TUCoPS :: Privacy :: priv_303.txt

Privacy Digest 3.03 2/8/94

PRIVACY Forum Digest     Tuesday, 8 February 1994     Volume 03 : Issue 03

          Moderated by Lauren Weinstein (lauren@vortex.com)
            Vortex Technology, Woodland Hills, CA, U.S.A.
                     ===== PRIVACY FORUM =====

   	  The PRIVACY Forum digest is supported in part by the 
	      ACM Committee on Computers and Public Policy.

	The CERT advisory regarding Internet security
	   (Lauren Weinstein; PRIVACY Forum Moderator)
	Crypto Experts Oppose Clipper (Dave Banisar)
	Cryptography: Policy and Technology Trends
	   (Lance J. Hoffman)
	Personal Information Via the Internet (Diane Barlow Close)
        EFF Wants You (to add your voice to the crypto fight!)
           (Stanton McCandlish)
        Campaign Against Clipper (Dave Banisar)
        CFP'94 (Lance J. Hoffman)

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            *** Submissions without them may be ignored! ***

The Internet PRIVACY Forum is a moderated digest for the discussion and
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   Quote for the day:
	"In every job that must be done,
	 There is an element of fun!
	 You find the fun, and snap [SNAP!],
	 The job's a game!"

		-- Mary Poppins (Julie Andrews)
		   "Mary Poppins" (1964)

| Thanks to everyone who has been asking about the situation here since the
| quake (the site is only about 5 miles from the epicenter and took a good
| hit), and sorry for the delay since the last digest.  While the systems were
| nominally back up late the day of the quake, it has taken awhile to sort 
| through everything to get back to normal digest distributions.
| With riots, fires, earthquakes, and now, mud in some areas, folks around
| L.A. may be starting to watch out for locusts (actually, the "killer" bees
| are supposedly on the way...) but at least it doesn't get too cold--and 
| certainly it's never boring!  If nothing else, those aftershocks keep you 
| on your toes!
| Thanks again for the notes of concern.
| Still rockin' and rollin'...
| --Lauren--
| P.S.  A number of essentially "anti-Clipper" submissions have been
|       received recently and are in this issue of the digest. 
|       As always, I'd like to remind the readership that discussion of
|       *both* sides of these issues is invited, encouraged, and extremely
|       important!  Don't feel that you have to hold a particularly
|       "popular" point of view to submit articles on a topic!


Date:    Tue, 8 Feb 94 18:04 PST
From:    lauren@vortex.com (Lauren Weinstein; PRIVACY Forum Moderator)
Subject: The CERT advisory regarding Internet security

Greetings.  As many or most of you probably know by now, there was within
the last few days a rather detailed advisory from CERT regarding attacks on
Internet systems via persons exploiting any available access to promiscuous
ethernet interface device nodes.

I am not going to repeat the bulletin here, since it is quite lengthy
and available from many other sources.  Many system administrators 
have long been aware of the vulnerability of such nodes, and have
long since taken steps to remove or protect them.  Of course,
the security of systems is only as good as the weakest elements,
and a system where outsiders can achieve privileged access, and so
make use of promiscuous interfaces to monitor plaintext traffic between
other nodes in the domain, is obviously going to have problems.

It doesn't take a rocket scientist (computer scientist?  brain surgeon?)
to anticipate this kind of problem...



Date:    Mon, 24 Jan 1994 17:59:34 EST    
From:    Dave Banisar <banisar@washofc.cpsr.org>
Subject: Crypto Experts Oppose Clipper

     More than three dozen of the nation's leading cryptographers,
computer security specialists and privacy experts today urged
President Clinton to abandon the controversial Clipper encryption
proposal.  The letter was coordinated by Computer Professionals
for Social Responsibility (CPSR), which has long sought to open
the issue of cryptography policy to public debate

     The group cited the secrecy surrounding the proposal,
widespread public opposition to the plan and privacy concerns as
reasons why the initiative should not go forward.

     The letter comes at a crucial point in the debate on
cryptography policy.  An internal Administration review of the
issue is nearing completion and the National Security Agency (NSA)
is moving forward with efforts to deploy Clipper technology in
civilian agencies, including the Internal Revenue Service.

     CPSR has sponsored several public conferences on
cryptography and privacy and has litigated Freedom of Informa-
tion Act cases seeking the disclosure of relevant government
documents.  In one pending FOIA case, CPSR is challenging the
secrecy of the Skipjack algorithm which underlies the Clipper

	For additional information, contact Dave Banisar, CPSR
Washington, DC, (202) 544-9240, <banisar@washofc.cpsr.org>.


January 24, 1994

The President
The White House
Washington, DC  20500

Dear Mr. President,

     We are writing to you regarding the "Clipper" escrowed 
encryption proposal now under consideration by the White House.  
We wish to express our concern about this plan and similar 
technical standards that may be proposed for the nation's 
communications infrastructure.  

     The current proposal was developed in secret by federal 
agencies primarily concerned about electronic surveillance, not 
privacy protection.  Critical aspects of the plan remain 
classified and thus beyond public review.  

     The private sector and the public have expressed nearly 
unanimous opposition to Clipper.  In the formal request for 
comments conducted by the Department of Commerce last year, less 
than a handful of respondents supported the plan.  Several hundred 
opposed it.
     If the plan goes forward, commercial firms that hope to 
develop new products will face extensive government obstacles.  
Cryptographers who wish to develop new privacy enhancing 
technologies will be discouraged.  Citizens who anticipate that 
the progress of technology will enhance personal privacy will  
find their expectations unfulfilled.

     Some have proposed that Clipper be adopted on a voluntary 
basis and suggest that other technical approaches will remain 
viable.  The government, however, exerts enormous influence in the 
marketplace, and the likelihood that competing standards would 
survive is small.  Few in the user community believe that the 
proposal would be truly voluntary.

     The Clipper proposal should not be adopted.  We believe that 
if this proposal and the associated standards go forward, even on 
a voluntary basis, privacy protection will be diminished, 
innovation will be slowed, government accountability will be 
lessened, and the openness necessary to ensure the successful 
development of the nation's communications infrastructure will be 

     We respectfully ask the White House to withdraw the Clipper 


Public Interest and Civil Liberties Organizations

  Marc Rotenberg, CPSR
  Conrad Martin, Fund for Constitutional Government
  William Caming, privacy consultant
  Simon Davies, Privacy International
  Evan Hendricks, US Privacy Council
  Simona Nass, Society for Electronic Access
  Robert Ellis Smith, Privacy Journal
  Jerry Berman, Electronic Frontier Foundation

Cryptographers and Security Experts

  Bob Bales, National Computer Security Association
  Jim Bidzos, RSA Data Security Inc.
  G. Robert Blakley, Texas A&M University
  Stephen Bryen, Secured Communications Technologies, Inc.
  David Chaum, Digicash
  George Davida, University of Wisconsin
  Whitfield Diffie, Sun Microsystems
  Martin Hellman, Stanford University
  Ingemar Ingemarsson, Universitetet i Linkvping
  Ralph C. Merkle, Xerox PARC
  William Hugh Murray, security consultant
  Peter G. Neumann, SRI International
  Bart Preneel, Katolieke Universiteit 
  Ronald Rivest, MIT
  Bruce Schneier, Applied Cryptography (1993)
  Richard Schroeppel, University of Arizona
  Stephen Walker, Trusted Information Systems
  Philip Zimmermann, Boulder Software Engineering

Industry and Academia

  Andrew Scott Beals, Telebit International
  Mikki Barry, InterCon Systems Corporation
  David Bellin, North Carolina A&T University
  Margaret Chon, Syracuse University College of Law
  Laura Fillmore, Online BookStore
  Scott Fritchie, Twin-Cities Free Net
  Gary Marx, University of Colorado
  Ronald B. Natalie, Jr, Sensor Systems Inc.
  Harold Joseph Highland, Computers & Security
  Doug Humphrey, Digital Express Group, Inc
  Carl Pomerance, University of Georgia
  Eric Roberts, Stanford University
  Jonathan Rosenoer, CyberLaw & CyberLex
  Alexis Rosen, Public Access Networks Corp.
  Steven Zorn, Pace University Law School

     (affiliations are for identification purposes only)


Date:    Sat, 29 Jan 1994 22:38:03 -0500
From:    "Lance J. Hoffman" <hoffman@seas.gwu.edu>
Subject: Cryptography: Policy and Technology Trends

The following report is available by anonymous ftp from ftp.gwu.edu under
directory /pub/hoffman.  The document is stored under the name "cryptpol".
It is a NIST-sponsored study.

The table of contents and abstract follows here.


                                Lance J. Hoffman
                                  Faraz A. Ali
                                Steven L. Heckler
                                 Ann Huybrechts

                                December 1, 1993

          1.  INTRODUCTION
          2.  TECHNOLOGY
          3.  MARKET ANALYSIS
          4.  EXPORT CONTROLS
               5.1  EXECUTIVE BRANCH
               5.2  CONGRESS
               5.3  TRENDS

                                EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

During the past five years, encryption technology has become easily available
to both individuals and businesses, affording them a level of security
formerly available practically to only military, national security, and law
enforcement agencies. As a result, a debate within the United States about
the proper balance between national security and personal freedom has been
initiated. Law enforcement and national security agencies would like to
maintain tight control over civilian encryption technologies, while industry
and individual and privacy rights advocates fight to expand their ability to
distribute and use cryptographic products as they please.

This report analyzes trends in encryption technology, markets, export
controls, and legislation.  It identifies five trends which will have a
strong influence on cryptography policy in the United States:

     * The continued expansion of the Internet and the progressive
     miniaturization of cryptographic hardware combined with the  increasing
     availability and use of strong cryptographic software means that the
     strongest encryption technologies will  continue to become more easily
     obtainable everywhere in the years ahead.

     * Additional growth in networked and wireless communication will fuel a
     strong demand for encryption hardware and software both domestically and
     abroad, causing the U. S. high-technology industry to be increasingly
     interested in selling encryption products overseas and in modifying
     current export restrictions.

     * Due to the responsibilities and bureaucratic dispositions of key
     Executive Branch agencies, products using strong encryption algorithms
     such as DES will continue to face at least some export  restrictions,
     despite the widespread availability of strong encryption products

     * The American public is likely to become increasingly concerned about
     its privacy and about cryptographic policy as a result of the increased
     amount of personal information available online and the growing number
     of wireless and networked communications.  The development and
     increasingly widespread use of the National Information Infrastructure
     will heighten these concerns.

     * Encryption policy is becoming an important public policy issue that
     will engage the attention of all branches of government.  Congress will
     become increasingly visible in this debate due to its power of agency
     oversight and its role in passing laws accommodating the United States'
     rapid rate of technological change.  Agencies will remain very important
     since they have the implementing and, often, the planning
     responsibilities.  Since individuals and industry have more direct
     influence over Congress than over most other branches of government,
     Congress may place somewhat more emphasis on personal freedom than many
     other government actors.

Four potential scenarios are likely: mandatory escrowed encryption, voluntary
escrowed encryption, complete decontrol of encryption, or domestic decontrol
with strict export regulations.

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							-- MODERATOR ]


Date:    Mon, 24 Jan 1994 10:22:56 -0800 (PST)
From:    close@lunch.asd.sgi.com (Diane Barlow Close)
Subject: Personal Information Via the Internet

I plan to submit this to RISKS, as well, but the issues cross both the
risk and the privacy lines, so I thought readers of this digest would be
interested in this too.  I'm not trying to pick on Michael Bridgeman; I
think that his company is merely the starting point in a discussion about
the risks and effects that becoming part of the information highway
raises for the Internet.  Michael cancelled his original article
before I could go back and retrieve a copy to include it in its
entirety here (the RISKS of posting to the Internet, eh? :-).  So what
follows is about 3/4 of his original posting; only the contact info
has been removed:

Michael Bridgeman <infotech@clt.fx.net> writes:
>Infotech is an Information Provider and we have recently begun providing 
>our services via the Internet. An partial list of some of our services 
>Individual Credit Reports * Business Credit Reports * Dun & Bradstreet
>Pre-Tenant Background Check * SS# Locator Service * National Change of Addr
>Difficult Phone Numbers * Nationwide Marriage, Divorce and Death Records
>Criminal Records Search * Arrest & Convictions Records * Bank Acct Search
>Real Property Search * Workers Comp Claims * Consumer Affairs Reports
>Corporation Search * Tax Lien Search * Corp. Bankruptcy Search * Business 
>Name Search * DMV Records * Registered Voter Search * Nationwide Warrants
>                                And MUCH MORE!
>Most requests are turned around with 24-48 hrs (depending upon complexity 
>and depth of report needed) Reports can be delivered via Internet, US Mail,  
>Fax or Overnight. Infotech Adheres to the Fair Credit Reporting Act. 
>Payment may be made via Visa, Mastercard or in advance of services.
> All information is kept in the strictest confidence and PGP delivery is also
> available ... [rest deleted]

I am now aware that PGP stands for a very good encryption mechanism, but
I still feel that there are risks in using the Internet for delivery
of such personal information.   Although PGP is "available", nowhere
in the post does it say that he is going to use it all the time.

I've been on the Internet for a long time (since '81) and I certainly will
be the first to say that I don't follow every little nuance and new
development, so it'll probably come as no surprise that *I* hadn't heard
of PGP before.  How many Internet newbie landlords are going to recognize
that PGP means "worlds greatest encryption scheme"?  :-)  Besides, unless
PGP is the ONLY way the info is sent via the Internet, the data won't be
safe.  Sending things via e-mail is just like posting them to a newsgroup
as far as privacy goes.

Personally, my biggest concern wasn't so much the passage of personal data
through the system, encrypted or not, but the ease of faking e-mail so
that some unscrupulous person could easily give you a fake e-mail address
and personal data of another person to retrieve a copy of *that other
person's* credit report.  I wonder what kind of safeguards they have in
place to prevent this, or to make sure that those who contact them via
e-mail really are who they say they are?

According to what I've read on misc.consumers and elsewhere, you can simply
register with any of the credit reporting services as a landlord, and you
don't even need an SSN# - just a name and address.  $50 and a name and
address.  Scary, isn't it?  So what's to prevent "anyjoe" from getting
anyone's credit data through the Internet, now?  With security there's not
just protection of data, there's authentication.  The old "how do I know
that you're who you say you are" question.

And, concern #3, if he has this data on his Internet site, how safe is
it?  How many security precautions has he taken on that site to protect
the data?  Unix machines on the Internet are notorious for having security
holes that need to be plugged.

A lot of questions and so far no answers! :-)  Comments anyone?


Date: Mon, 7 Feb 1994 18:10:03 -0500 (EST)
From: Stanton McCandlish <mech@eff.org>
Subject: EFF Wants You (to add your voice to the crypto fight!)

The Electronic Frontier Foundation needs your help to ensure privacy rights!

                     * DISTRIBUTE WIDELY *

Monday, February 7th, 1994

From: Jerry Berman, Executive Director of EFF

Dear Friends of the Electronic Frontier,

I'm writing a personal letter to you because the time has now come for
action. On Friday, February 4, 1994, the Administration announced that it
plans to proceed on every front to make the Clipper Chip encryption scheme
a national standard, and to discourage the development and sale of
alternative powerful encryption technologies. If the government succeeds
in this effort, the resulting blow to individual freedom and privacy could
be immeasurable.

As you know, over the last three years, we at EFF have worked to ensure
freedom and privacy on the Net. Now I'm writing to let you know about
something *you* can do to support freedom and privacy. *Please take a
moment to send e-mail to U.S. Rep. Maria Cantwell (cantwell@eff.org) to
show your support of H.R. 3627, her bill to liberalize export controls on
encryption software.* I believe this bill is critical to empowering
ordinary citizens to use strong encryption, as well as to ensuring that
the U.S. software industry remains competitive in world markets.

Here are some facts about the bill:

Rep. Cantwell introduced H.R. 3627 in the House of Representatives on
November 22, 1993.  H.R. 3627 would amend the Export Control Act to move
authority over the export of nonmilitary software with encryption
capabilities from the Secretary of State (where the intelligence community
traditionally has stalled such exports) to the Secretary of Commerce. The
bill would also invalidate the current license requirements for
nonmilitary software containing encryption capablities, unless there is
substantial evidence that the software will be diverted, modified or
re-exported to a military or terroristic end-use.

If this bill is passed, it will greatly increase the availability of
secure software for ordinary citizens. Currently, software developers do
not include strong encryption capabilities in their products, because the
State Department refuses to license for export any encryption technology
that the NSA can't decipher. Developing two products, one with less secure
exportable encryption, would lead to costly duplication of effort, so even
software developed for sale in this country doesn't offer maximum
security. There is also a legitimate concern that software companies will
simply set up branches outside of this country to avoid the export
restrictions, costing American jobs.

The lack of widespread commercial encryption products means that it will
be very easy for the federal government to set its own standard--the
Clipper Chip standard. As you may know, the government's Clipper Chip
initiative is designed to set an encryption standard where the government
holds the keys to our private conversations. Together with the Digital
Telephony bill, which is aimed at making our telephone and computer
networks "wiretap-friendly," the Clipper Chip marks a dramatic new effort
on the part of the government to prevent us from being able to engage in
truly private conversations.

We've been fighting Clipper Chip and Digital Telephony in the policy arena
and will continue to do so. But there's another way to fight those
initiatives, and that's to make sure that powerful alternative encryption
technologies are in the hands of any citizen who wants to use them. The
government hopes that, by pushing the Clipper Chip in every way short of
explicitly banning alternative technologies, it can limit your choices for
secure communications.

Here's what you can do: 

I urge you to write to Rep. Cantwell today at cantwell@eff.org. In the
Subject header of your message, type "I support HR 3627." In the body of
your message, express your reasons for supporting the bill. EFF will
deliver printouts of all letters to Rep. Cantwell. With a strong showing
of support from the Net community, Rep. Cantwell can tell her colleagues
on Capitol Hill that encryption is not only an industry concern, but also
a grassroots issue. *Again: remember to put "I support HR 3627" in your
Subject header.*

This is the first step in a larger campaign to counter the efforts of
those who would restrict our ability to speak freely and with privacy.
Please stay tuned--we'll continue to inform you of things you can do to
promote the removal of restrictions on encryption.

In the meantime, you can make your voice heard--it's as easy as e-mail.
Write to cantwell@eff.org today.


Jerry Berman
Executive Director, EFF

P.S. If you want additional information about the Cantwell bill, send
e-mail to cantwell-info@eff.org. To join EFF, write membership@eff.org.
For introductory info about EFF, send any message to info@eff.org.

The text of the Cantwell bill can be found on the Internet with the any of
the following URLs (Universal Resource Locaters):


It will be available on AOL (keyword EFF) and CIS (go EFFSIG) soon. 


Date:    Mon, 7 Feb 1994 22:28:08 EST    
From:    Dave Banisar <banisar@washofc.cpsr.org>
Subject: Campaign Against Clipper 


contact: rotenberg@washofc.cpsr.org  (202 544 9240)

Washington, DC -- Following the White House decision on Friday to
endorse a secret surveillance standard for the information highway,
Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR) today announced
a national campaign to oppose the government plan.

The Clipper proposal, developed in secret by the National Security
Agency, is a technical standard that will make it easier for government
agents to wiretap the emerging data highway.

Industry groups, professional associations and civil liberties
organizations have expressed almost unanimous opposition to the plan
since it was first proposed in April 1993.

According to Marc Rotenberg, CPSR Washington director, the
Administration made a major blunder with Clipper.  "The public does not
like Clipper and will not accept it. This proposal is fatally flawed."

CPSR cited several problems with the Clipper plan:

o The technical standard is subject to misuse and compromise. It would
provide government agents with copies of the keys that protect
electronic communications.  "It is a nightmare for computer security,"
said CPSR Policy Analyst Dave Banisar.

o The underlying technology was developed in secret by the NSA, an
intelligence agency responsible for electronic eavesdropping, not
privacy protection. Congressional investigations in the 1970s disclosed
widespread NSA abuses, including the illegal interception of millions of
cables sent by American citizens.

o Computer security experts question the integrity of the technology.
Clipper was developed in secret and its specifications are classified.
CPSR has sued the government seeking public disclosure of the Clipper

o NSA overstepped its legal authority in developing the standard.  A
1987 law explicitly limits the intelligence agency's power to set
standards for the nation's communications network.

o There is no evidence to support law enforcement's claims that new
technologies are hampering criminal investigations. CPSR recently forced
the release of FBI documents that show no such problems.

o The Administration ignored the overwhelming opposition of the general
public. When the Commerce Department solicited public comments on the
proposal last fall, hundreds of people opposed the plan while only a few
expressed support.

CPSR today announced four goals for its campaign to oppose the Clipper

o First, to educate the public about the implications of the Clipper

o Second, to encourage people to express their views on the Clipper
proposal, particularly through the computer network.

Toward that goal, CPSR has already begun an electronic petition on the
Internet computer network urging the President to withdraw the Clipper
proposal. In less than one week, the CPSR campaign has drawn thousands
of electronic mail messages expressing concern about Clipper. To sign
on, email clipper.petition@cpsr.org with the message "I oppose clipper"
in the body of the text.

o Third, to pursue litigation to force the public disclosure of
documents concerning the Clipper proposal and to test the legality of
the Department of Commerce's decision to endorse the plan.

o Fourth, to examine alternative approaches to Clipper.

Mr. Rotenberg said "We want the public to understand the full
implications of this plan.  Today it is only a few experts and industry
groups that understand the proposal.  But the consequences of Clipper
will touch everyone.  It will affect medical payments, cable television
service, and everything in between.

CPSR is a membership-based public interest organization.  For more
information about CPSR, send email to cpsr@cpsr.org or call 415 322
3778.  For more information about Clipper, check the CPSR Internet
library CPSR.ORG. FTP/WAIS/Gopher and listserv access are available.


Date: Sun, 23 Jan 1994 10:44:40 -0500 (EST)
From: "Lance J. Hoffman" <hoffman@seas.gwu.edu>
Subject: CFP'94 (fwd)

                             CFP '94
                        MARCH 23-26, 1994


PATRONS & SUPPORTERS (as of 15 December 1994)





Fourth Conference on Computers, Freedom and Privacy
Chicago, Il., March 23 - 26, 1994

CFP'94, "Cyberspace Superhighways: Access, Ethics and Control"

General Chair
     George B. Trubow, Center for Informatics Law, John Marshall Law School

Executive Committee
     George B. Trubow, Chair, CFP'94
     Lance J. Hoffman, George Washington University, Chair, CFP'92
     Bruce Koball, San Francisco, CA, Chair, CFP'93

Conference Treasurer
     Robert Ashenhurst, University of Chicago

Special Promotions
     Patric Hedlund, Sweet Pea Productions

     Alan Whaley, The WELL, San Francisco

Manager, Volunteers and Conference Office
     Judi Clark, ManyMedia, Palo Alto

Chair, Student Writing Competition
     Gene Spafford, Purdue University

Co-Chairs, Student Scholarship Program
     John McMullen,  Marist College

     James Thompson, Northern Illinois University

Program Committee

     David Banisar, Computer Professsionals for Social Responsibility
     Jerry Berman, Electronic Frontier Foundation
     Robert Belair, Mullenholz and Brimsek
     Roger Clarke, Australian National Univesity
     Mike Godwin, Electronic Frontier Foundation
     Mark Hellmann, Pattishall, McAuliffe
     Linda Knutson, Library & Information Technology Association
     Dennis McKenna, Government Technology Magazine
     Michael Mensik, Baker & McKenzie
     Ron Plesser, Piper and Marbury
     Priscilla Regan, George Mason University
     Lance Rose, LOL Productions
     Marc Rotenberg, Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility
     Robert Ellis Smith, Privacy Journal
     James Thompson, Northern Illinois University
     Alan F. Westin, Columbia University

Conference Administration by John Marshall Law School:
Arrangements Director, RoseMarie Knight
Publicity & Publications, John McNamara
Financial Officer, James Kreminski
Program Coordinator, Gary Gassman


Cyberspace, Information Superhighway, National Information Infrastructure,
Open Platforms, Computer and Communications Revolution, Electronic Networks,
Digital Data Bases and Information Society are words and phrases common to the
rhetoric of our modern era.  The relationships between and among individuals,
society, nations, government entities and business organizations are in
constant flux as new stresses and alliances change the old "rules of the
game."  Today's challenges are to define what is the "game," who owns the
"franchises," who can play, what are the rules and who calls the shots.
Information and communications technology raise new issues for freedom and
privacy in this new era.  Such questions are on the agenda as the participants
in CFP'94 consider the alternatives and seek some solutions.  Come, join in
the dialogue that will help to shape the world's future!


On Wednesday March 23, the day before the formal conference begins, CFP '94 is
offering a number of in-depth tutorials covering a wide variety of subjects on
five parallel tracks.  These presentations will be interesting, educational,
thought-provoking and often controversial.  The tutorials are available at a
nominal additional registration cost.


On each of the three days of the conference, a daily newspaper will appear to
highlight what has transpired and announce important coming events.  The staff
of "The Decisive Utterance," The John Marshall Law School's student newspaper,
is providing this service.


On Wednesday evening, from 6:00 p.m. - 9:00 p.m., you are invited to meet new
and old friends and colleagues at an opening reception at the John Marshall
Law School from 6:00 p.m.-9:00 p.m. The School is only two blocks from the
conference hotel.  A state-of-the-art computer lab will be used to demonstrate
high-tech applications in academia and registrants will be invited to take


The technological revolution that is driving change in our society has many
facets and we are often unaware of the way they all fit together, especially
those parts that lie outside one's own daily experience. An important goal of
CFP '94 is to bring together individuals from disparate disciplines and
backgrounds and engage them in a balanced discussion of CFP issues.  To this
end our main program, starting on Thursday, March 24, is on a single track
enabling registrants to attend all sessions.  The concurrent Birds-
of-a-Feather meetings Thursday after 9:15 p.m. are exceptions.


CFP '94 will provide a limited number of meeting rooms to interested
individuals for informal "Birds of a Feather" sessions after the formal
program Thursday, from 9:15 p.m. - 11:15 p.m.  These sessions will provide an
opportunity for special-interest discussions. For further information or to
request a BoF contact CFP '94 Program Coordinator, Gary Gassman, at the John
Marshall Law School (6gassman@jmls.edu)


Registrants are invited to a very special reception and buffet at Chicago's
famed Museum of Science and Industry where they also will be treated to a
private showing and demonstration of the MSI's newly-opened Communications and
Imaging Exhibits.  These multi-million dollar presentations occupy 15,000
sq.ft. of museum space and required three years to develop.  "Communications"
is a panoramic display of how technology has transformed our lives by
dissolving distance and and making connections; visitors can even enter the
unreal world of virtual reality. "Imaging" is a mindboggling journey through
modern applications of imaging technology.  Visitors can even play the role of
brain surgeon, using radiosurgery made possible by 3-D imaging, or explore
imaging in forensic science by using MRI, fingerprint enhancement, face aging
and other modern technologies to solve a crime!


CFP '94 registration will be limited to 550 attendees, so we advise you to
register early to assure admission and to take advantage of the early
registration discounts.


A key component of the CFP conferences has been the interaction between the
diverse communities that constitute our audience.  To promote this interaction
CFP '94 provides three luncheons, three receptions and three evening meals
with the price of registration.


All conference attendees are invited to the EFF Pioneer Awards Reception
sponsored by the Electronic Frontier Foundation on Thursday evening.  These,
the third annual EFF Pioneer Awards, will be given to individuals and
organizations that have made distinguished contributions to the human and
technological realms touched by computer-based communications.


The Conference business and registration office will be open from 8:00 a.m.
until 9:00 p.m. on Wednsday thru Friday, and until 6:00 p.m. on Saturday, for
registration and general information.

NOTE: The following program content and schedule is subject to change. The
Information Superhighway is a fast track!

Wednesday, March 23, 1994
Pre-Conference Tutorials

9:00 a.m. - noon

     Cyberspace Law for Non-Lawyers
     This tutorial presents an outline of the law for laymen,
     dealing with Constitutional and legal issues that confront
     those concerned with privacy, crime, and freedom of expression
     in cyberspace. There will be summaries of recent cases,
     legislative proposals and government activities.
          Mike Godwin, Online Counsel, EFF

     Rules of the Road for Network Travelers. (CLE Credit Approved)
     The information superhighway presents a variety of rights and
     risks.  Learn about the legal issues of computer networks,
     services and bulletin boards, including on-line property
     rights; protecting personal privacy and business information;
     electronic publishing and multimedia rights; viruses, adult
     materials and other no-nos.
          Lance Rose, Attorney and Author of "Syslaw."

     Get Mad, Get Motivated, Get Moving!
     The focus of this panel is on citizen action for privacy
     protection: how to reach and organize constituents; support
     legislation or other privacy protection measures; conduct
     public education activities; use the technology in program
     activities, etc.
          Robert Ellis Smith, Privacy Journal

     Exploring Internet: A Guided Tour
     This tutorial gives participants a practical introduction to
     the most popular and powerful applications available via the
     world's largest computer network, the Internet.  There will be
     hands-on demonstrations of communications tools such as e-
     mail, conferencing, Internet Relay Chat and resource discover,
     and navigations aids such as Gopher, WAIS, Archie and World
     Wide Web.  Extensive documentation will be provided.
          Mark Graham, Pandora Systems

     Using the Freedom of Information Act
     The Federal FOIA is the principal focus of this tutorial
     though some attention is given to the use of  state FOIAs.
     The session will cover procedures for making requests,
     identifying the information desired, differences between
     electronic and hard copy responses, and the appeals process
     within agencies and the courts.
     David Sobel, Counsel, Computer Professional for Social

     2:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m.

     Cryptography: What, and How?
     Data encryption is in the cyberspace limelight as perhaps the
     only technique to ensure digital privacy and security; it is
     also the subject of sharp debate regarding control of the
     development and use of the technology.  This tutorial will
     display what encryption is, how it works, and some of the
     options for its use.  Computer animations and graphic displays
     will be used to help make cryptography comprehensible; the
     audience will engage in some hands-on encryption exercises.
          Mark Hellmann, Pattishall, McAuliffe et.al, Chicago

     Electronic Detectives: Critical Issues for Public and Private
     Both governmental and private sector investigators have
     unprecedented access to "open" sources that were practically
     inaccessible a few years ago.  This information environment
     poses opportunities and risks that will be the focus of this
     program.  Investigative techniques via networks will be
     demonstrated and the legal, ethical and practical issues will
     be explored.  Actual case-studies will be utilized.
     Michael Moran, CCO; Michael Robertson, CFE

     Hi-Tech Intellectual Property Law Primer (CLE Credit Approved)
     This panel will cover the special problems in patent,
     copyright and tradmark law engendered by computers and digital
     technology, with attention to the impact of recent cases.  The
     differences in European protection will be surveyed as well as
     technology export restrictions.
          Raymond Nimmer, University of Texas Law School
          Leslie A. Bertagnolli, Baker & McKenzie, Chicago

     Transactional Data Analyses: Making FOI Access Useful
     Electronic communication, coupled with federal and state
     Freedom of Information Acts, has made a great deal of data
     available to the public regarding the activities and policies
     of government enforcement and regulatory agencies.  Knowing
     how to evaluate and use this information is critical to
     understanding and demonstrating what the data really means.
     The Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse (TRAC) of
     Syracuse University uses its various knowledge-bases to
     demonstrate the power of transactional data.  Colorgraphics
     and analytic techniques are combined in demonstrations of how
     otherwise drab statistics can be displayed dramatically to aid
     in policy analyses and advocacy.
          David Burnham, former New York Times Investigative Reporter
          Susan Long, Co-director, TRAC, SUNY-Syracuse

     Election Fraud and Modern Technology
     There has been increasing attention, in the U.S. and abroad,
     to the use of modern technology in the electoral process.
     Buying votes, stealing votes, changing votes -- whether in the
     environment of punch-cards or fully automated voting machines
     -- is the subject of this tutorial.  Mock elections will be
     staged in which the participants have roles in planning to
     perpetrate as well as prevent vote fraud.  Voter registration,
     phone-based voting, cryptography and verification are among
     the strategies and technologies to be considered.
     Russel L. Brand, Reasoning Systems.


Noon - 4:00 p.m.,  Privacy International Business Meeting
     This meeting, at the John Marshall Law School, begins with a
     buffet luncheon.  Non-members interested in learning about
     P.I. and the Illinois Privacy Council are invited to be guests
     for lunch and a briefing. Guest space will be limited so
     attendance on a "first come" basis MUST be confirmed by
     March 8, 1994.

6:00 p.m. - 9:00 p.m.  Conference Reception
     All CFP registrants are invited to a reception and open house
     demonstrating the John Marshall Law School's recently opened
     computer lab.  This also is an opportunity to "network" the
     old-fashioned way, meeting old friends and making new ones
     while enjoying the reception and buffet. This state-of-the-art
     facility will display information and communications
     technology being used in the educational environment. Guests
     also may participate in hands-on demonstrations of the
     technology under the tutelage of JMLS faculty and staff.

9:15 p.m. - 11:15 p.m. "CFP SOAPBOX SQUARE"

On Wednesday, March 23, from 9:15 p.m. to 11:15 p.m., "CFP Soapbox
Square" will be open.  This is a chance for those who have
something to say publicly to say it and to hear response from
others!  Those interested in making a brief statement (3 minutes)
at this meeting must file their request and describe their topics
by 5:00 p.m. on Wednesday. Discussion time for various topics will
be allocated based upon the number of topics and the number who
have asked to speak.  Requests to speak can be made at the time of
pre-registration or at the conference site.

Thursday, March 24, 1994

8:30 a.m., CFP'94 Official Opening

     Welcome to the Conference: George B. Trubow, General Chair
     Welcome to Chicago: Hon. Richard M. Daley, Mayor (Invited)

9:00 a.m.  Keynote Address:  Mr. John Podesta, Assistant to the
          President, Washington, D.C.

10:00 a.m. Break

10:30 a.m.  The Information Superhighway: Politics and the Public
     The Administration and Congress propose policies that will
     lead to a digital multimedia highway.  How can the road be
     built at affordable cost while serving the public interest and
     our constitutional values?
     Chair: Jerry Berman, Electronic Frontier Foundation

12:00 p.m.  Lunch
               Speaker: U.S. Senator Paul Simon (Invited)

1:30 p.m.  Is It Time for a U.S. Data Protection Agency?
     Beginning with the Privacy Act of 1974, proposals to establish
     an oversight body for data protection have been offered but
     not adopted; another proposal is currently pending in
     Congress.  Against a background of almost twenty years
     experience under the Privacy Act, the panel will consider
     whether the current political, economic and technological
     mileau favors establishment of a data protection agency.
     Chair: Priscilla M. Regan, George Mason University

 2:45 p.m.  Break

 3:00 p.m.  "Owning and Operating the NII: Who, How, When?"
     The National Information Infrastructure is an important
     initiative for the present Administration.  This panel will
     explore policy and technical issues such as equity and access,
     connectivity and standards, funding and regulation, privacy
     and security, ownership and operation.
     Chair: Marc Rotenberg, Computer Professionals for Social

 4:15 p.m.  Break

 4:30 p.m.  Data Encryption: Who Holds The Keys?
     Recent attempts, led by federal law enforcment agencies, to
     control the development and dissemination of strong
     cyptography programs has engendered considerable discussion
     and disagreement.  The interests of law enforcement agencies
     may conflict with the need for data security and personal
     privacy demanded by users of electronic networks.  This panel
     will evaluate proposals to deal with the question.
     Moderator: Willis Ware, Rand Corporation

5:30 p.m. Adjourn

6:00 p.m.  EFF Awards Reception
     Once again, the Electronic Frontier Foundation hosts a
     reception prior to its annual Pioneer Awards presentation.
     All CFP attendees are invited to enjoy the recepiton and
     congratulate the new honorees.

7:00 p.m.  Conference Banquet (Speaker to be announced)

9:15 - 11:15 p.m. "Birds-of-a-Feather" sessions run concurrently.

Friday, March 25, 1994.

8:30 a.m.  Keynote: David Flaherty, Data Protection Commissioner,
           Victoria, British Columbia

9:15 a.m.  Health Information Policy
     The Clinton Health Reform Plan, and variations on that theme,
     stress the use of information technology to help the
     efficiency and effectiveness of health care.  Expert
     consultation, improved service delivery through new
     technology, and improvements in the processing of health
     insurance claims bring promise of cost cuts as well as the
     possibilities of threats to personal privacy.  This panel of
     experts will form the "CFP Group" to explore these promises
     and threats.
     Chair: Robert R. Belair, Mullenholz & Brimsek, Wash., D.C.

10:30 a.m.  Break

10:45 a.m.  Can Market Mechanisms Protect Consumer Privacy?
     When does protection of consumer privacy require legal
     standards and government regulation and when can bargains and
     agreements in the market suffice?  What role do new
     technological options for individuals and organizations play
     in facilitating private choice and market transactions?  Is
     "ownership" of personal information a useful concept or a dead
     end for privacy protection in an information age?
     Chair: Dr. Alan F. Westin, Columbia University

Noon      Lunch, Speaker: Philip Zimmerman, PGP

1:30 p.m.  Creating an Ethical Community in Cyberspace
     The fundamental ethical questions posed by the "settlement" of
     cyberspace are not new.  What is new is that the relationship
     between behavior and the ethical conceptions by which we judge
     behavior shift and become more ambiguous and vague.  This
     sessions examines the ethical dilemmas brought about by the
     "colonization" of cyberspace that must be resolved to
     establish and maintain a stable, humane environment.
     Chair: Prof. James Thomas, Northern Ilinois University

2:45 p.m.  Break

3:00 p.m.  Standards for Certifying Computer Professionals
     The subject of licensing of computer professionals is
     receiving increased attention by professional organizations
     and by state legislatures.  Both the ACM and IEEE have
     proposals under study, and perhaps a half-dozen states are
     considering licensing bills.  This panel will consider the
     pros and cons and suggest some standards for certification.
     Chair: Donald Gotterbarn, East Tennessee State Univ.

4:15 p.m.  Break

4:30 p.m.  Hackers and Crackers: Using and Abusing the Networks
     This session will explore issues surrounding the "fringe" of
     network use.  What can and should be exchanged?  Who will
     monitor "appropriate" use?   What's the current difference, if
     any, between "hacker" and "cracker"?  What should be expected
     and accepted regarding the role of law enforcement agencies?

5:30 p.m. Adjourn

5:45 p.m. Buses begin departing for the Chicago Museum of Science
          and Industry for a private reception and demonstration at
          the Communications and Imaging exhibits.

9:00 p.m.  Buses begin departing for return to the Palmer House and
          Chicago's "Loop."

Saturday, March 26, 1994

9:00 a.m.  The Role of Libraries on the Information Superhighway
     As the information landscape changes dramatically the historic
     role of libraries as the "information commons" is challenged.
     How will the Carnegie ideal of free, public access be
     implemented by the library community?  Should it be?  This
     panel will consider policy for an information network in the
     public interest.
     Moderator: Tamara J. Miller, President, Library and
                Information Technology Association

10:15 a.m. Break

10:30 a.m.  International Governance of Cyberspace: New Wine in Old
               Bottles -- Or Is It Time For New Bottles?
     Much discussion transpires between members of the Economic
     Community, the O.E.C.D., the Council of Europe, and the United
     States, regarding data protection, intellectual property
     rights, transborder data flow, the mediation of disputes, etc.
     This panel will consider whether existing mechanisms can solve
     the problems or a new structure for the governance of
     cyberspace is needed.
     Chair:  Ronald L. Plesser, Piper and Marbury

Noon:  Lunch
          Speaker: Simon Davies, Director General, Privacy

1:30 p.m. The Electronic Republic: Delivery of Government Services
        over the Information Superhighway
     State and local governments use computer networks to deliver
     a wide range of services and information to the public;
     electronic "kiosks" are moving to "government by ATM."  How
     will this interaction between government and the people affect
     the process of American government in the future?
     Chair: Dennis McKenna, Publisher, "Government Technology."

2:45 p.m.  Break

3:00 p.m. Education and NREN, K - 12
     Internetworking is a very new technology being rapidly
     deployed to conventional classrooms, a very old technology.
     The panel will explore the clash of contradictory assumptions
     embedded within these systems -- a clash which has profound
     implications for the future of both the network and the
     Chair: Steven Hodas, NASA NREN Project

4:00 Break

4:15 p.m.  Guarding the Digital Persona
     After this panel has established the threats to personal
     privacy from individual profiling and target marketing, and a
     regime to legally recognize and protect an "electronic
     personality" is put forth, Bruce Sterling will offer to
     explain why much of that worry is misdirected!
     Chair: Roger Clarke, Australian National University

5:30 p.m.  Adjournment

Featured Speakers Confirmed as of 12/15/93

Philip Agre, Dept. of Sociology, U. of Cal., San Diego
David Banisar, Computer Professional for Social Responsibility
Robert R. Belair, Mullenholz & Brimsek, Washington, D.C.
Jerry Berman, Executive Director, Electronic Frontier Foundation
Leslie A. Bertagnolli, Baker & McKenzie, Chicago
Andrew Blau, The Benton Foundation, Washington, D.C.
Dr. Herbert Burkett, GMD, Koln, Germany
Jeffrey Chester, Director, Center for Media Education
Roger Clarke, College of Commerce, Australian National University
Ellen Craig, Commissioner, Illinois Commerce Commission
Simon Davies, Director General, Privacy International, London
David Flaherty, Data Commissioner, British Columbia
Oscar H. Gandy, Media Studies Center, Columbia University
Donald Gotterbarn, East Tennessee State University
Allan Hammond, New York University Law School
Steven Hodas, NASA NREN Project, Washington, D.C.
David Johnson, Wilmer, Cutler & Pickering, Washington
Steven Kolodney, Dir., Information Technology, State of California
Curtis Kurnow, Landels, Ripley & Diamond, San Francisco
Kenneth Laudon, School of Information Systems, New York University
Lee Ledbetter, HDX
Jay Lemke, School of Education, City University of New York
Duncan MacDonald, V.P. & Gen. Couns., Citicorp Credit Services
Shirley Marshall, Public Sector Marketing, IBM
Dennis McKenna, Publisher, Government Technology Magazine
Michael Mensik, Baker & McKenzie, Chicago
Raymond Nimmer, University of Texas
Eli Noam, Columbia University School of Business
Michael North, President, North Communications
Ronald L. Plesser, Piper and Marbury, Washington, D.C.
Marc Rotenberg, Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility
Rohan Samarajiva, Department of Communication, Ohio State Univ.
David Sobel, Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility
Bruce Sterling, Sci-Fi Writer and Journalist, Austin, Texas
Connie Stout, Texas Education Network
James Thomas, Department of Sociology, Northern Illinois University
Greg Tucker, Head of the Business School, Monash Univ., Australia
Bruce Umbaugh, Old Dominion University
Patricia Valey, Acting Director, Office of Consumer Affairs
Maarten van Swaay, Dept. of Computer Science, Kansas State U.
Daniel Weitzner, Sr. Staff Counsel, Electronic Frontier Foundation
Alan Westin, Columbia University
Christine Zahorik, Staff, Senate Committee on


Register for the conference by returning the Registration Form
along with the appropriate payment.  The registration fee includes
conference materials, three luncheons (Thursday, Friday and
Saturday), a reception, open house and buffet (Wednesday), a
reception and banquet (Thursday),  and a gala reception and buffet
at the Museum of Science and Industry.  Payment must accompany


If paid by:         7 February     8 March        On Site
                    Early          Regular        Late

Conference Fees     $315           $370           $420
Tutorial Fees       $145           $175           $210
Conf. & Tutorial    $460           $545           $630
Save by Registering Early!


The Fourth Conference on Computers, Freedom and Privacy (CFP '94)
will provide a limited number of full registration scholarships for
students and other interested individuals.  These scholarships will
cover the full costs of registration, including luncheons, two
banquets, and all conference materials.  Scholarship recipients
will be responsible for their own lodging and travel expenses.
Persons wishing to apply for one of these fully-paid registrations
should contact CFP '94  Scholarship Chair:

John F. McMullen
CFP '94 Scholarship Committee
Perry Street
Jefferson Valley, NY  10535
Phone: (914) 245-2734 or email mcmullen@mindvox.phantom.com


CFP'94 will be held at the Palmer House Hilton, a venerable Chicago
landmark in the "Loop."  This spacious and comfortable facility is
easily accessible from the O'Hare International and Chicago Midway
airports, and is only 2 blocks from The John Marshall Law School.
Special conference rates of $99/night, single or multiple
occupancy, are available.  Our room block is guaranteed only until
March 1, 1994, so we urge you to make your reservations as early as
possible.  When calling for reservations, please be sure to mention
CFP'94 to obtain the conference rate.

Hotel Reservations: Palmer House Hilton, 17 E. Monroe, Chicago,
Il., 60603.  Tel: 312-726-7500; 1-800-HILTONS; Fax, 312-263-2556


Refund requests received in writing by March 8, 1994 will be
honored.  A $50 cancellation fee will be applied.  No refunds will
be made after this date; however, registrants may designate a

CFP'94 is proud to have United Airlines -- Chicago's Own -- as our
own exclusive official airline!  United will give our conferees a
5% discount off any published United or United Express airfare,
including First Class, or 10% off the new BUA fare when purchased
at least a week in advance of travel.  Call toll-free 1-800-521-
4041 to make reservations and be sure to give our CFP'94 ID Number:


NAME (Please Print)







PRIVACY LOCKS:  We will not sell, rent. loan, exchange or use this
information for any purpose other than official Computers, Freedom
and Privacy Conference activities.  A printed roster containing
this information will be distrusted at the conference.  Please
indicate if you wish information to be excluded from the roster:

               ( ) Print only name, affiliation and phone no.
               ( )  Print name only
               ( )  Omit my name from the roster

     ( ) I would like to attend the Privacy International luncheon
and briefing at noon on Wednesday, March 23.  (Your attendance as
a guest of P.I. and the Illinois Privacy Council MUST be confirmed
by March 8, and is on a "first come" basis.)

"CFP Soapbox Square"
     ( ) I would like to make a formal statement (3 mins.) during
"CFP Soapbox Square" to be held from 9:15 p.m. - 11:15 p.m. on
March 23.  My topic:

     ( ) I plan to attend "Soapbox Square" but do not wish to make
a prepared statement, though I may join in the discussion.

If paid by:         7 February     8 March        On Site
                    Early          Regular        Late
Conference Fees     $315           $370           $420
Tutorial Fees       $145           $175           $210
Conf. & Tutorial    $460           $545           $630

Note: If you have registered for the Tutorials, please select one
from each group:
          9:00 A.M. - 12:00 NOON
               ( ) Cyberspace Law for Non-Lawyers
               ( ) Rules of the Road for Network
                    Travelers (CLE Credit)
               ( ) Citizen Action: Get Mad, Met
                    Motivated, Get Moving!
               ( ) Exploring Internet: A Guided Tour
               ( ) Using FOIA

          2:00 P.M. - 5:00 P.M.
               ( ) Cryptography: What, and How?
               ( ) Introduction to Hi-Tech Law (CLE Credit)
               ( ) TRAC: Evaluative Data Analysis
               ( ) The Electronic Detective" Online
               ( ) Electoral Fraud


                    Please indicated method of payment:
                    ( )  Check (payable to JMLS-CFP '94)

                    ( )  VISA
                    ( )  MasterCard
                    Credit Card #

                    Expiration Date

                    Name on Card

"Computers, Freedom & Privacy '94", The John Marshall Law School
315 South Plymouth Court, Chicago, Illinois 60604
   e-mail = cfp94@jmls.edu   voice = 312/987-1419

General Chair:                            Conference Coordinator:
George B. Trubow                          Gary L. Gassman
e-mail = 7trubow@jmls.edu                 e-mail = 6gassman@jmls.edu


End of PRIVACY Forum Digest 03.03

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