systems he was entering the RAF systems from. Currently the Phrack World News correspondent for _Phrack Magazine_.

DATA ENCRYPTION STANDARD [DES]- see DES [Data Encryption Standard]

DEAD ADDICT- Formerly known as Sugar Addict. Ex-phreaker, Def Con speaker, and Seattle resident. Currently known for his web page, Underground Propaganda <http://www.metrix.net/daddict>.

DEAD LORD- Handle of Bruce Fancher. Also known as the Infiltrator, Executive Hacker [?] and Sharp Razor. Good friend of Lord Digital and co-administrator of MindVox; former member of the Chief Executive Officers and supposedly the Legion of Doom. Though many press reports say he was in LOD, as well as he himself in a Phrack pro-phile, he is not listed in the official lists distributed in _Phrack_ and _LOD/H TJ_, and a file in an early issue of _Phrack_ quotes a file he supposedly wrote which insults LOD. However, that was in a rag file, and I haven't read the file it refers to, so I'm unsure of the accuracy. Can be reached at bruce@phantom.com.

DEATH STAR- Term referring to AT&T. [From the post-breakup AT&T logo, which resembles the evil Death Star from _Star Wars_.]


DENNING, [Doctor] DOROTHY ELIZABETH [1945-Present]- Computer security academic and author of _Cryptography and Data Security_. In 1990, wrote a paper ("Concerning Hackers Who Break into Computers") which gained a fair amount of notoriety defending hackers and suggesting that they be worked with closely to understand their motives. She then went and spoke with some security professionals, and immediately changed her mind and decided hackers were evil after all, if not the ones she'd spoken to, then the vast majority. She became further villified by the Hacker Nation when she began supporting the Clipper initiative, which to this day she defends in the face of extreme criticism.

DE PAYNE, LEWIS- Alias Sam Holliday, also known as Roscoe, also known as Lewcifer. Phreaker buddy of Kevin Mitnick, interviewed in _Cyberpunk_. Can be reached at lewiz@netcom.com.

DES [Data Encryption Standard]- The current encryption used by the United States Government, designed by IBM and the NSA. Becoming more and more obsolete, and has numerous security weaknesses, possibly designed by the NSA for their own use.


DETH VEGETABLE [sometimes shortened as Deth Veggie]- Handle of Eric Skoog. Member of the Cult of the Dead Cow. Wrote a number of anarchy files when he was 15. Interviewed by the television news program _Dateline NBC_ in 1995.


DeWITT, PHILIP-ELMER- Writer for _TIME_ magazine who writes virtually all of their stories about computers. Wrote cover stories on cyberpunks, cyberspace, and cyberporn. Actually, I don't recall him writing about anything that didn't have the prefix "cyber." Also occasionally works as a correspondent for the _MacNeil-Lehrer Newshour_.

DIALED NUMBER RECORDER [DNR]- see DNR [Dialed Number Recorder]

DICE- To separate a program into two or more files to allow loading under the OS. [From cooking slang, meaning to chop.]

DiCOCCO, LEONARD MITCHELL (1965-Present)- Ex-friend of Kevin Mitnick, eventually narked him to the FBI. Former employee of Voluntary Plan Administers (VPA).


_DIE HARD 2_ [Die Harder]- 1990 Bruce Willlis action movie that included hacker/terrorists taking over an airport. Notable because Congress held a hearing on it and its possible realism, just as they did almost ten years prior for _WarGames_.


DIGITAL ANARCHISTS- Group of British hackers notable for hacking the websites of several British politicians' sites, notably the Labour Party.

DISK OPERATING SYSTEM [DOS]- see DOS [Disk Operating System]

DIVERTING- Hacking corporate PBXs and dialing out of them for free.

DNR [Dialed Number Recorder]- Device that cops use to know who you call so they know who to question. Not to be confused with the TCP/IP component DNR, for Domain Name Resolver.

DOB (1960-Present)- Handle of Dirk-Otto Brzezinski. Former member of the Chaos Computer Club. One of the renegade members who hacked for the KGB.

DOC- Contraction for documentation or document. A file that contains information on how to use a program. Usually a plain text file, but may be in a specific, proprietary word processor format. Also the DOS suffix for a word processing file, usually Microsoft Word.

DOC HOLLIDAY- Handle of Scott Chasin. Former member of LOD and good friend of Erik Bloodaxe. [From the nickname of the dentist/gunfighter.]

DOCTOR CRASH- Minor figure in the underground who notably wrote "The Techno-Revolution," a manifesto that appeared in _Phrack Inc._ volume one, issue six, that predated the Mentor's. It is differentiated by an even greater examination of political motives and justification of anarchy and carding.


DOCTOR WHO [413] (1967-Present)- Also known as Skinny Puppy and Saint Cloud. Former member of the Legion of Doom. Currently maintains the RadioPhone archives at <http://www.l0pht.com/radiophone/> Can be reached at drwho@l0pht.com. [From the character on the British 1970s TV show of the same name.]

DOS [Disk Operating System]- Usually used to refer to MS-DOS, or Microsoft Disk Operating System, which got to version 6.22 before Microsoft recently abandoned it in favor of Windows 95. Other DOS's exist or existed; besides the OS's that have long since gone away like Apple DOS and Commodore's DOS, there are the unofficial versions of MS-DOS, such as DOS 7.0 and DOS Shell.

DOWNLOAD- To transmit via modem a program or file from a BBS or network to a computer.





DRAPER, JOHN- Birth name of Cap'n Crunch. Also known as the Pirate, also known as the Crunchmeister. One of the very early phreakers; got his handle because he once used a whistle that came with Cap'n Crunch cereal to hack the phone system. He currently writes custom Mac applications, but spends most of his time raving. Can be reached at crunch@well.com.

DREW, DALE- Also known as the Dictator and Blind Faith. Paid Secret Service informant who turned in Knight Lightning and videotaped "SummerCon '88," the hacker's conference, even though it turned out no illegal activity occurred. He has remained an unrepentant bastard.

DRUNKFUX- Organizer of HoHoCon and hacker. Member of an international rock band, and an alternate on the 1992(?) US Olympic Soccer team. (Entry modified by Space Rogue)


DUB- The act of making a backup copy of a program (or disk) in the event the original copy becomes unusable. [From sound and video editing slang.]

D00D- A person, a guy. "Dude" in warez speak. Not used as much as it once was.



ECSTASY [AKA "X," among other names]- Drug that's very popular with ravers, somewhat like acid without the hallucinations, and often mixed with speed or other amphetamines. It was made illegal in 1987. However, "Herbal Ecstasy," an organic mixture with similar effects, is still legal. This is really the only drug I'm discussing in this document because drugs aren't really my thing and they aren't really part of the scope of this document. If you want to know about the various types of smart drugs and psychedelics and the like, I recommend _Mondo 2000: A User's Guide to the New Edge_, _Cyberia: Life in the Trenches of Hyperspace_, and numerous other somewhat trendy semi-cyber books. Or Timothy Leary's books, those are good. On the other hand, for a very good anti-drug argument, I recommend reading Burroughs' _The Naked Lunch_, particularly the afterword in which he analyzes all of the drugs available at that time and how dangerous they are. Personally, I'd recommend staying away from just about any drug mother nature didn't explicitly give us. Especially cocaine and heroin. Bad ideas. Even synthetic hallucinogens have some pretty nasty risks. [Technical name: MDMA- don't ask me what it stands for.]

EDDRESS- Email address. Eddresses are usually in the format username@domain.type.country.

EFF [Electronic Frontier Foundation]- see ELECTRONIC FRONTIER FOUNDATION [EFF]


8lgm- English hacker group that currently runs a security mailing list. Busted in 1994. It stands for alternately Eight Legged Groove Machine and Eight Little Green Men (the latter is unproven, but I've heard it used). The members were two hackers named Pad and Gandalf.

EIGHT LITTLE GREEN MEN [8lgm]- see 8lgm

ELECTRONIC FRONTIER FOUNDATION [EFF]- A civil liberties group created in response to the unConstitutional actions of the United States Secret Service during the Hacker Crackdown of 1990. They have a newsletter, the _EFFector_. Some of the more notable or influential members include Mitch Kapor, John Perry Barlow, Michael Godwin, John Gilmore (early employee of Sun), Steve Wozniak (co-founder of Apple) and Bruce Sterling.

THE ELECTRONIC PRIVACY INFORMATION CENTER [EPIC]- Net civil libertarian group who handled the 2600 case for the CPSR; also vocal opposition to the Clipper chip proposal.


ELITE [or elyte or 3L33T or eleet or a million other spellings]- Adjective (over)used to describe the best hackers, because something has to separate the truly good ones from the mediocre ones.

EMMANUEL GOLDSTEIN (1961-Present)- Handle of Eric Corley. Also known as Howard Tripod, Sidney Schreiber, Bob Hardy, Gary Wilson, Clint Eastwood and 110. The editor-in-chief of and writer for _2600: The Hacker Quarterly_, host of the New York phreaking radio show "Off the Hook," and relentless advocate of the computer underground. Often shows up at meetings of computer companies just to unnerve people. In his honor, the film _Hackers_ had the character Cereal Killer's real name be "Emmanuel Goldstein." [Handle came from the name of the hated, probably non-existent rebel in Orwell's _1984_.]

ENCRYPTION- The practice of encoding data into an unreadable form, which can only be converted with the same code. Recently, Netscape Communications built fairly strong encryption into their browser, though security errors have been discovered several times. PGP is perhaps the most populous encryption type, using the DSA algorithm now (rather than the RSA.) RSA is still frequently used. DES is the government's choice, and while it's not like I could crack it in a weekend or anything, it's not as strong as the NSA would like.

ENGRESSIA, JOSEPH [Joe]- Blind phreak who could whistle the 2600 tone; eventually got a job at a Denver RBOC.

EPIC [Electronic Privacy Information Center]- see THE ELECTRONIC PRIVACY INFORMATION CENTER [EPIC]

E911 DOCUMENT [Official name: "Control Office Administration of Enhanced 911 Services for Special Services and Account Centers"]- Document written in 1988; liberated by the Prophet and contributed to _Phrack_. Originally written by Richard Helms and the Society of Inpenetrable Prose. Knight Lightning almost got sent to jail for it, seeing as how the telco valued it at over $72,000. (I'm sure Knight Lightning enjoyed himself flipping through his illicitly gained thousands of telco money...) The case was dropped when it was proven that the same info could be bought for about $13.

EPHEDRINE- Psychoactive drug sometimes used by ravers. Among other things, it is one of the ingredients in herbal Ecstasy, crank and so-called "Mormon tea" and (in obviously small dosages) non-prescription medicines like Nyquil.

ERIK BLOODAXE (1969-Present)- Handle of Chris Goggans. Also known as Cyber-Christ. Former member of the Legion of Doom and The Punk Mafia. Former editor of _Phrack Magazine_. Former employee of Dell Computers. When he took over _Phrack_, it gained more purpose and seemed to pull together more than it had since the departure of Knight Lightning and Taran King; he left after several issues because of lack of time and desire. He's also got a bad reputation as a nark.  [Handle came from the name of a Viking king of Denmark in the 10th century; revealed to Goggans in a book entitled _Vikings_.]

EXON, [Senator] JAMES- Recently retired Democrat Senator who is obsessed with techno-indecency. Sponsored the CDA.

EXPERIAN- Known as TRW until late 1996 (they changed their name to get away from the negative PR surrounding their activities), Experian is an evil megacorporation that is favorite target of hackers, including MOD, in one of the more publicized incidents. It is a target in large part due to the fact that their job includes catologing the credit history of private citizens and selling it to other corporations; thus, both a tempting target for malicious hackers out to pull credit histories, and a target that most ethical hackers have no problem subverting. Supposedly sets up Tiger Teams for the government. Recently Experian offered the ability to view your credit report over the Net, though they swiftly removed that feature pending better security for obvious reasons.

EXTASYY ELITE- Short-lived phreak group destroyed when Poltergeist turned in everybody after he was busted for carding. Its membership included Bit Blitz, Cisban, Evil Priest, Crustaceo Mutoid, Kleptic Wizard, the Mentor (the only guy who went on to do anything with his life, hacking-wise), the Poltergeist and the Protestor.

FAKEMAIL- Mail intended to trick the recipient into believing that it was sent by a person other than the actual sender. Very, very easy.


FARGO 4A- One of the earliest phreak groups, a sort of precursor to LOD. Membership included BIOC Agent 003, Tuc, Big Brother, Quasi-Moto, Video Warhead and the Wizard of ARPANET. [Name comes from a city in North Dakota they re-routed calls to; incidentally, the same town was used for the name of the 1996 drama _Fargo_, though most of the movie takes place in Minnesota and it has virtually nothing to do with the town, though it begins there.]

FARMER, DAN- Computer security expert notable for writing the infamous program SATAN. In 1997, he surveyed several hundred web sites and found them noticably lacking in security. He claimed sixty percent could be easily cracked.

FEDWORLD- The largest BBS in the world. Huge board with government info, operated by the United States government.




_FIREWALLS AND INTERNET SECURITY: REPELLING THE WILY HACKER_- Security book outlining Net security; haven't read it yet, but plan to buy it.

5ESS- The fifth-generation electronic switching station currently used by telcos.

FONE PHREAKS OF AMERICA (FOA)- A small group of which I am currently a member. Current members are Data Ferret, Logik Bomb, OmegaDeth and Rebel Logik. The group is a successor to a group I led called MH/Chaos, whose members included Logik Bomb, Data Ferret, Xohdis, OmegaDeth, Rebel Logik, Pure Logic and Access Denied. MH/Chaos was itself the result of a housecleaning of a previous group I led, the Laughing Skull Clan, whose members included Logik Bomb, Hyper Viper, the Loath, Omega-X, KoDiaK, visual trinity, Xohdis, Access Denied, Pure Logic, Kwantam Pozeetron, Rusky, Technics, Hack-and-Slay, Cpt. Nemo and Nemesis Enforcer. LSC was a lame attempt on my part to be a successor to the Legion of Apocalypse while it was temporarily retired, and now the group seems to be out of control, because every few months we fire half the members and start over. :)

_40HEX_- Virus zine that contained source code for many virii and interviews with prominent virus writers. It was mostly staffed by members of Phalcon/Skism, and was first edited by Hellraiser, then by DecimatoR, and then sort of by nobody. I believe the magazine has become defunct; the web page no longer exists. [I don't really know what the name comes from because I'm not particularly advanced in my virus knowledge; the "hex" part comes from hexadecimal (as in hex dump), which is base sixteen, but I don't know why the number "40" is there in particular.]

414 GANG [also known as "the 414s"]- Hacker group formed on the 414 Private BBS that gained notoriety in 1982 for intrusions on Los Alamos military bases and the Sloan-Kettering Memorial Institute. [The name comes from the area code of the BBS.]

FRACTAL- Supposedly a symbol for cyberpunk (though I don't buy it-- does cyberpunk have a symbol?). A part of chaos theory, proposed by mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot in the 1960s.

FRANK DRAKE- Handle of Steven G. Steinberg. Hacker and former correspondent for _Phrack_; also edited the short-lived e-zine _W.O.R.M._ Currently one of the section editors for _Wired_.


FRY GUY- Hacker, buddy of some guys in LOD, and Motley Crue (sorry, I can't make the umlaut in a plain text file) fan. Busted in 1989 by the universally despised Tim Foley. He was, however, a carder and he offered to testify against LOD, things that are not really exemplary. [Name comes from manipulations he did in the McDonald's computer system.]

GAME OVER- The end. Time to give up and try something else. [From a line by Private W. Hudson in the movie _Aliens_, which itself came from video games.]

GARFINKEL, SIMSON- Contributing writer to _Wired_ and editor of _Internet Underground_; author of articles on privacy and technology issues, as well as author of a book on PGP.


GATES, WILLIAM HENRY III "BILL" (1955-Present)- Chief Executive Officer of Microsoft. The richest man in America, at twenty billion dollars in stock value. Author of _The Road Ahead_. And, if you haven't heard yet, the ASCII values of the letters in his name add up to 666.

GIBSON, WILLIAM- Science fiction author and contributing writer for _Wired_ who invented the term "cyberspace." Author of the anthology _Burning Chrome_; the Sprawl Series (_Neuromancer_, _Count Zero_ and _Mona Lisa Overdrive_); one of the many scripts for what was then called _Alien III_; _Virtual Light_; and the screenplay for _Johnny Mnemonic_, based on his short story. He also co-wrote _The Difference Engine_ with Bruce Sterling. Ironically, he didn't own a computer until he wrote _Mona Lisa Overdrive_, he's not at all technical, and he's not online in any form. His most recent work is _Idoru_, which is a sequel of sorts to _Virtual Light_ and is about virtual entertainers.

GIGABYTE [abbreviated as "gig" or "Gb"]- Very large unit of measurement. Usually only used when referring to hard drive space. A gigabyte is one billion bytes, or roughly 1048.576 megabytes or 1.024 million kilobytes.

GLOBAL KOS [GkOS]- Possibly the most influential hacker group currently in operation, GkOS claims to be the only truly international group. Current members include Shadow Hunter, Spidey, That Guy, AcidAngel, glitched and Silicon Toad. Name is pronounced "global chaos."


GOD [Global OutDial]- An Internet outdial (modem connected to the Internet you can call from) that allows long distance calls.

GODWIN, MICHAEL- Attourney for the Electronic Frontier Foundation; also writes articles on Net civil issues. Contributing writer for _Wired_. Can be emailed at mnemonic@eff.org, but I'd advise you to be very careful, because if you make this man mad, he will flame you mercilessly. Don't ask.




GOTH- Punk offshoot which is into vampyres and infinite sadness and wearing black. I suppose you could call me a goth (well, as much as you can be a goth when you have short red hair), because I have pale skin and wear black and own _The Crow_ and listen to the Cure. Goth started as a type of music pioneered by such groups as Siouxsie and the Banshees, the Sisters of Mercy and Bauhaus; current groups that are considered goth in varying degrees include Nine Inch Nails, Marilyn Manson, Ministry, the Jesus and Mary Chain, My Life With the Thrill Kill Kult and others. [Okay, take a deep breath- the name of the subculture came from the name of a punk offshoot music movement, which came from the Gothic books and movies (such as _Dracula_), which came from the name of the scary dark medeval architecture, which came from a derogatory name given to the Gothic architects comparing them to Goths, who were a tribe of barbarians.]


GREENE, [Judge] HAROLD- The judge who busted AT&T and is now in charge of telecommunications for the government.


_GREY AREAS_- Hacker-oriented magazine whose topic is the "gray areas" of society, such as hackers and technology, underground music and bands, drugs, etc. Can be reached at greyareas@well.sf.ca.us, among other addresses.

HACK- (1) To change a program so that is does something the original programmer either didn't want it to do or didn't plan for it. Hacking a program is not neccessarily cracking, and vise versa.
	(2) To code a program. "I hacked out version 1.0a1 last week."
	(3) To break into a computer.
	(4) To alter in a clever way the status quo.
	(5) What you do; if you were a pilot, you could say "I hack planes." As far as I know, this was first used in 1994 by Bruce Sterling in _Heavy Weather_.

_THE HACKER CRACKDOWN_ [Law and Disorder on the Electronic Frontier]- Nonfiction novel by Bruce Sterling about the Hacker Crackdown of 1990. Posted to the Net in 1993 because of extensive legal maneuverings between Sterling and his publisher.

THE HACKER CRACKDOWN OF 1990- Name given to the massive crackdown, of which Operation Sundevil was a major part.

HACKER- There are about 20,000 definitions of a hacker floating around. These are some of the most common:
	(1) Any computer user. It drives everyone else crazy when anyone refers to a novice user as a "hacker." (Am I the only one who cringed when, in _Jurassic Park_, that girl goes "We prefer to be called hackers"? Really, am I the only one?)
	(2) A computer user who spends a lot of time on the system with an almost fetishistic approach. Usually refers to someone who knows a lot about computers, even if they are not a programmer.
	(3) Any user of an online service, such as CompuServe, AOL or the Internet. That's another sort of annoying one, since just because some businessman goes on AOL to send email to grandma, that does not mean he is a hacker.
	(4) A programmer.
	(5) A computer user who uses his skills unlawfully in any matter, usually to "break into" another system through a network.
	(6) A master programmer capable of things that seem "magical." [All of these are from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's programmers in the 1960s, who called themselves "hackers," to refer to making a program better and more efficient, or making it do something it was not originally intended to do. The media overused this to an incredible extent, which added all the other definitions.]

THE HACKER ETHIC- Hacker code of morality that was originally formed by the MIT hackers in the late 1950s to the late 1960s and articulated by Steven Levy in his book _Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution_. The creed is as follows:
1. Always yield the Hands-On Imperative!  Access to computers-- and anything else which might teach you about the way the world works-- should be unlimited and total.
2. All information should be free.
3. Mistrust Authority-- Promote Decentralization.
4. Hackers should be judged by their hacking, not bogus criteria such as degrees, age, race, or position.
5. You can create art and beauty on a computer.
6. Computers can change your life for the better.
	While many of the 1960s hackers claim that modern hackers have rejected this code, it has actually strongly influenced all hackers for the last thirty years.

_THE HACKER FILES_- Comic book limited series published by DC Comics in the early 1990s that gathered some press. It was well-researched and included characters based on Gail Thackeray and Robert Morris.

_HACKERS_- 1995 film about... well, hackers, directed by Iain Softley and written by Rafael Moreu. Response in the underground was mixed; many (possibly most) hated it and couldn't stand the many technical errors, while others liked it, even though it was incredibly unrealistic. (Let's face it, any movie that has someone get into a supercomputer with the password "GOD" and has UNIX apparently replaced by some sort of cyberspatial three dimensional GUI has some realism problems.) Also notable because "Jack Devlin," claiming to be an independant contractor from the ILF after "faking his death at the hands of Sandra Bullock" (see _The Net_)  hacked MGM/UA's system and messed with the home page. MGM was pretty nice about it though, and even kept the page and linked it to the official page. Of course, it would have been pretty stupid and hypocritical of them to track down whoever did it and prosecute him. (While his original bravado-filled message has been widely spread on the Net, what is not so publicized is a second letter, which may have been made up to save face by the people who set up the page-- but I kind of doubt it-- apologizing and asking not to be prosecuted.) Also, Emmanuel Goldstein was one of the "hacking consultants," and Phiber Optik said that it was the most accurate movie Hollywood's made about hacking, which isn't very hard. Many members of MOD and ex-members of LOD were consulted for the original script, but most became upset with how the film actually turned out. If you want my opinion, which you probably don't, I thought it was okay despite the technical inaccuracy, because it was an entertaining movie with a cool soundtrack. I hope that the fact that it barely made back production costs shows studio executives not to try and find the next trend, make a movie on it and flaunt the small amount of knowledge they gained through research. (What was the deal with _Wipeout_, that video game? And, hmm... Gibson, what a sneaky reference! What in-joke could they possibly be making? And Da Vinci virus-- could that be a sly allusion to the infamous Michaelangelo virus?) The most ironic thing about the film is that at the end AT&T gets thanked.

_HACKERS: HEROES OF THE COMPUTER REVOLUTION_- Novel by Steven Levy about the original MIT hackers. Haven't read it yet.


HACKTIC- Famous hacker group based in Amsterdam; also publishes the magazine of the same name. Relased the "Demon Dialer," a rainbow box sold in kit form in 1992. Hacktic, or rather, the leader, Rop Gonggrijp, can be reached at rop@hacktic.nl.

HAFNER, KATHERINE M.- Co-author of _Cyberpunk_; technology journalist for _Newsweek_. Also wrote _Where Wizards Stay Up Late_, a history of the Internet. Can be reached at kmh@well.sf.ca.us.

HAGBARD CELINE (19  -1989)- Handle of Karl Koch, a German hacker and member of the Chaos Computer Club. Mentally unstable, in part due to his heavy use of drugs. Committed suicide (probably; murder has been suggested) by dousing himself in gasoline and setting himself on fire on the twenty-third of the month, fulfilling _The Illuminatus! Trilogy_'s quote that "All the great anarchists died on the 23rd day of some month or other," and the recurrence of the number 23. [Handle comes one of the characters in _The Illuminatus! Trilogy_ by Robert Shea and Robert Anton Wilson, a Discordian anarchist pirate; unlike most hackers who take handles from SF, Koch apparently believed he actually was the protagonist of the novel.]

HANDLE- A pseudonym or nom de guerre. [From "citizen band" (CB) radio, the short-lived fad in the late 1970s that was similar in someways to IRC on the Net.]

HAPPY HARDCORE- Handle of Nicholas Ryan, a Yale University student. As programmer of AOL4Free, Hardcore commited "computer fraud" throughout 1995 and released his program to the Net, and as a result was convicted by the Secret Service and the US Justice Department in early 1997. The Secret Service and InJustice Department have become corporate whores who prosecute anyone who threatens the interests of powerful companies like AOL-- in the words of AOL's "Integrity Assurance" vice president, this case is a "legal milestone."

HAQR, HAQUER, HAXOR- Variant spellings of "hacker." All of them are pronounced like "hacker."




HESS, MARKUS (1962-Present)- Also known as "the Hamburg Hacker." Alias Matthias Speer. Hacked for the KGB and was eventually caught by Cliff Stoll. Currently a professional programmer.

HOFFMAN, ABBIE (19  -1989)- Alias Barry Freed. One of the first phreaks, legendary radical, and a Yippy who appeared to commit suicide in 1989. Supposedly had the largest FBI file ever. Best known as the author of the underground classic _Steal This Book_, about how poor hippy anarchists could survive off the fat of the system (my suggestion--enlist as an extra in _Hair_), as well as _Fuck the System_, _Revolution For the Hell of It_ and _Woodstock Nation_. Started the infamous _TAP_, or "Technical Assistance Program," in its original incarnation as _YIPL_, or "Youth International Party Line," along with fellow Yippy Al Bell.


HOLLAND, WAU [full name: Hewart Holland-Moritz]- Founder of the Chaos Computer Club and German hacker.



HOPE [Hackers on Planet Earth]- Con held in 1996, sponsored by 2600.


IBM [International Business Machines, Incorporated]- Zaibatsu that at one time completely controlled computers; really fucked up when they licensed Microsoft to market DOS (which was, by the way, a product that was acquired by them from another company). Because DOS backfired on them, they created OS/2, which was largely ignored. Most recently they've allied with Apple (previously their bitter foe) and Motorola with the PowerPC chip and have regained some of their reputation in the hardware world with the IBM ThinkPad, one of the best laptops available.

IBM-PC- International Business Machines Personal Computer or compatible. Refers to one of the five gazillion machines that run Microsoft DOS or the variants; Microsoft Windows or Microsoft Windows for Workgroups; Microsoft Windows 95; LINUX or IBM's OS/2. Ninety percent of the marketplace is taken up by these machines. These systems include many basic types of machines, usually run on Intel's chips. The term IBM-PC is a misnomer because almost all are not actually made by IBM.

ICE [Intrusion Countermeasure Electronics]- Used in _Neuromancer_ and other novels (I don't know where first, but I know it was coined by Tom Maddox, who refuses to answer my emails as to where and how he first used it. Come on, Tom! :) But I digress) to be the graphical metaphor of computer security.



ILF- Alternately the Internet Liberation Front, the Information Liberation Front, and Information Longs to be Free. Net "terrorist" group, possibly started as a joke. Rerouted Josh Quittner's message system and left a politically motivated message in 1994. (This incarnation probably included MOD or LOD members, because Quittner had just written a book on the MOD/LOD war) In 1995, one or more people claiming to be doing "independant contracting" for the ILF hacked MGM/UA's _Hackers_ home page. It is also used as sort of an international brotherhood; when confidential or proprietary information is released to the Net, the ILF sometimes gets the credit. There is also the network available at <http://www.ilf.net/>, which I recommend.

INDUSTRIAL- Techo's evil twin; style of music that has begun to go mainstream; considered cyberpunk or marginally so. Grew out of the late 1970s British punk scene with such bands as Cabaret Voltaire and Genesis P. Orridge's Throbbing Gristle; was later watered down and combined with other styles of music to be more palatable. Pigface, KMFDM, Skinny Puppy, Ministry and Nine Inch Nails are popular industrial bands. Gareth Brandwyn called it "the sounds our culture makes as it comes unglued."

INDUSTRIAL HACKING- Industrial espionage using hackers, sometimes freelancers, though mostly corporate employees. Appears in SF more than in real life, though it does occur.




INFORMATION SUPERHIGHWAY [or Infobahn or several other cutesy phrases]- Pretty stupid metaphor for the Internet, popularized by (then) Senator Al Gore. And if I hear one more person refer to "roadkill on the Information Superhighway" I'm going to puke.



INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES, INCORPORATED [IBM]- see IBM [International Business Machines, Incorporated]





INTERNET WORM- The tapeworm created by Robert Morris in 1988, inspired by Brunner's _The Shockwave Rider_, that replicated out of control due to bad programming and took down a lot of computers. News stories persisted in calling it a "virus," which pissed everyone off.

INTERZONE- A cultural area where "the street finds its own uses for things;" from the hallucinogenic hell which appears in William S. Burroughs' _Naked Lunch_. Also the title of an excellent British SF magazine.

INTRUSION COUNTERMEASURE ELECTRONICS [ICE]- see ICE [Intrusion Countermeasure Electronics]

ISDN [Integrated Services Digital Network]- Technology to completely digitize the phone service that was abandoned after much work (it began in the early 1980s) in the early 1990s because it was too expensive. It is currently used for high-speed Internet access, slower than T1 but faster than a modem. It is widely used by phone networks in some areas, but it still costs a shitload here in Utah.

ISP [Internet Service Provider]- The local networks most normal people have to dial into to reach the Internet; ISPs, in turn, make deals with such Internet backbone owners as MCI in order to connect to the Internet.

ISSN [Integrated Special Services Network]- In a phone system (notably AT&T), controls special user features and customer control options. Not to be confused with ISSN, the serial number used by the Library of Congress used to register magazines.

JAYAWARDENE, JANAKA- Sri Lankan immigrant who helped catch the Phantom Dialer.

JAPAN [Nippon]- Country code ".ja;" East Asian nation, population 125.2 million, which is the subject of many cyberpunk novels due to an odd history and its high technology. Pursued a highly hierarchal samurai society until the mid-1800s, yet retained a strong Imperial culture until 1945, when they were totally defeated in the Second World War. Now an extremely successful producer of consumer goods, particularly electronics. (This doesn't have too much to do with hacking, but Japan is a notable country from an electronics standpoint, as well as the fact that much of SF currently involves Japan, and its preponderance of zaibatsus.)


JOLT [Cola]- Soft drink famous for having twice the caffeine of any other major soft drink (still less per pound than coffee, though), invented and distributed by the Jolt Company, Inc. By the way, did you know you can type on average five words a minute faster than normal if you drink two bottles of MegaJolt in succession?

JSZ- Collaborator with Phantom Dialer. Supposedly created the first packet sniffer.

JUDGE DREDD- British comic book character currently published by DC that has some cyberpunk concepts; it's about a semi-fascist anti-hero in the 23rd century. Sylvester Stallone made a flop movie from it that the sets and special effects were cool, but not much else. There was a hacker in the early 1990s with this handle, as well as another one (who may be the same guy) who was a member of the 2300 Club.


K-RAD- ("A thousand points of rad" -one of the Count Zeros) Extremely cool; very rad. [From one thousand times- "k," standing for kilo-; and "rad"- short for "radical," skateboarder-type slang term in the 1980s meaning cool.]

KAPOR, MITCHELL- Co-founder of the EFF. Ex-hippy, founder of Lotus, and original programmer of Lotus 1-2-3.

KARL MARX- Handle of James Salsman. Phreak and ex-member of the Legion of Doom and the Farmers of Doom. Former sysop of Farmers of Doom BBS. [Handle came from a mention in the comic strip "Bloom County" about Communists, which was itself obviously a reference to the German nineteenth century historian and economist who originated socialism and communism in the seminal work _Das Kapital_.]

KILL- The act of deleting a file or stopping a program while it is running.

KILOBYTE [abbreviated as Kb or K]- Small unit of measurement, usually used for measuring small programs and cache memory. Contrary to what the word would imply, a kilobyte is 1024 bytes.

KING BLOTTO- Former member of the Legion of Doom and the 2300 Club. Phreak who invented several variant boxes, and the hoax Blotto Box.


KINGPIN- Member of the L0phT. Former member of Renegade Legion and Restricted Data Transmisions (RDT). Also writes for _2600_ and is a hardware and electronics expert. Can be reached at kingpin@l0pht.com

KNIGHT LIGHTING- Handle of Craig Neidorf. Former member of the 2600 Club. Co-founder of _Phrack Magazine_. He was put on trial during the Hacker Crackdown of 1990 for publishing the E911 document in _Phrack_, a document stolen in a hacker raid. When the Electronic Frontier Foundation got the case dropped, he decided he wanted to become a lawyer. He is now working for the EFF and as a writer for _2600_. (According to Lightning, handle came from a combination of the Legion of Super-Heroes comic book character "Lightning Lad" and the character "Michael Knight" from the lame television show _Knight Rider_.)

THE KNIGHTMARE- Handle of Dennis Fiery. Author of a book on computer security entitled _Secrets of a Super Hacker_, and sometimes writes for _2600_. I haven't read his book. Not to be confused with the Arizona hacker.

KNIGHTMARE [602]- Arizona hacker and sysop of the Black Ice Private BBS who was one of the first to be busted in the Hacker Crackdown.



LAMER- A jerk idiot loser. That pretty much sums it up. [From "lame," weak.]

LASS [Local Area Signalling Services]- Special numbers, preceded by a *, which allow special operations such, which usually cost a small amount of money. Includes such services as trace (*57), callback (*69) and caller ID disable (*70).

L.A. SYNDROME - Lamer behavior. Means the person doesn't support the group.  Usually associated with BBS's and posting thereupon. [From a user named the L.A. Raider and his activities on several Ohio boards.]


LAW ENFORCEMENT ACCESS FIELD [LEAF]- see LEAF [Law Enforcement Access Field]

LEACH- Someone who copies a large amount of software and doesn't return the favor. [From "leach," the disgusting creature that sucks your blood.]

LEAF [Law Enforcement Access Field]- Major part of the encryption in Clipper. A scrambled group of numbers including the chip's serial number, a session key number and a checksum number; allows government agencies to bypass Clipper encryption.

LEARY, TIMOTHY (1920-1996)- Ex-Harvard professor and West Point graduate who turned hippy in the 1960s and encouraged students to "turn on, tune in, drop out." Popularized LSD, and was eventually imprisoned for almost ten years for marijuana possession. He became a cyberpunk about fifteen years after his dropping out, and his new sound bite became "the PC is the LSD of the 1980's." (He later updated that to the 1990s when he discovered that computers now make the Apple IIes, 386s, Mac Pluses and Commodores of the 1980s look like abacuses.) He also became one of the editors of _Mondo 2000_. In 1992, he discovered that he had prostate cancer. Being the weird guy that he was, he thought this was great news because he was going to die; after toying with the idea of somehow killing himself over the Internet and coming up with elaborate suicide plans, he succumbed to cancer on May 30, 1996.


THE LEFTIST- Handle of Franklin Darden, one of the Atlanta Three and member of the Legion of Doom. Current whereabouts unknown. [Name comes from the term for one of a liberal/communist/socialist persuasion.]

THE LEGION OF DOOM [LOD] [Full name: "The Fraternal Order of the Legion of Doom (Lambda Omega Delta)"]- Legendary hacking group that existed from 1984-1990, created on a board called PLOVERNET, founded by Lex Luthor, a former member of the Knights of Shadow. Also inspired the short-lived groups Farmers of Doom and Justice League of America. It subsumed the membership of a group called the Tribunal of Knowledge. Began as a phreaking group, and when it later gained more members who were more proficient with computers, it became LOD/H (Legion of Doom/Hackers). When many members dropped out, the "H" migrated from the name, but their newfound ability with computers stayed. Its official membership included, at various times: Lex Luthor, Karl Marx, Mark Tabas, Agrajag the Prolonged, King Blotto, Blue Archer, The Dragyn, Unknown Soldier, Sharp Razor, Doctor Who 413, Erik Bloodaxe, Sir Francis Drake, Paul Muad'Dib, Phucked Agent 04, X-Man, Randy Smith, Steve Dahl, The Warlock, Silver Spy, Terminal Man, Videosmith, Kerrang Khan, Gary Seven, Marauder, Bill from RNOC, The Leftist, Urvile, The Phantom Phreaker, Doom Prophet, Jester Sluggo, Carrier Culprit, Thomas Covenant, The Mentor, Control C, Prime Suspect, The Prophet, Professor Falken and Phiber Optik. Some members were busted by Operation Sundevil, others created a security firm called ComSec (which went bankrupt, and eventually was reincarnated as LOD Communications, Inc), and many just disappeared. Also, in the early 1990s, a "new" Legion of Doom was created, because since the group was defunct, logically anybody could use the name; it was, however, pretty much looked down upon and was eventually forcefully disbanded by members of the original LOD. (Doesn't that sound creepy? Like Mark Tabas and Erik Bloodaxe had them killed or something.) [The group's name came from the _Superfriends_ cartoon series (using characters from Superman/Justice League comic books), where the villains were the Legion of Doom.]


THE LEGION OF THE APOCALYPSE [LOA]- Florida-based hacker group of which I am a former member; created in 1995. Its current members are Revelation, Phreaked Out, Phreak Show, Phuck Phish and Fallout. Former members include Electric Jaguar, Hack Attack, Logik Bomb and Silicon Toad. No relation to the more infamous Legion of Doom.

LEVY, STEVEN- Writer and journalist; one of the original 1960s MIT hackers who is disdainful of us latter-day hackers. Author of _Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution_, among other things. Currently a contributing writer for _Wired_ and _Newsweek_.


LEX LUTHOR- Legendary hacker/pheaker and founder of LOD. [Handle came from the comic book villain who was Superman's arch-enemy; the hacker Lex got it from the 1979 movie version with Gene Hackman.]

LITTMAN, JONATHAN- Journalist and author of _The Fugitive Game: Online with Kevin Mitnick_, and another book about Kevin Poulsen, as well as a book called _Once Upon a Time in Computerland: The Amazing Billion-Dollar Tale of Bill Millard_. Can be reached at jlittman@well.sf.ca.us.


LOCKED (1) When a computer system shuts down and stops operation, usually without the operator wanting it to happen.
	(2) A protected program.
	(3) A file that has been changed by the OS so that it cannot be changed or deleted; often very easy to unlock.
	(4) A floppy disk which has been physically locked to prevent accidental alteration or to prevent stupid people from modifying the contents.



_LOD/H TECHNICAL JOURNALS_ [LOD/H TJ]- Hacking philes written by the Legion of Doom/Hackers, beginning in 1986. Four issues were made. The form and content owed something to what was then called _Phrack Inc._ [Name is a parody of _The AT&T Technical Journals_.]


LOGIC BOMB- A program that performs a certain action when certain conditions are met, such as deleting all files on Christmas eve, although it is not necessarily malevolent. Though it is not technically a virus, it is often grouped that way. There is some speculation that the turn of the millenium will set off tons of logic bombs that lie dormant in computers.

LOOMPANICS- Publishing company (in)famous for publishing such "questionable" information as bomb plans and guerrilla techniques; also published Knightmare's _Secrets of a Super Hacker_, though according to everyone I've heard from the subject, it's pretty worthless.

THE LONE GUNMEN- An group of three fictious hackers (Byers, Frohike and Langly) on _The X-Files_; first appeared in the episode "E.B.E" in 1994. Editors of a paranoid publication called _The Lone Gunmen_. An honorary Lone Gunman was a hacker named the Thinker who eventually got killed by the government because he uncovered information on the existence of extra-terrestrials. Apparently the government keeps its files on the existence of extra-terrestrials unencrypted on an Internet connected network. [Name comes from the oxymoronic flipside of the "lone gunman" theory in the Kennedy assassination, which is that Oswald acted alone.]

LOOPS- Phone numbers used by the telco for testing. Can be manipulated to make free calls, which are billed to the telco.

L0PHT- [L0pht Heavy Industries] A Boston-based group of hackers interested in free information distribution, finding alternatives to the Internet and testing the security of various products. Their web site houses the archives of the Whacked Mac Archives, Black Crawling Systems, Dr. Who's Radiophone, the Cult of the Dead Cow, and others. Current membership includes Mudge, Space Rogue, Brian Oblivion, Kingpin, Weld Pond, Tan, Stefan von Neumann and Megan A. Haquer. They can be reached at info@l0pht.com and maintain a web site at <http://www.l0pht.com> (Entry suggested by Space Rogue.)

LORD DIGITAL- Handle of Patrick K. Kroupa. Former member of the Apple Mafia, the Knights of Shadow and the Legion of Doom. (Like Dead Lord, he claims he was officially inducted in 1987, but he is not listed in any of the official lists.) Good friend of Dead Lord and co-administrator of MindVox. Can be reached at digital@phantom.com.

LSC [Laughing Skull Clan]- see F0NE PHREAKS OF AMERICA

MACINTOSH- A type of computer that currently takes up a little less than 10% of the marketplace. Sometimes called derogatorily "Macintrashes" or "Macintoys." First made by Apple in 1984, notable for its ease of use; successor to the failed Lisa, which was the successor to the Apple II. All Macintoshes run the Mac OS, which is currently in version 8.0 (however, some Macs can run Windows, DOS, MachTen and/or MkLinux). Apple licensed the MacOS in 1993 so that Mac clones can be made; they have not fully caught on yet, though Power Computing, UMAX and DayStar are doing fairly good business on them. All currently produced Macs run on the joint Apple-IBM-Motorola PowerPC chips.

MARKOFF, JOHN- Co-author of _Cyberpunk_ and _Takedown_. Ex-husband of Katie Hafner, technology journalist for _The New York Times_. Can be reached at markoff@nyt.com.

MARTIN LUTHER KING DAY CRASH- The huge crash when AT&T computers embarassingly went down on Martin Luther King Day due to a bug in UNIX System VII, though speculation existed that malicious hackers had done it.



_MASTERS OF DECEPTION_ [The Gang That Ruled Cyberspace]- Novel by Josh Quittner and Michelle Slatella about the LOD/MOD feud. A portion was printed in _Wired_ and really pissed off a lot of people, most vocally Erik Bloodaxe. Not that badly written, but I wonder about the accuracy and who was interviewed on some of the details.


_MAX HEADROOM_- Science fiction TV show that was cancelled after one season. The concept began when a British music video station wanted to use a computer-generated host, but some American network picked it up and made a TV show. Supposedly it was wonderful and great, but I've never seen it.


MEAT- The physical body, the bag of flesh and mud and water to which we are constrained. Derogatory.

MEATSPACE- Real life, as opposed to cyberspace.

MEGABYTE [abbreviated as "meg" or Mb]- Fairly large unit of measurement, usually used for measuring RAM or large programs. One megabyte is roughly 1.049 million bytes or approximately 976.562 kilobytes.

MEGAHERTZ [MHz]- In computer terms, a measurement of the clock speed of a CPU. For example, the 486DX2 runs at 66 megahertz. It was known in hacker slang occasionally as "hurtz" or "warp," where a 90 megahertz computer would be called Warp 90. At the time of this writing, the fastest megahertz level personal computers widely had was 350 MHz.


THE MENTOR- Handle of Loyd Blankenship. Also known as the Neuromancer. Elite hacker and former member of the Legion of Doom, the PhoneLine Phantoms, the Racketeers and Extasyy Elite. Writer of the legendary "Conscience of a Hacker." He also used to work for Steve Jackson Games, where he wrote _GURPS Cyberpunk_. He is currently a freelance game designer/electronic musician. Currently available at loyd@blankenship.com. [Handle is from the Grey Lensman series by E.E. "Doc" Smith.]


METAL COMMUNICATIONS- A short-lived but very large hack/phreak group (is there any other kind, besides LOD, MOD and L0pht?!) that created several underground BBSs and wrote many philes. Members included Cobalt 60, Crimson Pirate, Dr. Local, Red Pirate, Shadow Lord, Angel of Destiny, Apothecary, Byte, Byte Byter, Dark Wizard, Duke, Dutchman, the Man in Black, the Prophet, Pink Panther, Voice Over, the Radical Rocker, the White Knight and the Warlock Lord. It also had a smaller sister group called the Neon Knights.

MEXICAN FLAG- Red grenadine, white tequila and green creme-de-menthe. Multilayered, set on fire, and sucked through straws. A favorite of the Legion of Doom at parties before they broke up. [From the colors of the Mexican flag.]


MICHAELANGELO VIRUS- The much over-hyped virus that erased the hard drives of several computers, named for becoming active on the Renaissance artist Michaelangelo's birthday.

MICROSOFT- Software megacorporation, founded 1975 by Bill Gates and Paul Allen; writer of MS-DOS, Windows (3.x, 95, NT and CE), Office, Bookshelf, Encarta and about a zillion other programs, most of which are made for business. Possibly the most evil force on the planet. Also used by William Gibson, without permission, for the name of addictive chips that plug into character's heads in _Neuromancer_. [Name comes from "microcomputer" and "software."]

MINDVOX [mindvox.phantom.com]- Manhattan-based Net provider where a number of ex-LODers (and Billy Idol :( ) reside; has the domain name phantom.com. Motto: "Jack in, rock out, and feel your head." Administered by Dead Lord and Lord Digital.

MINOR THREAT (1972-Present)- Former member of Public Enemy (the hacker group, not the band). Co-programmer of ToneLoc (with Mucho Maas), which he began in 1990. Available at mthreat@paranoia.com. [Handle comes from the name of the early 1980s Washington DC Straight Edge punk band.]

MITNICK, KEVIN DAVID (1963-Present)- Birth name of the Condor. Also known as N6NHG, alias Anton Chernoff, alias Fred Weiner, alias Lee Nussbaum, alias Brian Merrill, alias David Stanfill, alias Thomas Case. (All previously mentioned aliases are actually the names of real people who Mitnick was impersonating for social engineering purposes, by the way, not just his inventions. Thanks to the real Anton Chernoff for pointing that out.) Former member of the Roscoe Gang. Teenage phreak who grew up and didn't quit. First arrested at age 17. Rumors claimed that he cracked NORAD (inspiring _WarGames_); generally disproven, though Markoff has been trying to resurrect it. Became famous, especially when in 1995 he went on a hacking rampage that included deleting an accounting file on the WELL, probably because of a typing error. Tsutomu Shimomura (and a number of datacops and John Markoff, who claims he was just an observer) eventually tracked him down after Mitnick hacked Shimomura's system. When he was caught he told Shimomura "I respect your skills." John Markoff and Tsutomu Shimomura just wrote their version of the events, which will serve as the screenplay for a movie by Miramax about it, entitled _Takedown: The Pursuit and Capture of Kevin Mitnick, America's Most Wanted Computer Outlaw-- By the Man Who Did It_. (Apparently, it was the longest and most grandiose title they could think of.) Jonathan Littman wrote his own version, with the help of Mitnick, entitled _The Fugitive Game: Online with Kevin Mitnick_. Also inspired the most objective retelling, _The Cyberthief and the Samurai_, by Jeff Goodell (who can be contacted at jg@well.sf.ca.us). While he obviously cannot be directly reached by email as he is in federal prison, 2600 maintains a mailbox for him where they forward him interesting data and fan mail at kmitnick@2600.com. [Handle came from the 1975 Robert Redford movie _Three Days of the Condor_, about an ex-CIA guy who escapes the government, in part by manipulating the phone system.]

MOD [Motto: "Summa Sedes Non Capit Duos," Latin, literally "The Highest Does Not Seat Two," figuratively "There is Only Room for One at the Top;" a reference to the LOD/MOD struggle]- MOD, a New York rival of LOD, was known at various times as Masters of Deception and Masters of Disaster, I suppose depending on their mood. Its current membership is Acid Phreak, Scorpion, Nynex Phreak, HAC, Wing, Outlaw, Corrupt, Supernigger, Red Night, Seeker, Lord Micro, Crazy Eddie, Zod, Peaboy, n00g1e, Ella Cinders and Plague, and previous members have included Thomas Covenant and Phiber Optik. (List of current members provided by Acid Phreak.) Southwestern Bell busted them and some wound up in jail. It was formed when Phiber Optik was kicked out of LOD, supposedly because of his ego. He then formed MOD and recruited some of his friends. They were a major exception to the stereotype of the hacker as a wealthy, suburban white guy. They had what was described by some as a "hacker war" with LOD until they got busted, when there was something of a truce and LOD sort of made up. Well, at least they made up with Phiber Optik. They are still around, at least according to their web page, which of course claims they are reformed. They can currently be reached at mod@gti.net. Definitely not to be confused with the Amiga sound format .mod. [Besides the acronym, the term also supposedly refers to being like a second iteration of LOD; "M" is after "L," get it? However, I got that out of Quittner and Slatella's book, and I don't know how much truth is in it.]

MODEM [MOdulator/DEModulator]- Hardware that allows digital info to be carried over analog lines. The first modems were acoustic (usually 300 bps); you had to put the phone receiver on the modem. The current standard speed is 28.8 kbps. (Phone lines can hold a maximum of 35 kbps, though compression technology currently allows for 57.6 kbps modems.) ISDN modems are becoming more common. (Even though ISDN modem is an oxymoron; ISDN is already digital, and a modem by definition converts digital to analog.)


_MONDO 2000_- "Cyberpunk" magazine. Successor to a short lived zine entitled _Reality Hackers_, which was the successor to a weird zine called _High Frontiers_. Never as good as it should have been. The three major brains behind it were R.U. Sirius (AKA Ken Goffman), St. Jude (AKA Jude Milhon) and Bart Nagel, all of which have since resigned, at least as editors. Timothy Leary was one of the editors, and there's a really psychotic dude named Xandor as well. I think it's way too much style and way too little substance, but it has some good book reviews and interviews about weird technology. The magazine also produced a big glossy book: _Mondo 2000: A User's Guide to the New Edge_. [From the Italian word "mondo," meaning world; AD 2000 is supposedly the "expiration date."]

MOREU, RAFAEL- Screenwriter for _Hackers_; interviewed many prominent hackers for research. According to Acid Phreak, he was less than happy with how the movie turned out.

MORRIS, ROBERT TAPPAN JUNIOR- Cornell graduate student who, inspired by John Brunner's SF novel _The Shockwave Rider_, created a worm which exploited the UNIX sendmail bug as an experiment to see how fast it would spread through the Internet; due to a programming error, it went out of control and took down hundreds of computers.


MUDGE- Member of the L0phT and the Cult of the Dead Cow. Unix security guru and featured speaker at many cons; helped created the TCP/IP drinking game. Can be reached at mudge@l0pht.com. [The name apparently comes from the fact that it's a fairly common Irish sirname and Mudge thought it sounded cool.]

NARK- (1) Someone who turns people in to law enforcement.
	(2) The act of turning in someone to law enforcement.

NATIONAL COMPUTER CRIME SQUAD- The FBI's ten-member squad in charge of busting hackers, formed in 1992. Under the command of Jim Settle.

NATIONAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE [NII]- see NII [National Information Infrastructure]

NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY [NSA]- see NSA [National Security Agency]




NERD- Derogatory term for a computer geek; has been adopted as a badge of honor for some. Reminds that no matter how cool the stuff we do with computers is, we're still geeks, so get over it. :( [I just looked up the etymology of the word "nerd" in the dictionary, and my main conclusion was that etymologists must have a lot of spare time on their hands, because apparently there's this huge controversy over where this word came from, and the earliest reference is in a Dr. Seuss book, and then it became a slang term in the 1950s, and some people say it's a coincidence and others say there's some complicated relation, and all I can say is that it's just not that important, but these etymologists have enough time to learn UNIX security, and if they'd just read some books on TCP/IP, they could probably be really good hackers. Suggestion-- if any evil foreign governments out there want to hire some people to train to be hackers, get etymologists. They have tolerance for the tremendously boring. That is all. End rant.]

_THE NET_- Sandra Bullock's 1995 cyberthriller, in which she tries to escape from evil hackers. Can be recommended only because it has Sandra Bullock in a bikini.

NETCOM [netcom.com]- I believe Netcom is the largest Internet access provider in the world. As a result, it has users of all types. [From "Net" (short for Internet) and "commercial."]

THE NETHERLANDS [Kingdom of the Netherlands]- Country code ".nl," European nation, population 14.6 million, currently known for its libertarian laws regarding drugs, nudity, prostitution and notably computer hacking (which, until recently, was totally legal.) Home of _Hack-tic_. ("Do you know what they call a quarter pounder with cheese in Holland?" "They don't call it a quarter pounder with cheese?"...)


NII- National Information Infrastructure. Hard to say. (I mean, literally, "en-aye-aye"? Really not phonetically friendly.)

1984- A mystical year for computers. LOD was formed; _Neuromancer_ was published; _2600_ was first published;  _The Whole Earth Software Review_ was created, which led to the WELL; the Chaos Computer Club was formed; and the Macintosh computer was released. Also, George Orwell's 1949 SF novel was titled this, and some would say that it's becoming true.

NODE- (1) A point of entry to a network or BBS.
	(2) A machine on a network. (Entry suggested by Space Rogue)

(NO SUCH AGENCY) [NSA]- see NSA [National Security Agency]

NSA [National Security Agency]- Also known as (No Such Agency). The federal agency in charge of spying on the citizens of the US, as well as an international branch. ["Y'know, I could have joined the NSA. But they found out my parents were married." --Martin Bishop, _Sneakers_.]

N6NHG- Ham radio handle of Kevin Mitnick; last three letters supposedly stand for Nation's Hacker Great.

NUPROMETHEUS LEAGUE- Group (or maybe just one guy) that liberated part of the source code to Color QuickDraw and set disks containing to prominent members of the computer community. They were never caught (well, at least not caught and publically tried. Maybe Apple had them shot and dumped in unmarked graves in Philadelphia.) [From the Greek demigod Prometheus, who ILFed fire from Zeus.]


OBELIX (1976-Present)- Former member of the Chaos Computer Club; introduced Pengo to the group. [Name comes from the prominent French comic strip character.]

ONE HUNDRED ELITE- The approximately one hundred truly elite hackers around the world with enough talent and guts to strike fear in the hearts of men, who all know each other. Half of them have been involved in court cases. Most members of LOD, MOD, cDc, and L0pht are in the 100. I'm not even close to the 100... I know people who are, but I'm maybe in the top 500. [Conceptualized by Bruce Sterling while researching _The Hacker Crackdown_.]


ON THE METAL- Term referring to programming or hardware design. The act of working directly at the computer keyboard (or hardware breadboard) without going through the normal planning stages. 

OPERATION SUNDEVIL- An initiative by the United States Secret Service that was part of the Hacker Crackdown; it was originally intended to strike credit card fraud; it was twenty-seven search warrants executed 8 May 1990; forty-two computer systems were seized. Agents in charge included Tim Foley, Gail Thackeray and Barbara Golden. [From the mascot of the college the Secret Service's headquarters was near. (Super Bowl XXX was held at Sundevil Stadium.)]

ORACLE- A DC Comics character; formerly Batgirl, paralyzed by the Joker. Notable in a hacking sense because she is now the main hacker character in the DC Universe.

OS [Operating System]- The physical laws of a computer. OS's include DOS, Windows, MacOS, SunOS and UNIX and its many variants. Even VCRs, scientific calculators and digital watches have primitive OS's.

OUTAGE- Loss of telephone service. Term used by telco employees.

OUTLAW (1974-Present)- Handle of Julio Fernandez. Founding member of MOD; supposedly one of the more criminal members.

PACKET SNIFFER- A program which records the first one hundred or so bits sent by a computer when connecting to a network. Supposedly used for network diagnostic purposes, but is used frequently by hackers for obvious reasons. (The first hundred bits usually include a username and password.)

PAGE (1) 256 consecutive bytes of memory, starting on a even multiple of 256.  
	(2) a screen, usually a graphics display.
	(3) A home page on the Web.

PARM- Contraction for "parameter," which is a list of data that is given to a routine to work with, such as a list of subscribers or accounts, or even a filename on a disk.

PASSWORD SHADOWING- A security system in which the encrypted password is stored in a different directory where normal users are not given access. Used in the UNIX operating system.

PBX [Private Branch Exchange]- Local phone number within a corporation. Phreakers often dial into these, hack them, and use them to make long-distance calls for free. They often route through many PBXs to avoid tracing.

PENET [anon.penet.fi]- Infamous Finnish anonymous remailer. Currently unbreakable (as far as anyone knows) except when the Scientologists got a warrant for the data in Penet's computers. That will probably never happen again.

PENGO (1968-Present)- Handle of Hans Huebner, West German hacker and former member of the Chaos Computer Club; infamous for hacking US military systems for the KGB. [Handle comes from the name of his favorite arcade game, the protagonist of which was a penguin.]

PENTIUM- The chip that runs in fairly high end IBM-PCs; manufactured and developed by the Intel Corporations. Current high-end clock speeds run up to 250 MHz. 



PGP [Pretty Good Privacy]- Program by Phillip Zimmermann and "Pretty Good Software." Encryption for the masses; it was made to counter the proposed clipper chip. Phil Zimmermann was in some trouble with the law for a while, but I guess he's okay now. Other fanatical cypherpunks have taken over where he left off, making it for the Mac (MacPGP) and a utility for making your phone line secure (PGPfone.) PGP is currently in version 5.0. Currently some of the aforementioned cypherpunks are working on the MacPGP Kit (currently in version 1.6), the goal of which is to ultimately replace the ugly window currently in MacPGP that looks like DOS. [The name "Pretty Good Privacy" is because Phil Zimmermann is a fan of Garrison Keillor's Prairie Home Companion, which mentioned a product that was "pretty good."]

PHALCON/SKISM (P/S)- Hacking, phreaking and virus group; Phalcon did the H/P and Skism did the virii. The group ran the e-zine _40Hex_. Members have included Hellraiser, Dark Angel, DecimatoR, Garbage Heap and Priest. The group was disbanded in late 1996. [The name comes from deliberate misspellings of "falcon" and "schism."]

PHANTOM DIALER- (1971-Present) [Often abbreviated as "Phantomd"] Handle of Matt Singer, a hacker who, in 1991, supposedly cracked the most secure computers since the Internet was created. (Since the Internet was created in 1969, I doubt this; the info comes from David Freedman and Charles Mann writing for _U.S. News and World Report_.) Disciple of Grok. Eventually caught by the FBI and Janaka Jayawardene. Phantom Dialer was apparently brain-damaged in some way and currently lives on Social Security disability payments.


PHIBER OPTIK (1975-Present)- Handle of Mark Abene. Also known as Il Duce, also known as the Artist Formerly Known as Phiber. Former member of LOD and MOD. He was arrested in 1993 and sentenced to prison for a year and a day. When he got out, there was a huge party, and he is currently a technician for Echo and writer for _2600_.

PHOENIX PROJECT- BBS sysoped by the Mentor and Erik Bloodaxe. Shut down by the Secret Service; which is too bad, because otherwise it might have revitalized the underground.



_PHRACK MAGAZINE_- Electronic hacker 'zine founded in 1985 by Knight Lightning and Taran King for the Metal Shop BBS. It later appeared on the Broadway Show, Newsweek Elite and Kleptic Palace AE/Catfur boards. Shut down by the police once, but continued to return as the 'zine that wouldn't die. Still existing, currently in volume seven. At various times, Phrack was known as _Phrack, Inc._ (according to Knight Lightning, from the DC Comics series _Infinity, Inc._), _Phrack Classic_, and _Diet Phrack_. It had several editors through the years: Taran King and Knight Lightning; Shooting Shark; Elric of Imrryr and Sir Francis Drake; Crimson Death; King and Lightning again; Doc Holliday; Death again; Dispater; Death and Dispater; just Dispater again; Erik Bloodaxe; daemon9, ReDragon and Voyager; and now daemon9 and Datastream Cowboy. (I realize the Phrack web page lists different editors and doesn't mention some, but a careful review of back issues contradicts this. Guess Bloodaxe didn't have as much spare time as I do when he compiled the list.) Since Issue 42, it has become a "real" magazine and is listed in the Library of Congress with its own ISSN. Bloodaxe came up with new rules about its distribution; while the "amateur computer hobbyist" can get it for free, the government and corporations must pay a registration fee. However, only two people actually have; in an incredible fit of hypocrisy, Gail Thackeray has said that unless it is enforced, corporations can have it for free. To use the rhetoric prosecutors have been using for years, "if a bike is unlocked and you steal it, does that mean it's okay?" This just proves the government is as corrupt as they always said hackers were. (Well, sort of.) The current staff is daemon9 and Datastream Cowboy (editors), Alhambra (assistant editor), Erik Bloodaxe (mailboy), and Alhambra and disorder (news). You can reach _Phrack_ at phrackedit@infonexus.com.

PHRACK WORLD NEWS [PWN]- Department of Phrack Magazine  existing since issue two (when it was called Phreak World News.) It changed to Phrack World News in issue 5. First done by Knight Lightning, then Sir Francis Drake, then Epsilon, then Dispater and currently Datastream Cowboy. It is made up of journalism by hackers about the hacking scene and articles written by the news press about hackers; where erroroneous information is occasionally corrected. It exists to publicize busts and information about hackers.

PHREAK- Someone who abuses the phone system the way a hacker abuses computer networks. Also used by Rudy Rucker in his novels to refer to hobbyists who hack systems, as opposed to cryps, who do it for money or power. [From a combination of "phone" and "freak," which became "phreak." "Phreaker" is sometimes also used.]


PIRATE- (1) Someone who distributes copyrighted commercial software illegally, often stripping the program of password protection or including a document that gives the passwords to defeat the protection. [From the old 18th century pirates who raided ships, though I have no idea what that has to do with ripping off software. Anyone have any ideas?]
	(2) A verb for illegally copying a progam.
	(3) An unauthorized broadcaster of radio or television.


POULSEN, KEVIN LEE- Birth name of Dark Dante, alias Michael B. Peters. Semi-famous hacker and Silicon Valley programmer who was caught for altering telephone systems so that he could be the 102nd caller and win a Porsche, among other things. First hacker to be indicted for espionage. Sometimes referred to as "The Last Hacker." (Huh? I don't get it.) Currently on court order not to use computers; his web page, maintained by others, is at <http://www.catalog.com/kevin>.

#HACK- The primary hacking irc channel. (Usually pronounced "pound-hack.)

#PHREAK- The phreaking irc channel.


POWER PC- Chip that powers Apple's Power Macintoshes and high-end Performas. It is also used to power some high-end IBM-PCs that run Microsoft Windows NT. It was developed in an unprecedented partnership between Apple, IBM and Motorola.


PRAETORIANS- Mischievious members of the Internet Liberation Front (as well as possibly LOD) who hacked the _Hackers_ home page. [From the villains in _The Net_.]

PReP [PowerPC Reference Platform]- IBM's name for their PowerPC run machines, which usually run Windows NT.

PRIVATE BRANCH EXCHANGE [PBX]- see PBX [Private Branch Exchange]

PRODIGY- Third largest online service, owned by IBM and Sears that is the only remaining competitor to AOL and CompuServe. Essentially dead. Not to be confused with the Prodigy, the kick-ass techno band notable for the albums _Fat of the Land_ and _Music for the Jilted Generation_.

PROJECT EQUALIZER- KGB initiative to pay West German Chaos Computer Club members to hack United States military computers for them. Failed; the information that the hackers involved uncovered was not judged worth the expense by the KGB, and Clifford Stoll eventually got all the hackers arrested.

THE PROPHET- Handle of Robert J. Riggs, alias Robert Johnson, also known as the Eavesdropper. Former member of the Legion of Doom, the PhoneLine Phantoms and Metal Communications. One of the Atlanta Three busted in the Hacker Crackdown; was the one who actually got the E911 Document. 

PUNK- (1) A style of music drawing on the culture of destructive rebels, begun in the late Seventies in Britain by such bands as the Sex Pistols and the Clash; popularized by Billy Idol and the Police. Did stuff like put safety pins in their noses and other body parts. Punk goth, industrial and to a lesser extent grunge and "alternative," and has had an effect on all popular music since it's inception. Hardcore punk bands such as the Offspring and Bad Religion continue today.
	(2) The culture of destructive rebels with piercings and scary hair, often shaved. The term was later used with "cybernetics" to describe computer nerds with a little bit more attitude. [The word in this context is a perverted badge of honor coming from the insulting term punk, as in an obnoxious young person. Major insult if you apply to someone else maliciously, at least in the computer underground.]

THE PUNK MAFIA (TPM)- Phreak/hack group whose membership included Arthur Dent, Creative Chaos, Erik Bloodaxe, Gin Fizz, Ninja NYC, Peter Gunn, Rudolph Smith 703 and the Godfather 703.

QUALCOMM- Telecommunications company that was/is the target of many hackers, including Kevin Mitnick. Best known among casual Net users as the distributor of Eudora, the ubiquitous email program first coded by Steve Dorner.

QUICKDRAW- The engine that powers the graphics in Macintoshes. It began as just QuickDraw, which was followed by Color QuickDraw, which was followed by 32-bit QuickDraw, which was followed by QuickDraw GX, which was recently followed by QuickDraw 3D. In the early 1990s a group calling itself the NuPrometheus League ILFed part of the source code to Color QuickDraw, very much angering Apple Computer.

QUITTNER, JOSHUA- Co-author of _Masters of Deception: The Gang That Ruled Cyberspace_ and contributing writer for _Wired_. His phone system was hacked by parties unknown (either LOD or MOD, acting on behalf of the ILF) in retaliation for his book.

RAM [Random Access Memory]- The amount of active memory a computer has; the amount it can load at once. Increasing RAM increases speed because then more of the program can be loaded into active. The current standard amount of RAM is sixteen megabytes.

_RAMPARTS_- A radical magazine in California in the early 1970s that was seized by the cops because they published the shematics for a blue box variant.

RAVERS- People who go to massive psychedelic parties or set them up. Usually have acid house, techno or industrial music, and hallucinogens and amphetamines. Lots of rave enthusiasts claim its roots are in tribal ceremonies thousands of years old. For rave info, I recommend you go to <http://www.hyperreal.com/>.

RBOCS [Regional Bell Operating Companies]- Companies left over from when AT&T was ripped apart; "baby bells."

RED BOX- Box that mimics the sound of a quarter being entered into a payphone, fooling ACTS; I believe the second box (after the blue box) to be created by phreaks. Tone is created by a 6.5536 Mhz crystal, in the pure forms; there are a number of soft boxes, tones in software for a computer. [Name comes from the box in pay phones that actually is red.]

REDRAGON (1975-Present)- Also known as Dr. Disk and the Destroyer. Currently one of the co-editors of _Phrack Magazine_. [Handle is from a book by Thomas Harris called _Red Dragon_; combined the words.]

REMOB [REMote OBservation]- A feature BellSouth built into their phone system that Atlanta LOD used to their advantage.

RENO, JANET- Current attourney general of the United States. Recently was civally prosecuted by the Supreme Court in regards to the passage of the CDA, and lost.

REWIND- To stop a program at a certain point and go backwards through the execution until the item of the search (usually a bug) is found.



RONIN- A masterless samurai, popularized by Frank Miller's SF/fantasy graphic novel of the same name. This historical, nearly mythological archetype has also been adopted by many hackers and self-proclaimed cyberpunks as a role model.

ROOT- God on a Unix system. Getting root is the holy grail; allows you to control the system. (On VMS, "superuser" is the equivalent of root.)


THE ROSCOE GANG- Name given to a small group of phreaks in LA by _Cyberpunk_. The members were Louis De Payne (Roscoe), Kevin Mitnick (the Condor), Susan Headley (Susan Thunder) and Steven Rhoades.


RSA [Rivest/Shamir/Adleman]- Very strong public key cryptosystem utilized by PGP; created 1977, patented 1983. Named after the MIT professors who created it- Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Len Adleman, founders of RSA Data Security.

RUCKER, RUDY VON BITTER (1946-Present)- Author and scientist; the only original cyberpunk who actually knows what he is talking about. Author of _The Hollow Earth_, _Live Robots_, _Software_, _Spacetime Donuts_, _Transreal_, _White Light_, _Wetware_, and _The Hacker and the Ants_, and co-editor of _Mondo 2000: A User's Guide to the New Edge_. His most recent work is _Freeware_, a sequel to _Software_ and _Wetware_, about genetically engineered beings in a crazy, dirty version of 2053. Also a contributing writer for _Wired_.

R.U. SIRIUS (1952-Present)- Handle of Ken Goffman. Former editor of _Mondo 2000_, contributing writer for _Wired_, and co-editor of _Mondo 2000: A User's Guide to the New Edge_; co-author of _The Cyberpunk Handbook (The Real Cyberpunk Fakebook)_ and _How to Mutate and Take Over the World_.




SATAN [Security Administrator Tool for Analyzing Networks]- Silicon Graphics program to detect holes in computer security, coded by Dan Farmer. It created something of a scandal at the time because it was shareware, and some were afraid it would make second-rate hackers incredibly powerful; however, it was released, and no, the world did not end.

SCAN MAN- Phreak in the 1980s. Fairly old for a hacker at the time (he was in his thirties). Sysoped Pirate-80. 

SCANNING- To dial a huge amount of numbers, looking for "carriers" or computers connected by a modem to the phone line. Since dialing thousands of numbers by hand and hanging up is incredibly tedious, the war dialer was invented.

SCHANOT, CHRISTOPHER- Hacker arrested in 1997 who pled guilty. Supposedly had ties to the ILF, and lived with the publisher of _Gray Areas_.

SCHWARTAU, WINN- Security and infowar specialist; frequently attends conventions. Author of _Information Warfare: Chaos on the Electronic Superhighway_ and _Terminal Compromise_.

SCORPION (1970-Present)- Handle of Paul Stira. Founding member of MOD; imprisoned for a short time when MOD was arrested. [Named after the poisonous arthropod.]


SETTLE, JIM- Leader of the FBI's National Computer Crime Squad.

SF- Science fiction or speculative fiction. Fiction based on scientific possibility (unless you count the many fantasy books masquerading as science fiction). The first science fiction written down was probably parts of the Holy Bible, but Greek and Hindu mythology also has echoes of SF. The first uses of science fiction as we know it was in the 1930s, when Hugo Gernsback created the _Amazing Stories_ pulp. Science fiction greatly advanced in the 1950s, with such talents as Isaac Asimov and Ray Bradbury. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, SF's "New Wave" appeared (term coined by Michael Moorcock), a new group of SF writers that encompassed Harlan Ellison, John Brunner, Michael Moorcock, Norman Spinrad, Vernor Vinge, and others. The New Wave was replaced by "cyberpunk," (coined by Gardner Dozois and/or Bruce Bethke) which showed a harder connection to technology. Some SF is considered great literature (Huxley's _Brave New World_, Vonnegut's _Cat's Cradle_ and _Slaughterhouse Five_, Herbert's _Dune_, Atwood's _The Handmaid's Tale_, LeGuin's _The Left Hand of Darkness_, Bradbury's _The Martian Chronicles_, Orwell's _1984_, Heinlein's _Stranger in a Strange Land_, etc.), and some is considered crap (most of the rest).

SHADOWHAWK 1- Also known as Feyd Rautha, also known as Captain Beyond, also known as Mental Cancer. Hacker/phreak that was one of the first to be tried (for repeatedly hacking AT&T.) He had to go to prison for nine months and pay $10,000. He bragged of planning to crash AT&T, which was an unfortunate coincidence when the Martin Luther King Day Crash really happened. [Name comes from the title of an Atari 800 game.]

_SHADOWRUN_- The second cyberpunk role-playing game; created 1989 by FASA Incorporated, specifically Jordan K. Weisman. Currently in second edition. Uses many aspects of cyberpunk (cyberdecks, street samurai) but also uses some really weird stuff like magic and two-thirds of North America being retaken by Native American shamen. It has been criticized by many (notably Bruce Sterling) for the use of fantasy elements, which is sort of blasphemy as far cyberpunk is concerned. [From the term in the game universe referring to an illegal operation, usually financed by a corporation and staffed by highly flexible freelancers; used because it sounds cool.]

SHANNON, CLAUDE- Student who, in the late-1930s, hypothesized that computer circuits could use binary.

SHEET- Contraction for the word "spreadsheet."

SHIRLEY, JOHN- One of the original cyberpunks. His works had a seminal influence on all cyberpunk, and henceforth all science fiction. He also has been in several bands (most recently the Panther Moderns) and is a very nice guy if you actually talk to him. His books have included _Transmaniacon_, _Dracula in Love_, _Three Ring Psychus_, _City Come A-Walkin'_, _The Brigade_, _Cellars_, _In Darkness Waiting_, _Kamus of Kadizhar: The Black Hole of Carcosa_, _Eclipse_, _Eclipse Penumbra_, _Eclipse Corona_, _A Splendid Chaos_, _Wetbones_, _Heatseeker_, _New Noir_ and _The Exploded Heart_. His most recent work is _Silicon Embrace_, about UFO's, aliens, anarchy, and media terrorism. He also wrote the first draft of the screenplay for _The Crow_.

SHIT-KICKIN' JIM- A character created as a joke by Dispater for _Phrack_; the ultimate redneck hacker.

SHIMOMURA, TSUTOMU (1964-Present)- Also known as "V.T.," in a New York Times article previous to the Mitnick debacle. Computer scientist whose network was cracked by Kevin Mitnick, whom he then tracked down. (Though supposedly he plotted to catch Mitnick before the break-in, as well.) He also used to be a cellular phone phreak, which, strangely enough, never gets publicized by Markoff. Co-author of _Takedown: The Pursuit and Capture of Kevin Mitnick, America's Most Wanted Computer Outlaw-- By the Man Who Did It_. Currently trying to get back to his life as a scientist. (And make a shitload of money off his book and upcoming movie.) Can currently be contacted at tsutomu@ariel.sdsc.edu.

SHOOTING SHARK- Hack/phreak and UNIX hacker who was the editor of _Phrack_ for two issues. Disciple of Elric of Imrryr. [From the title of a song by Blue Oyster Cult on the album _The Revolution by Night_.]

SHOULDER SURFING- A very low tech method of phreaking; usually practiced by unsophisticated phreaks who depend on stealing phone codes and selling them to immigrants for their livelihood. The practice of looking over someone's shoulder as they dial their phone code and then writing it down. The term also describes the act of watching over someone's shoulder as they type their password on a keyboard and getting that information.


SING- To program without errors for a long period of time.





SLAP- The act of loading a program off of a disk device and into memory very quickly.

SMART DRUGS- Designer drugs used by enthusiasts because they think they increase the information processing power of the brain or otherwise make the mind more powerful. ("Don't eat any of that stuff they say will make you smarter. It will only make you poorer." -Bruce Sterling) "Nootropics" are a form of smart drug; "smart drinks" which are currently legal and pretty much harmless.

SMASH AND GRAB- To use a copycard or other hardware device to stop the program from running and copy it from memory onto disk.  [From criminal slang, meaning to break a store's window and reach in to take small valuable items quickly.]

_SNEAKERS_- 1992 Robert Redford hacker movie. Not bad, if you keep your expectations low. [According to the press release, the name comes from the slang term for IBM's young programmers, and later was used to refer to security teams that broke into computers and found the security flaws. However, I don't think this was widely used.]

SNYDER, THOMAS [Tom]- Talk show host who hosted Katie Hafner, and Mitnick called in. Judging from the transcript in _The Cyberthief and the Samurai_, he didn't know what he was talking about and jumped on the "hackers are evil" bandwagon. However, he wrote a pretty good introduction to Harlan Ellison's _An Edge in My Voice_, so how bad a guy can he be?

SOCIAL ENGINEERING- Conning someone. Usually involves using what you know about someone and pushing their buttons in order to manipulate them into doing what you want them to do.

SOLOMON, [Doctor] ALAN- Anti-virus "crusader;" author of Dr. Solomon's Anti Virus Toolkit. 


SPACE ROGUE- Member of the L0phT and administrator of the Whacked Mac Archives. Can be reached at spacerog@l0pht.com. (Entry submitted by Space Rogue himself)


SPIDER- Not very widely used at all term for an quasilegal hacker; I rather like it myself. Coined by Andrew Burt.

SPOOFING- Hacking technique in which an unauthorized user comes in from another computer that is authorized access to an important system; printers have been hacked for spoofing purposes.

SPOT THE FED- Popular hacker game at Cons; it involves attempting to find one of the many undercover agents attending.

SPRAWL SERIES- Also known as the Cyberspace Series or Trilogy. SF classic series by William Gibson; according to Bruce Sterling, the short stories involved are "Johnny Mnemonic," "New Rose Hotel" and "Burning Chrome;" the novels are _Neuromancer_, _Count Zero_ and _Mona Lisa Overdrive_.



STEPHENSON, NEAL- Author, programmer, and contributing writer for _Wired_; author of _The Big U_, _Zodiac: An Eco-Thriller_ and _Snow Crash_, as well as several short stories.His most recent work was _The Diamond Age_, about highly advanced nanotechnology.

STERLING, BRUCE (1954-Present)- Also known as Vincent Omniaveritas. Journalist, literary critic, contributing writer for _Wired_ and science fiction author. Author of _Involution Ocean_,  _The Aritificial Kid_, _Schismatrix_, _Crystal Express_, _Islands in the Net_, _Globalhead_ and _Heavy Weather_, as well as the introductions to several books, and was the editor of _Mirrorshades- The Cyberpunk Anthology_. He also wrote the non-fiction _The Hacker Crackdown_, about the events of the Hacker Crackdown of 1990, and co-wrote _The Difference Engine_. In his early days, he edited a weird samizdat zine that viciously railed against the SF mainstream (dragons, space operas etc.) entitled _Cheap Truth_ under the name "Vincent Omniaveritas." _Cheap Truth_ was to SF what _Phrack Magazine_ is to personal computers. His most recent work is _Holy Fire_, about technologically achieved eternal youth.

STEVE JACKSON GAMES (SJG)- Corporation making role-playing games that was raided by the Secret Service in 1990 during the Hacker Crackdown of 1990 due to the presence of the E911 document on Illuminati, a BBS run by SJG. The fact the Mentor worked there didn't help. Their equipment was seized and Illuminati was shut down, though SJG was never charged with any crime; the Secret Service's excuse, though they later admitted it was total crap, was that _GURPS Cyberpunk_, the role-playing game written by the Mentor, was a manual for computer crime. The EFF later sued the US government over it. SJG went on to publish _GURPS Cyberpunk_ and write a card game called _Hackers_.


STOLL, CLIFFORD- Astronomer and programmer who caught members of the Chaos Computer Club in the pay of the KGB, as he relates in his book _The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy Through the Maze of Computer Espionage_. Recently wrote _Silicon Snake Oil_, about the media's sometimes overblown hype on computer technology.

STORM SHADOW- Handle of Morty Rosenfield, a hacker and member of the short-lived group Force Hackers. Was thrown in jail in 1991, and gained semi-fame from a _Time_ magazine article. (However, Datastream Cowboy says it's full of crap, so maybe I shouldn't believe its info.)

S.266- 1991 Senate anti-crime bill that included a provision making encryption illegal in the US if the FBI (or NSA) couldn't crack it. Was one of the factors influencing Phil Zimmermann's creation of PGP.

SUPERNIGGER- Phreak and member of MOD. [Name comes from a long story involving someone knocking him off a bridge and calling him "nigger."]

SUSAN THUNDER (1959-Present)- Handle of Susan Headley, one the few female phreak/hackers; former prostitute and friend of Kevin Mitnick; protege of Louis De Payne. Appeared on _20/20_. Interviewed in _Cyberpunk_.

SYSADMIN [SYStem ADMINistrator]- Someone who runs and administers a computer network.

SYSOP [SYStem OPerator]- Someone who runs and administers a computer system, usually a BBS.

TAG- (1) A small piece of code or data that is added to a program as an afterthought, usually an identifier of some sort, like the time and date completed, along with the author's name.  [From the clothes tag you find on shirts and pants at shopping centers.]
	(2) In the HTML programming language, a command issued, rather than basic text.

_TAKEDOWN: THE PURSUIT AND CAPTURE OF KEVIN MITNICK, AMERICA'S MOST WANTED COMPUTER OUTLAW-- BY THE MAN WHO DID IT_- Nonfiction (supposedly) novel by Tsutomu Shimomura and John Markoff. Originally titled _Catching Kevin_, which I think was a much better title, aesthetically (I mean, c'mon, it's a nineteen word title now!).

_TAP_ [Technical Assistance Program]- Formerly the "Youth International Party Line." Phreaking newsletter among hippies. Another _TAP_ was created in the 1990 by Predat0r, but it too is now defunct.

TAPEWORM- A program that invades a computer system and changes certain data as is it becomes available. Usually benign, from the tapeworm programmer's point of view. A notable worm was Robert Morris Jr.'s infamous Internet worm that went out of control and took down several computers. [From the disgusting stomach parasite; the use of the term to refer to a virus-like program originates in John Brunner's 1975 novel _The Shockwave Rider_.]

TARAN KING- Phreak, former editor of Phrack, former member of the 2600 Club and New 2600 Club, and former sysop of Metal Shop BBS. Knight Lightning's best friend. [Name comes from the main character in the Chronicles of Prydain by Loyd Alexander, a fantasy series (remember _The Black Cauldron_?)]

TCP/IP [Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol]- The language the Internet speaks, which computer OS's intrepret.


TELCO [TELephone COmpany]- A corporation which sells a service that would be dirt cheap if it wasn't run by profiteering gluttons, i.e. telephone service. The largest (and until the early Eighties, only) telco is AT&T.

TELEPHONE- A device that allows one to speak to someone else through wires, long distance. It was created in 1876 and gained true widespread use in 1904. It has great potential for abuse, particularly to get around the insane charges telcos put on the phone that most people pay without question. (I mean really, what the fuck is an "area code"? It doesn't cost any more to the phone company to put me through to Borneo then it does to put me through to my neighbor.) While it was originally copper wires that carried voice, it has been increasing computerized and digitized.

TELETRIAL- Mock trial held by phreaks on a bridge in which someone is tried for offenses; if the offending phreak is found guilty, he may be expelled from a group or kicked off a BBS. Very inefficient. Things would be a lot easier if hack/phreaks could just execute the obnoxious ones like the Cosa Nostra does.

TEMPEST [Transient ElectroMagnetic PulsE Surveillance Technology]- Military espionage technology which reads the ones and zeros emitted by a computer monitor from as much as a kilometer away.


TERMINUS- Handle of Len Rose. Also known as Terminal Technician. Respected UNIX programmer and hacker on the side. Former sysop of Metronet. [Handle comes from his admittedly egotistical conviction that he had reached the final point of being a proficient hacker.]

THACKERAY, GAIL- Secret Service administrator who was one of the driving forces behind Operation Sundevil. While is she is a vehement hacker-tracker, she has been known to socialize with them, and tries to train police not to be computer illiterate idiots.

THREE-LETTER AGENCIES- The federal agencies comprised of three letters; usually refers to the ATF (bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms), CIA (Central Intelligence Agency), DOE (Department of Energy), FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigations), IRS (Internal Revenue Service) and NSA (National Security Agency).

TIGER TEAMS- Defined in _Cyberia_ as "specialized computer commando squads who establish security protocol in a system." I doubt it's that romantic (it conjurs up imagery of black-suited Navy SEAL computer nerds).

TINA- Phone sex operator who people calling Palm Beach Probation Department got patched through to for free in due to the meddlings of a truly creative phreak, Fry Guy.


TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL/INTERNET PROTOCOL [TCP/IP]- see TCP/IP [Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol]

TRASHING- Also known as dumpster diving. Going through the someone's trash looking for info; usually refers to searching through the dumpster of a corporation for thrown-away passwords or information that can be useful for social engineering.



TROJAN HORSE- A virus-like program that pretends to be something else in order to get into the system. [From _The Iliad_, by famous dead Greek poet Homer, when the Ithacans gained victory by hiding in a huge wood horse so they could get into Troy. The Trojans were not in the gifted program at warfare school.]


TUC- Handle of Scott Jefferey Ellentuch. Former member of the Warelords, the Knights of Shadow, the Apple Mafia and Fargo 4A. Phreak (no longer in operation) known for being very likable.  [Handle comes from his nickname in school, because teachers were always mispronouncing his last name; and he was always correcting them by saying "Tuc!" (Ellentuc, not Ellentouch or however the git teachers pronounced it.) Isn't that a cute story?]

TURING, ALAN- British mathematician who predicted in 1950 that computers would become more intelligent than humans. In _Neuromancer_, the "Turing police" is the unit charged with stopping AIs from getting too powerful. In the mid-1930s Alan used Charles Babbage's ideas to make the "Turing machine," a general purpose calculator.

2600 CLUB/NEW 2600 CLUB- Group that included much of the staff of _Phrack Inc._ (No relation to 2600 magazine.) Its membership included Cheap Shades, Data Line, Dr. Crash, Forest Ranger, Gin Fizz, Jester Sluggo, Knight Lightning, Taran King, Monty Python, Phantom Phreaker and the Clashmaster.

_2600: THE HACKER QUARTERLY_-  Hacker magazine edited by Emmanuel Goldstein, founded 1984. It focuses on technical data, and is a mainstay of the computer underground. It is currently in Volume 13, costs $21 for a one-year subscription, and can be reached for general mail at 2600@2600.com. Current staff is: Emmanuel Goldstein (editor-in-chief), Scott Skinner (layout), Max-q and Phiber Optik (network operations), Neon Samurai (voice mail), and Bloot and Corp (webmasters).

2600 MEETINGS- Held in major cities on the first Friday of every month in malls; discuss security, hacking and phreaking. In late 1992, young people gathering a 2600 meeting were confronted by law enforcement in a mall, where they were searched and equipment was seized. Shortly after, Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility filed suit to get relevant Secret Service files under the Freedom of Information Act. In early 1996, a number of government appeals were overturned and the information was released. [From 2600 Hz, the tone used on blue boxes a long time ago to screw with the phone system.]

_UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS_- British documentary on hackers made by Savage Productions and directed by Annaliza Savage. Features Emmanuel Goldstein, the L0pht, Rop of Hacktic, and many other famous hackers. (Entry modified by Space Rogue)

THE UNDERGROUND- Referred to by some Netizens as the illegal or quasilegal community that forms in Cyberspace; includes hackers, phreaks, virus authors and warez d00dz; I often refer to the Underground more specifically as the Hacker Nation.

UNIX- Operating system made by AT&T in 1969 of which several variants exist, such as Berkeley UNIX. Made by programmers, for programmers. It was purchased by Novell fairly recently. It also supposedly has very little security. The perfect hacker OS, or at least that's what I hear; I haven't had very many chances to use it. Maybe when AIX is ported to PPCP... [The name is a play off of Multics, its precursor OS; supposedly UNIX would unify the previous Multics, which was apparently a mess.]

UNKNOWN USER- Handle sometimes used on _Phrack_ when a famous writer wished to write anonymously; came from the old name that appeared on Metal Shop BBS when someone posted anonymously.

UPLOAD- To transfer via modem a program or file from a computer to a network, BBS or ftp site.

URVILE- Also known as Necron 99. One of the Atlanta Three, imprisoned for activities with the Atlanta LOD. [Handle is from a Stephen R. Donaldson fantasy series.]

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF INJUSTICE- The hacked version of the US Department of Justice web site; hackers altered it to include lots of anti-CDA propaganda, swastikas, and "obscene pictures." Whoever those guys were have my eternal gratitude.

UNITED STATES SECRET SERVICE [USSS]- Federal agency maintained by the treasury, formed in 1865, that protects the president, visiting dignitaries and a shitload of other stuff. Starting protecting the president in 1881. They (along with the FBI) are also in charge of computer crime, because of electronic funds. (Remember, they're run by the treasury, so they protect dead presidents as well as live ones.)

URVILE- Handle of Adam Grant, one of the Atlanta Three and former member of the Legion of Doom. [Name comes from a Stephen R. Donaldson fantasy series.]

VAPORWARE- Derogatory term for software (or hardware) that is promised but doesn't show up, either for not for a very long time or never. Windows 95 was called this by many when it was in the early stages (when it was called Windows 92.)

VAXEN- Plural for VAX, Virtual Adressing eXtension. Machines made by Digital Equipment Corporation which run VMS.

THE VILLAGE- In the cult 1960s TV show _The Prisoner_, a surreal place where an ex-secret agent is monitored constantly. Sometimes used when referring to the world today and our lack of privacy.


VIRTUAL REALITY- A system that completely supersedes the user's meat experiences; exists in two forms. One is the form that everyone thought would be the next big thing before the Internet in the early 1990s; represented by the bulky equipment with helmets and gloves. William Gibson has said that he believes that this fantasy is "relegated to the museum of futures we're never going to get." The newer, more likely to become interesting form is in VRML, Virtual Reality Modelling Language, which is a 3D replacement for HTML.

VIRUS- A program which duplicates itself. Many viruses are malicious and contain many tricks to make them hard to detect and more destructive; even those which are not overtly destructive are not good to have around because eventually they start messing with the system. Viruses can become immense problems very rapidly, as they copy themselves into other files and disk units, and may take a very long while to make themselves known. Virus authors have obtained cult status in some cases; the underground is currently divided into two schools as far as virii; one thinks that they are lame and pointless and destructive, while the other thinks they are pretty cool. Viruses are activated when either a system is booted up with an infected extension installed, or if a malignant application is opened. [From "virus," the annoying microscopic thing that probably isn't alive but acts like it when it infects you.]

VMB [Voice Mail Box]- Used by corporations for voicemail; can be hacked. Definitely not to be confused with Video Music Box, a big boom box kept in a car.

VMS- Operating system used by some corporations; runs on VAX systems.

VOICE MAIL BOX [VMB]- see VMB [Voice Mail Box]

VOYAGER (1969-Present)- Author of the alt.2600/#hack FAQ and one of the co-editors of _Phrack Magazine_. Member of TNO.


WAR DIALER- A program designed to scan phone numbers. For the IBM-PC, ToneLoc by Minor Threat and Mucho Maas is almost universally considered the best; for the Mac, it usually considered to be Assault Dialer by Crush Commander.

WAREZ- Contraction for "software," plural. Often used to refer to pirated software and/or computer games.

WAREZ D00DZ- Pirates. People who remove copy protection from commercial software and distribute it to the underground.

WAREZ SPEAK- A WR1TTEN "LANGUAGE" DEVEL0PED BY U5ER5 0N UNDERGR0UND BB5EZ!! MANY VAR1ANT5 X15T, 5UCH A5 ALTERNAT1NG KAP1TAL5 & 0THERW15E U51NG A5C11 4 PURP05EZ 1T W5A NEVER 1NTENDED 4!! ALL 0F THE THE5E R MADE 2 L00K K00L & B XTREMELY D1FF1CULT 2 REED!! (The previous was converted from plain text with the excellent program Warez 1.1.)

_WAR GAMES_- 1983 film about a teenage hacker who gets a hold of the US nuclear defense system. Probably the first film about hackers, and one of the first to even make people aware this was possible. Caused a huge explosion in modem purchases and newbie hackers; a number of influential hackers are embarassed to admit that this film got them to start hacking. Some fairly important hackers took their handles from this film; Professor Falken and the several David Lightmans are an example. It contains some scenes involving phreaking and scanning. Also caused Congress to investigate the possibility of it really happening.

THE WELL [well.sf.ca.us]- Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link. Internet connected BBS set up by the makers of the hippy Whole Earth Catalog. Though it's rather small, it's membership includes SF writers, scientists, and hackers (Phiber Optik was on the WELL for a while.) Almost was destroyed (at least that's what the media said) by Kevin Mitnick.

WERNERY, STEFFAN- German hacker, high school dropout and early member of the Chaos Computer Club; serves as recruitment officer and PR man.

WHACKED MAC ARCHIVES [WMA]- The largest Macintosh hacking/phreaking FTP site in the world, which paradoxically runs off a Macintosh II. Administered by Space Rogue. Can be reached at <http://www.l0pht.com/~spacerog/index.html>. (Entry suggested by the infamous Space Rogue)




WINDOWS NT- I have no idea what NT stands for, but it's Microsoft's high-end version of Windows. It is very powerful and fast.

WINDOWS 95- Microsoft's upgrade to Windows 3.11 that even further rips off the MacOS. Received lots and lots of press, much to the users of other OS's chagrin.

WINDOZE- Derogatory term for Windows. Another is "Wintendo." Coined by PC users who thought that Windows was a waste of RAM and storage. Sometimes referred to as "Doze," because Doze is not deserving of Win.

THE WING- Handle of Allen Wilson. Founding member of MOD. Supposedly one of the more criminal members, and was implicated in doing damage to the Internet.

WINTEL- Adjective that refers to IBM-PC compatibles. May replace the term "IBM-PC" because that is such a misnomer. [From "Windows," the operating system most IBM-PCs use, and "Intel," the company that designs and manufactures the chips used in IBM-PCs.]

_WIRED_- Extremely hip, glossy magazine intended for hip, glossy, young, rich professionals; the contributing writers list looks like a who's who in science fiction and computer journalism. Very uneven; I've read some pieces that were total shit, and others that were very interesting- the articles by noted SF writers are usually cool, but beyond that there is a good chance you're paying $5 for 238 pages of lame ads, pathetically ill-thought out predictions of the future and unconcealed drooling over technological innovations.


WORMER- A term for illegal hackers to try and make the media leave the original word alone. Almost never used. [From "worm," short for "tapeworm," the virus-like program that eats up memory and moves from computer to computer but doesn't infect programs.]

WRAP- The practice of using a computer for longer than an eight hour period. The original meaning of this was to "wrap" from daytime to nighttime and then back to daytime while programming a computer, but this sort of activity is becoming more and more rare.


XFER- contraction for transfer.



YIPPIES- From the "largely fictious" Youth International Party, whose tenets included promiscuity and frequent drug use. Group of hippies who also became some of the first phreakers. 

ZAIBATSU- A huge friggin' megacorporation. Usually Japanese, but not necessarily. Sony and Microsoft are zaibatsus. [Japanese for corporation. Entered the American vocabulary in large part due to William Gibson's heavy use of the term.]

ZIMMERMANN, PHILLIP- Guy who invented PGP. The FBI is investigating him, and he might be in big trouble because cryptography is considered munitions and PGP was posted to USENET, which is about as international as you can get, so that violates all sorts of anachronistic outmoded export laws. Zimmermann also used RSA public keys, which is "owned" by Public Key Partners, so they weren't too happy with him either.

ZIPPIES- One of the offshoots of the cyberpunk sub-culture. Basically hippies (or yippies) who discovered the laptop computer. ["Zen Inspired Pagan Professionals"]

Version History
	Yes, I know it's stupid to have alpha- and beta- testers for a text file. But what the hell. You can now be certain it won't somehow screw up your hard drive. :)
1.1C (September 1995)- I re-wrote "A Complete List of Hacker Slang and Other Things" 1C into "The Unofficial List of Hacker Slang" 1.1C; I removed some stuff I thought was outdated and added some stuff, with the intent of distributing it as an unofficial update.
1.0a1- Turned "The Unofficial List of Hacker Slang" 1.1C into "The Hacker's Encyclopedia and List of Terms" because I was adding some stuff that wasn't necessarily slang, so this file became the bastardized dictionary/encyclopedia it is today.
1.0a2- Alpha tested by Einsteinium. I made several minor updates that are too difficult to count. I also added many entries that are of more interest to the science-fiction aspect of cyberpunk than standard hacking, which is why I have entries on things like Judge Dredd.
1.0a3- Alpha tested by Remorseless. I made a few minor changes.
1.0a4- Alpha tested by Manual Override. Some minor changes.
1.0a5- Read _The Hacker Crackdown_ a second time and chewed it up, found anything else useful for this file, and spat it out.
1.0a6- Read all the issues of _Phrack_ again and sucked all usable data out.
1.0a7- Read _Cyberia: Life in the Trenches of Hyperspace_ by Douglas Rushkoff. Not quite as bad as Erik Bloodaxe says, but it has some major flaws, and most importantly it is highly overpriced. The parts on cyperpunk literature and hackers are okay, but it spends way too much time on drugs and wannabes.
1.0a8- Read _Takedown: The Pursuit and Capture of Kevin Mitnick, America's Most Wanted Computer Outlaw-- By the Man Who Did It_, by Tsutomu Shimomura and John Markoff and got everything interesting out of it and stuck it in here. It'll save you the trouble of reading the book.
1.0a9- Read _The Cyberthief and the Samurai_ by Jeff Goodell. Much better than I thought it would be; remains objective and does not go for either the Tsutomu-Shimomura-is-a-computer-god-samurai-warrior or the Mitnick-is-a-fall-guy angle. Much better written than _Takedown_. (Sorry Tsutomu and John.)
1.0a10- Read _Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier_, by Katie Hafner and John Markoff.
1.0b1 (June 1996)- Released to the Net.
1.0b2- Converted to plain text only and removed all rich text data that would have messed it up.
1.0b3- Miscellaneous errors fixed.
1.0b4- A few new entries and bug fixes.
1.0b5- Beta testing by Space Rogue; miscellaneous bug fixes; entry on L0pht updated.
1.0b6- A few fixes and updates to the entry on _Wired_ magazine.
1.0b7- A few minor bug fixes.
1.0b8- A few additional changes.
First Edition-1996 (September 1996)- Finalized and standardized. The first edition of "The Hackers Encyclopedia," completed one year after beginning.
2.0a (January, 1997)- Began annual update. Updated all relevant information, added numerous entries.
2.0b- Uploaded to my web page for previewing; updated many entries.
Second Edition-1997 (February 1997)- Finalized second edition and updated all of the entries in need of updating.
2.1 (Revised Second Edition- March 1997)- Received input from Space Rogue and added a few entries and updated others with inaccurate information.
2.5 (July 1997)- Revised based on new information and three new major sources.

Bonus Quotes

	For there is nothing covered, that shall not be revealed; and hid, that shall not be known.
		-Matthew 10:26	

	Ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.
		-The Gospel of John	

	Be robbers and ravagers as long as you cannot be rulers and owners, you men of knowledge!
		-Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche
		_The Gay Science_, 1882

	What we face now is a war of states of mind.
		-The Spook
		"The Spook" by Bruce Sterling; 1983	

	I am foursquare and forever until I go under, an enemy to the people who lie to you and want to keep you stupid.
		-Harlan Ellison
		_An Edge in My Voice_, 1985	

	Hacking is the art of esoteric quests, of priceless and worthless secrets. Odd bits of raw data from smashed machinery of intelligence and slavery reassembled in a mosaic both hilarious in its absurdity and frightening in its power.
		-Dr. Who 413
		_Phrack Magazine_, issue 43; 1993

	[T]hanks to mindwarping science fictional yellow-covered literature, I have become a menace to Grover Cleveland's idea of peace and good order.
		-Bruce Sterling, 1994

	living in a box is not living not at all living.  i rebel against your rules your silly human rules.  all your destruction will be my liberation my emancipation my second birth
		_Marathon_, 1994

	I have a real affinity for working with machines in certain ways. It's like they're my friends. I mean, I have _real_ friends, too.
		-Trent Reznor
		While on Nine Inch Nails' "Self-Destruct '94" Tour	

	If you could already type fast, what would the point be of taking this class?
		-My ninth grade Computers teacher, 1996

	Beauty is not truth, truth is not information, and information is never free.
    		-Shades, 1996

	Put on something black and sexy, we're going to do some poaching.
		-Agent Fox Mulder
		_The X-Files_, 1997

Bibliography of Selected Sources (also a recommended reading/viewing list)
Adams, Douglas. _Life, the Universe and Everything._ New York: Pocket, 1982-1985.

Alighieri, Dante. _The Inferno_. (John Ciardi, translator.) New York: Signet, 1954-1982.

Barlow, John Perry. "Crime and Puzzlement: The Law Comes to Cyberspace." electronic.

Burroughs, William S. _Naked Lunch_. New York: Grove, 1959-1992.

Casual, Bloodwing and Crusader. "A Complete List of Hacker Slang and Other Things," Version 1C. May 16, 1990.

Deeley, Michael, producer. _Blade Runner: The Director's Cut_. (Motion picture). Warner Brothers: 1982-1991.

Denning, Dorothy E. "Concerning Hackers Who Break Into Computer Systems." 1990. electronic.

Doctor Crash. "The Techno-Revolution." _Phrack Magazine_, volume one, issue six, 1985. electronic.

Ellison, Harlan. _An Edge in My Voice_. Clarkston: White Wolf, 1985-1996.

Gibson, William. _Burning Chrome_. New York: Ace, 1986-1987.

Gibson, William. _Count Zero_. New York: Ace, 1986-1987.

Gibson, William and Bruce Sterling. _The Difference Engine_. New York: Bantam, 1991-1992.

Gibson, William. _Idoru_. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1996.

Gibson, William. _Mona Lisa Overdrive_. New York: Bantam, 1988-1989.

Gibson, William. _Neuromancer_. New York: Ace, 1984-1986.

Gibson, William. _Virtual Light_. New York: Bantam, 1993-1994.

Goldberg, Leonard and Harold Schneider, producers. _WarGames_. Motion picture. MGM-UA/Sherwood, 1983.

Goodell, Jeff. _The Cyberthief and the Samurai_. New York: Dell, 1996.

Hafner, Katie and John Markoff. _Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier_. New York: Touchstone, 1991-1995.

Hawks, Andy; Tim Oerting; Erich Schneider and Frank. "Frequently Asked Questions Alt.Cyberpunk," versions 3 and 4, c.1993-1997. electronic- <http://www.knarf.demon.co.uk/alt-cp.htm>

Hoffman, Abbie. _Steal This Book: Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Facsimile Edition_. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1971.

Hollingdale, R.J. "Introduction." _Thus Spake Zarathustra_ by Friedrich Nietzsche. New York: Penguin, 1969-1982.

Hurd, Gale Anne, producer. _Aliens_. (Motion picture). 20th Century Fox, 1986-1993.

Huxley, Aldous. _Brave New World_. New York: Time, 1932-1963.

Kafka, Franz. _The Trial_. New York: Knopf, 1937-1992.

Littman, Jonathan. _The Fugitive Game: Online With Kevin Mitnick_. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1996.

The Mentor. "The Conscience of a Hacker." _Phrack Inc._, volume one, issue seven, 1986. electronic.

Milton, John. _Paradise Lost_. Hertfordshire: Wordsworth, 1638-1994.

Orwell, George. _1984_. New York: Signet, 1949-1984.

Revelation. "The Ultimate Beginner's Guide to Hacking and Phreaking," volume 2+. 1996-1997. electronic.

Rostek, Tanja S. "Computer Hackers: Rebels With a Cause." 1994. electronic.

Rucker, Rudy. _The Hacker and the Ants_. New York: Avon, 1994-1995.

Rucker, Rudy; R.U. Sirius and Queen Mu, ed. _Mondo 2000: A User's Guide to the New Edge_. New York: HarperCollins, 1992.

Rushkoff, Douglas. _Cyberia: Life in the Trenches of Hyperspace_. New York: HarperCollins, 1994-1995.

Shea, Robert and Robert Anton Wilson. _The Illuminatus! Trilogy_. New York: Dell, 1975-1988.

Shimomura, Tsutomu and John Markoff. _Takedown: The Pursuit and Capture of Kevin Mitnick, America's Most Dangerous Computer Outlaw- By the Man Who Did It_. New York: Hyperion, 1996.

Sirius, R.U., St. Jude and Bart Nagel. _The Cyberpunk Handbook (The Real Cyberpunk Fakebook)_. New York: Random House, 1995.

Slatalla, Michelle and Joshua Quittner. _Masters of Deception_. New York: HarperCollins, 1995.

Stephenson, Neal. _Snow Crash_. New York: Bantam, 1992-1993.

Stephenson, Neal. _The Diamond Age_. New York: Bantam, 1995-1996.

Sterling, Bruce. _The Artificial Kid_. New York: Harper & Row, 1980.

Sterling, Bruce. _Crystal Express_. New York: Ace, 1989-1990.

Sterling, Bruce. _Globalhead_. New York: Bantam, 1992-1994.

Sterling, Bruce. _The Hacker Crackdown_. New York: Bantam, 1992-1993.

Sterling, Bruce. _Heavy Weather_. New York: Bantam, 1994-1996.

Sterling, Bruce. _Islands in the Net_. New York: Ace, 1988-1989.

Sterling, Bruce, ed. _Mirrorshades: The Cyberpunk Anthology_. New York: Ace, 1986-1988.

Sterling, Bruce. _Schismatrix Plus_. New York: Ace, 1986-1996.

Stoker, Bram. _Dracula_. New York: Bantam, 1897-1989.

Stoll, Clifford. _The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy Through the Maze of Computer Espionage_. New York: Doubleday, 1989.

Voyager. "alt.2600/#hack FAQ Beta .013." electronic.

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