TUCoPS :: General Information :: how2hak1.txt

How to Hack - Information for Newbies 1/2

From: Harlequin <harlequin@fnord.org.uk>
Newsgroups: alt.2600,alt.2600.hackerz
Subject: How to Hack - Info for Newbies (1/2)
Expires: Mon, 26 Aug 2002 12:00:00 GMT

[Note: Please DO NOT reply to this post quoting its entirety!
Downloading costs many people real money. H.]
"You hack to LEARN, you do not LEARN to hack."

Advice for those wanting to learn "how to hack":
        1. Read newsgroups like this one for a few weeks, at least;
        2. Read the alt.2600 FAQ (posted in alt.2600 about twice a
        3. Read books;
[Note from LearningInProgress (LIP): This is perhaps the best advice you
can anybody concerning hacking or computer security in general.  The
rest I would ignore until you fundamentally learn what the system
administrator knows himself or herself.  Better yet, set up your own
network with cheap PCs in your bedroom to practice and learn more about
networking.  At least if you screw up, you can examine your own security
logs and see where.  And the best part is you won't go to jail.]
        4. Track down web sites and text files (like the one at the end
of this post).
        5. Read my posts of VisiGoth's "Newbies: Information Overload"
post (to be found in alt.2600, alt.2600.hackerz and alt.hacker). His
"HowTo: Makeshift Linux Network @ Home .." (in the same NGs) might also
prove useful. British readers should find Vortex's "Links and
Information for UK newbies" (latterly posted monthly by Michael to
alt.2600 and alt.ph.uk) to be worthwhile reading.

Further advice from LiP:
Some core competencies I think are required to hacking are:
(1) understanding of programming languages (high level and low level)
(2) understanding of how software interacts with hardware
(3) understanding of cryptography and how cryptanalysis works
(4) understanding of networks, both unix and NT
(5) understanding of multiple operating systems and how they are
(6) common sense and the willingness to learn

Tanstaafl (David Dune) runs a hackers newsletter. E-mail
info-rphh@*technologist.com?subject=FAQ and/or
info-rphh@*technologist.com?subject=Subscribe (are the asterisks meant
to be there?) and get back issues from

Apparently, Death Incarnate runs another newsletter. E-mail him at

Tips for item 4: You can make a start by looking at...


Also, have a peek at some of the other sites mentioned in messages
posted to this group.


P.S. A sample of what you can find. I've included a number of relevant
comments from LearningInProgress:

+                                          BY
+                                    REVELATION
+                                       LOA--ASH
+ Written: 08/4/96                                         Volume: 1 +

[Note from zimzum: I have read that guide and when i was getting started
it DID help me but unfortunately, like most of the hacking textfiles on
the net, the info is becoming fast outdated and therefore very
dangerous.  For example, in a lot of places, the new digital phone
networks can now detect a beige box and the cops will be there in 3-5
minutes H.]

[Note from Hobbit: Couple quick notes on the How to Hack post by
Harlequin [presumably a reference to Revelation's Guide H.]; boxing and
scanning are newbee no-no's now. since the advent of digital switching
(mid 1980's) tone boxing will set off alarms at the home offices of your
local phone company. don't expect black helicopters to land; do expect
"expensive sunglasses and cheap suits" to come knockin' if you insist on
trying this from home. scanning a prefix will _also_ draw all kinds of
the wrong kind of attention. the big computers at the local phone
company are (so i hear) set to look for scanning attempts by recognizing
blocks of dialing attempts from any single number. a way around this is
to hammer a few at a time, wait a bit. and then a few more. to really
cover tracks you can randomize (shuffle) the numbers list and hit the
numbers a few here and a few there with no set pattern to recognize.
this is an example of why you'll need to learn to program to hack; you
should be able to cobble up a simple random war-dialer that "sleeps"
like i've described here, consider it a class project. for the more
advanced, (and adventurous) scanning and tone-boxing can be combined
with the alligator-clips-on-a-neighbor's-line method for a humorous
example of creative payback (as well as gathering valuable information,
natch). only do this A> to people you don't like, and B> if you can keep
a straight face when all the "plumbing vans" set up shop next to the
victims property  :) H.]

        This document was written in Windows 95 Word Pad.  The title
above, and some of the text looks a little screwed up when read in
anything else, so read it in Word Pad. [Not this version. H.] Anyway,
for those of you who are wondering "what do the letters "LOA" under his
handle stand for?"  Well, LOA stands for Legion Of the Apocalypse, which
is a group of elite hackers and phreakers in my area.
        The current members of LOA are:

Revelation, Phreaked Out, Hack Attack, Electric Jaguar, and Phreak

        I started LOA when I discovered that there were many good
hackers and phreakers in my area.  I thought that an organized group of
hackers and phreakers would accomplish much more than an individual
could by himself.  Thus the Legion Of the Apocalypse was formed and has
been around for a while since. Our  main goal is to show the public what
hacking and phreaking is all about and to reveal confidential
information to the hacking/phreaking community so that we can learn more
about computers, telephones, electronics, etc. We are hoping to get our
own World Wide Web page soon, so keep an eye out for it.  It will
contain all of the hacking, phreaking, computer, telephone,security,
electronics, virus, and carding information that you could possibly
        Also, if some of you are wondering why I chose the word
Revelation as my handle, well, Revelation means revealing or unveiling,
which is exactly what I intend to do as a hacker/phreaker. I intend to
reveal all the information that I can gather while hacking and
        Anyway, I wrote this document because I have read all the files
that I could get my hands on and noticed that there has never been a
really good file written that guided beginning hackers and phreakers
step by step.
        When I began hacking and started reading all of the beginner
files, I still had many un-answered questions.  My questions were
eventually answered, but only through LOTS of reading and practice. In
this file, I hope to give basic step by step instructions that will help
beginning hackers and phreakers get started.  But, DO NOT think that
this will save you from having to read alot.  If you want to be a
hacker/phreaker, reading is the most important thing you can do.  You
will have to do ALOT of reading no matter what.
        This document was intended for beginners, but it can also be
used as a reference tool for advanced hackers and phreakers.
        Please distribute this document freely.  Give it to anyone that
you know who is interested in hacking and/or phreaking.  Post it on your
World Wide Web page, Ftp sites, and BBS's.  Do whatever you want with it
as long as it stays UNCHANGED.
        As far as I know, this is the most complete and in depth
beginners guide available, that is why I wrote it.  Also, I plan to have
new volumes come out whenever there has been a significant change in the
material provided, so keep an eye out for them.  LOA is planning on
starting an on-line magazine, so look for that too. And we are also
starting a hacking business. Owners of businesses can hire us to hack
into their systems to find the security faults. The name of this company
is A.S.H. (American Security Hackers), and it is run by LOA. If you have
any questions about this company, or would like to hire us, or just want
security advice, please E-Mail A.S.H. at "an641839@anon.penet.fi".

        This document is divided into three main sections with many
different sub-sections in them.  The Table Of Contents is below:

Table Of Contents:


                A. What is hacking?
                B. Why hack?
                C. Hacking rules
                D. Getting started
                E. Where and how to start hacking
                F. Telenet commands
                G. Telenet dialups
                H. Telenet DNIC's
                I. Telenet NUA's
                J. Basic UNIX hacking
                K. Basic VAX/VMS hacking
                L. Basic PRIME hacking
                M. Password list
                N. Connecting modems to different phone lines
                O. Viruses, Trojans, and Worms


                A. What is phreaking?
                B. Why phreak?
                C. Phreaking rules
                D. Where and how to start phreaking
                E. Boxes and what they do
                F. Red Box plans
                G. Free calling from COCOT's
                H. ANAC numbers


                A. Hacking and phreaking W.W.W. pages
                B. Good hacking and phreaking text files
                C. Hacking and phreaking Newsgroups
                D. Rainbow Books
                E. Hacking and phreaking magazines
                F. Hacking and phreaking movies
                G. Hacking and phreaking Gopher sites
                H. Hacking and phreaking Ftp sites
                I. Hacking and phreaking BBS's
                J. Cool hackers and phreakers
                K. Hacker's Manifesto
                L. Happy hacking!


        "Use this information at your own risk. I Revelation, nor any
other member of LOA, nor the persons providing this file, will NOT
assume ANY responsibility for the use, misuse, or abuse, of the
information provided herein. The following information is provided for
educational purposes ONLY. The informaion is NOT to be used for illegal
purposes. By reading this file you ARE AGREEING to the following terms:
I understand that using this information is illegal. I agree to, and
understand, that I am responsible for my own actions. If I get into
trouble using this information for the wrong reasons, I promise not to
place the blame on Revelation, LOA, or anyone that provided this file. I
understand that this information is for educational purposes only. This
file may be used to check your security systems and if you would like a
thorough check contact A.S.H.
        This file is basically a compilation of known hacking and
phreaking information and some information gathered from my own
experience as a hacker/phreaker. I have tried to make sure that
everything excerpted from other documents was put in quotes and labeled
with the documents name, and if known, who wrote it. I am sorry if any
mistakes were made with quoted information."


[Further disclaimer: This document contains some very personal political
views that are not shared by all those who think of themselves as
"hackers". Sometimes the "we" that the author refers to is a very small
group. Think about it: do you want everyone to have free access to YOUR
personal data? H.]


A. What is hacking?

        Hacking is the act of penetrating computer systems to gain
knowledge about the system and how it works.
        Hacking is illegal because we demand free access to ALL data,
and we get it. This pisses people off and we are outcasted from society,
and in order to stay out of prison, we must keep our status of being a
hacker/phreaker a secret. We can't discuss our findings with anyone but
other members of the hacking/phreaking community for fear of being
punished.  We are punished for wanting to learn. Why is the government
spending huge amounts of time and money to arrest hackers when there are
other much more dangerous people out there. It is the murderers,
rapists, terrorists, kidnappers, and burglers who should be punished for
what they have done, not hackers.  We do NOT pose a threat to anyone. We
are NOT out to hurt people or there computers. I admit that there are
some people out there who call themselves hackers and who deliberately
damage computers. But these people are criminals, NOT hackers. I don't
care what the government says, we are NOT criminals. We are NOT trying
to alter or damage any system. This is widely misunderstood. Maybe one
day people will believe us when we say that all we want is to learn.

[And one day the prices of the network hardware will go down far enough
so we can learn in our own homes. I think this is quickly approaching,
more so then in the past. LIP] [The cost of home networking is falling
at a dramatic rate as we reach the end of the 20th century. H.]

        There are only two ways to get rid of hackers and phreakers. One
is to get rid of computers and telephones, in which case we would find
other means of getting what we want.(Like that is really going to
happen.) The other way is to give us what we want, which is free access
to ALL information. Until one of those two things happen, we are not
going anywhere.

B. Why hack?

        As said above, we hack to gain knowledge about systems and the
way they work. We do NOT want to damage systems in any way. If you do
damage a system, you WILL get caught. But, if you don't damage anything,
it is very unlikely that you will be noticed, let alone be tracked down
and arrested, which costs a considerable amount of time and money.
        Beginners should read all the files that they can get their
hands on about anything even remotely related to hacking and phreaking,
BEFORE they start hacking. I know it sounds stupid and boring but it
will definetly pay off in the future. The more you read about hacking
and phreaking, the more unlikely it is that you will get caught. Some of
the most useless pieces of information that you read could turn out to
be the most helpful. That is why you need to read everything possible.

[Read everything you can get your hands on.  And check out a book
entitled Computer Organization & Design.  It's extremely long, but it's
worth reading. Also, find on the net the book entitled the Art of
Assembly.  Since you can only dissassemble back to assembly to a degree
and not to C or C++, learning assembly is good for understanding how the
software interacts with the hardware.  And this will allow you to find
new vulnerabilities not posted on http://www.cert.org . LIP]

C. Hacking rules

1.      Never damage any system. This will only get you into trouble.

2.      Never alter any of the systems files, except for those needed to
insure that you are not detected, and those to insure that you have
access into that computer in the future.

3.      Do not share any information about your hacking projects with
anyone but those you'd trust with your life.

4.      When posting on BBS's (Bulletin Board Systems) be as vague as
possible when describing your current hacking projects.  BBS's CAN be
monitered by law enforcement.

5.      Never use anyone's real name or real phone number when posting
on a BBS.

6.      Never leave your handle on any systems that you hack in to.

7.      DO NOT hack government computers.

8.      Never speak about hacking projects over your home telephone

9.      Be paranoid. Keep all of your hacking materials in a safe

[Buy a shredder and write your own crypto.  Yep, ya gotta learn
cryptography too. LIP]

10.     To become a real hacker, you have to hack. You can't just sit
around reading text files and hanging out on BBS's. This is not what
hacking is all about.

[But first hack your own shit.  Jail isn't a good thing. LIP]

D. Getting started

        The very first thing you need to do is get a copy of PKZIP or
some other file unzipping utility.  Nearly everything that you download
from the Internet or from a BBS will be zipped. A zipped file is a file
that has been compressed. Zipped files end with the extension ".zip".
        Then you need to get yourself a good prefix scanner.(also known
as a War Dialer)  This is a program that automatically dials phone
numbers beginning with the three numbers (prefix) that you specify. It
checks to see if the number dialed has a carrier.(series of beeps that
tells you that you have dialed a computer)  Try and find a large
business area prefix to scan. It is these businesses that have
interesting computers.  There are many good scanners out there, but I
would recommend Autoscan or A-Dial. These are very easy to use and get
the job done quickly and efficiently.

[And if you intend to use a war dialer, get a good job to pay for your
phone bill and check your local laws concerning scanning.  You can also
use social engineering techniques before even attempting to break into a
system. Check out the book entitled Corporate Espionage for more info.

E. Where and how to start hacking

        After you get yourself a good scanner, scan some prefixes and
find some cool dialups, then do the following:  From your terminal, dial
the number you found.  Then you should hear a series of beeps (carrier)
which tells you that you are connecting to a remote computer. It should
then say something like "CONNECT 9600" and then identify the system that
you are on. If nothing happens after it says "CONNECT 9600" try hitting
enter a few times. If you get a bunch of garbage adjust your parity,
data bits, stop bits, baud rate, etc., until it becomes clear.
        That is one way of connecting to a remote computer. Another way
is through Telenet or some other large network. Telenet is a very large
network that has many other networks and remote computers connected to
        Ok, here is how you would connect to a remote computer through
        First, you get your local dialup(phone number) from the list
that I have provided in Section G.  Then you dial the number from your
terminal and connect.(If you get a bunch of garbage try changing your
parity to odd and your data bits to 7, this should clear it up.)  If it
just sits there hit enter and wait a few seconds, then hit enter again.
Then it will say "TERMINAL=" and you type in your terminal emulation. If
you don't know what it is just hit enter. Then it will give you a prompt
that looks like "@". From there you type "c" and then the NUA (Network
User Address) that you want to connect to. After you connect to the NUA,
the first thing you need to do is find out what type of system you are
on.(i.e. UNIX, VAX/VMS, PRIME, etc.)
        There are other things that you can do on Telenet besides
connecting to an NUA. Some of these commands and functions are listed in
the next section.
        You can only connect to computers which accept reverse charging.
The only way you can connect to computers that don't accept reverse
charging is if you have a Telenet account. You can try hacking these. To
do this, at the "@" prompt type "access". It will then ask you for your
Telenet ID and password.
        Telenet is probably the safest place to start hacking because of
the large numbers of calls that they get. Make sure you call during
business hours (late morning or early afternoon) so there are many other
people on-line.

[Don't hack into a system until you know what the system is.  That is,
if you wanna go after Ameritech, it's good to know that they use an HP
UNIX box before attempting anything. LIP]

F. Telenet commands

[Make sure to read the documentation concerning the telnet terminal
you are using. LIP]

        Here is a list of some Telenet commands and their functions.
This is only a partial list.  Beginners probably won't use these
commands, but I put them here for reference anyway.

COMMAND                             FUNCTION

c                                   Connect to a host.
stat                                Shows network port.
full                                Network echo.
half                                Terminal echo.
telemail                            Mail.(need ID and password)
mail                                Mail.(need ID and password)
set                                 Select PAD parameters
cont                                Continue.
d                                   Disconnect.
hangup                              Hangs up.
access                              Telenet account.(ID and password)

G. Telenet dialups

        Here is the list of all the Telenet dialups that I know of in
the U.S.A., including the city, state, and area code:
[Note corrections at end of list. H.]

STATE,CITY:                     AREA CODE:              NUMBER:

AL, Anniston            205                             236-9711
AL, Birmingham          205                             328-2310
AL, Decatur             205                             355-0206
AL, Dothan              205                             793-5034
AL, Florence            205                             767-7960
AL, Huntsville          205                             539-2281
AL, Mobile              205                             432-1680
AL, Montgomery          205                             269-0090
AL, Tuscaloosa          205                             752-1472
AZ, Phoenix             602                             254-0244
AZ, Tucson              602                             747-0107
AR, Ft.Smith            501                             782-2852
AR, Little Rock         501                             327-4616
CA, Bakersfield         805                             327-8146
CA, Chico               916                             894-6882
CA, Colton              714                             824-9000
CA, Compton             213                             516-1007
CA, Concord             415                             827-3960
CA, Escondido           619                             741-7756
CA, Eureka              707                             444-3091
CA, Fresno              209                             233-0961
CA, Garden Grove        714                             898-9820
CA, Glendale            818                             507-0909
CA, Hayward             415                             881-1382
CA, Los Angeles         213                             624-2251
CA, Marina Del Rey      213                             306-2984
CA, Merced              209                             383-2557
CA, Modesto             209                             576-2852
CA, Montery             408                             646-9092
CA, Norwalk             213                             404-2237
CA, Oakland             415                             836-4911
CA, Oceanside           619                             430-0613
CA, Palo Alto           415                             856-9995
CA, Pomona              714                             626-1284
CA, Sacramento          916                             448-6262
CA, Salinas             408                             443-4940
CA, San Carlos          415                             591-0726
CA, San Diego           619                             233-0233
CA, San Francisco       415                             956-5777
CA, San Jose            408                             294-9119
CA, San Pedro           213                             548-6141
CA, San Rafael          415                             472-5360
CA, San Ramon           415                             829-6705
CA, Santa Ana           714                             558-7078
CA, Santa Barbara       805                             682-5361
CA, Santa Cruz          408                             429-6937
CA, Santa Rosa          707                             656-6760
CA, Stockton            209                             957-7610
CA, Thousand Oaks       805                             495-3588
CA, Vallejo             415                             724-4200
CA, Ventura             805                             656-6760
CA, Visalia             209                             627-1201
CA, West Covina         818                             915-5151
CA, Woodland Hills      818                             887-3160
C0, Colorado            719                             635-5361
CO, Denver              303                             337-6060
CO, Ft. Collins         303                             493-9131
CO, Grand Junction      303                             241-3004
CO, Greeley             303                             352-8563
[Note from Japhy: Grand Junction, Fort Collins and Greeley have been 970
for over 5 years now. H]

CO, Pueblo              719                             542-4053
CT, Bridgeport          203                             335-5055
CT, Danbury             203                             794-9075
CT, Hartford            203                             247-9479
CT, Middletown          203                             344-8217
CT, New Britain         203                             225-7027
CT, New Haven           203                             624-5954
CT, New London          203                             447-8455
CT, Norwalk             203                             866-7404
CT, Stamford            203                             348-0787
CT, Waterbury           203                             753-4512
DE, Dover               302                             678-8328
DE, Newark              302                             454-7710
DC, Washington          202                             429-7896
DC, Washington          202                             429-7800
FL, Boca Raton          407                             338-3701
FL, Cape Coral          813                             275-7924
FL, Cocoa Beach         407                             267-0800
FL, Daytona Beach       904                             255-2629
FL, Ft. Lauderdale      305                             764-4505
FL, Gainsville          904                             338-0220
FL, Jacksonville        904                             353-1818
FL, Lakeland            813                             683-5461
FL, Melbourne           407                             242-8247
FL, Miami               305                             372-0230
FL, Naples              813                             263-3033
FL, Ocala               904                             351-3790
FL, Orlando             407                             422-4099
FL, Pensacola           904                             432-1335
FL, Pompano Beach       305                             941-5445
FL, St. Petersburg      813                             323-4026
FL, Sarasota            813                             923-4563
FL, Tallahassee         904                             681-1902
FL, Tampa               813                             224-9920
FL, West Palm Beach     407                             833-6691
GA, Albany              912                             888-3011
GA, Athens              404                             548-5590
GA, Atlanta             404                             523-0834
GA, Augusta             404                             724-2752
GA, Colombus            404                             571-0556
GA, Macon               912                             743-8844
GA, Rome                404                             234-1428
GA, Savannah            912                             236-2605
HI, Oahu                808                             528-0200
ID, Boise               208                             343-0611
ID, Idaho Falls         208                             529-0406
ID, Lewiston            208                             743-0099
ID, Pocatella           208                             232-1764
IL, Aurora              312                             896-0620
IL, Bloomington         309                             827-7000
IL, Chicago             312                             938-0600
IL, Decatur             217                             429-0235
IL, Dekalb              815                             758-2623
IL, Joliet              815                             726-0070
IL, Peoria              309                             637-8570
IL, Rockford            815                             965-0400
IL, Springfield         217                             753-1373
IL, Urbana              217                             384-6428
IN, Bloomington         812                             332-1344
IN, Evansville          812                             424-7693
IN, Ft. Wayne           219                             426-2268
IN, Gary                219                             882-8800
IN, Indianapolis        317                             299-0024
IN, Kokomo              317                             455-2460
IN, Lafayette           317                             742-6000
IN, Muncie              317                             282-6418
IN, South Bend          219                             233-7104
IN, Terre Haute         812                             232-5329
IA, Ames                515                             233-6300
IA, Cedar Rapids        319                             364-0911
IA, Davenport           319                             324-2445
IA, Des Moines          515                             288-4403
IA, Dubuque             319                             556-0783
IA, Iowa City           319                             351-1421
IA, Sioux City          712                             255-1545
IA, Waterloo            319                             232-5441
KS, Lawrence            913                             843-8124
KS, Manhattan           913                             537-0948
KS, Salina              913                             825-7900
KS, Topeka              913                             233-9880
KS, Wichita             316                             262-5669
KY, Bowling Green       502                             782-7941
KY, Frankfort           502                             875-4654
KY, Lexington           606                             233-0312
KY, Louisville          502                             589-5580
KY, Owensboro           502                             686-8107
LA, Alexandria          318                             445-1053
LA, Baton Rouge         504                             343-0753
LA, Lafayette           318                             233-0002
LA, Lake Charles        318                             436-0518
LA, Monroe              318                             387-6330
LA, New Orleans         504                             524-4094
LA, Shreveport          318                             221-5833
ME, Augusta             207                             622-3123
ME, Brewer              207                             989-3081
ME, Lewiston            207                             784-0105
ME, Portland            207                             761-4000
MD, Annapolis           301                             224-8550
MD, Baltimore           301                             727-6060
MD, Frederick           301                             293-9596
MA, Boston              617                             292-0662
MA, Brockton            508                             580-0721
MA, Fall River          508                             677-4477
MA, Framingham          508                             879-6798
MA, Lawrence            508                             975-2273
MA, Lexington           617                             863-1550
MA, Lowell              508                             937-5214
MA, New Bedford         508                             999-2915
MA, Northampton         413                             586-0510
MA, Pittsfield          413                             499-7741
MA, Salem               508                             744-1559
MA, Springfield         413                             781-3811
MA, Woods Hole          508                             540-7500
MA, Worcester           508                             755-4740
MI, Ann Arbor           313                             996-5995
MI, Battle Creek        616                             968-0929
MI, Detroit             313                             964-2988
MI, Flint               313                             235-8517
MI, Grand Rapids        616                             774-0966
MI, Jackson             517                             782-8111
MI, Kalamazoo           616                             345-3088
MI, Lansing             517                             484-0062
MI, Midland             517                             832-7068
MI, Muskegon            616                             726-5723
MI, Pontiac             313                             332-5120
MI, Port Huron          313                             982-8364
MI, Saginaw             517                             790-5166
MI, Southfield          313                             827-4710
MI, Traverse City       616                             946-2121
MI, Warren              313                             575-9152
MN, Duluth              218                             722-1719
MN, Mankato             517                             388-3780
MN, Minneapolis         612                             341-2459
MN, Rochester           507                             282-5917
MN, St. Cloud           612                             253-2064
MS, Gulfport            601                             863-0024
MS, Jackson             601                             969-0036
MS, Meridian            601                             482-2210
MS, Starkville          601                             324-2155
MO, Columbia            314                             449-4404
MO, Jefferson City      314                             634-5178
MO, Kansas City         816                             221-9900
MO, St. Joseph          816                             279-4797
MO, St. Louis           314                             421-4990
MO, Springfield         417                             864-4814
MT, Billings            406                             245-7649
MT, Great Falls         406                             771-0067
MT, Helena              406                             443-0000
MT, Missoula            406                             721-5900
NE, Lincoln             402                             475-4964
NE, Omaha               402                             341-7733
NV, Las Vegas           702                             737-6861
NV, Reno                702                             827-6900
NH, Concord             603                             224-1024
NH, Durham              603                             868-2924
NH, Manchester          603                             627-8725
NH, Nashua              603                             880-6241
NH, Portsmouth          603                             431-2302
NJ, Atlantic City       609                             348-0561
NJ, Freehold            201                             780-5030
NJ, Hackensack          201                             488-6567
NJ, Marlton             609                             596-1500
NJ, Merchantville       609                             663-9297
NJ, Morristown          201                             455-0275
NJ, New Brunswick       201                             745-2900
NJ, Newark              201                             623-0469
NJ, Passaic             201                             778-5600
NJ, Paterson            201                             684-7560
NJ, Princeton           609                             799-5587
NJ, Rahway              201                             815-1885
NJ, Redbank             201                             571-0003
NJ, Roseland            201                             227-5277
NJ, Sayreville          201                             525-9507
NJ, Trenton             609                             989-8847
NM, Albuquerque         505                             243-4479
NM, Las Cruces          505                             526-9191
NM, Santa Fe            505                             473-3403
NY, Albany              518                             465-8444
NY, Binghampton         607                             772-6642
NY, Buffalo             716                             847-1440
NY, Dear Park           516                             667-5566
NY, Hempstead           516                             292-3800
NY, Ithaca              607                             277-2142
NY, New York City       212                             741-8100
NY, New York City       212                             620-6000
NY, Plattsburgh         518                             562-1890
NY, Poughkeepsie        914                             473-2240
NY, Rochester           716                             454-1020
NY, Syracuse            315                             472-5583
NY, Utica               315                             797-0920
NY, Whit Plains         914                             328-9199
NC, Asheville           704                             252-9134
NC, Charlotte           704                             332-3131
NC, Fayetteville        919                             323-8165
NC, Gastonia            704                             865-4708
NC, Greensboro          919                             273-2851
NC, High Point          919                             889-7494
NC, North Wilkesboro    919                             838-9034
NC, Raleigh             919                             834-8254
NC, Res Tri Park        919                             549-8139
NC, Tarboro             919                             823-0579
NC, Wilmington          919                             763-8313
NC, Winston-Salem       919                             725-2126
ND, Fargo               701                             235-7717
ND, Grand Forks         701                             775-7813
ND, Mandan              701                             663-2256
OH, Canton              216                             452-0903
OH, Cincinnati          513                             579-0390
OH, Cleveland           216                             575-1658
OH, Colombus            614                             463-9340
OH, Dayton              513                             461-5254
OH, Elyria              216                             323-5059
OH, Hamilton            513                             863-4116
OH, Kent                216                             678-5115
OH, Lorain              216                             960-1170
OH, Mansfield           419                             526-0686
OH, Sandusky            419                             627-0050
OH, Springfield         513                             324-1520
OH, Toledo              419                             255-7881
OH, Warren              216                             394-0041
OH, Wooster             216                             264-8920
OH, Youngstown          216                             743-1296
OK, Bartlesville        918                             336-3675
OK, Lawton              405                             353-0333
OK, Oklahoma City       405                             232-4546
OK, Stillwater          405                             624-1113
OK, Tulsa               918                             584-3247
OR, Corvallis           503                             754-9273
OR, Eugena              503                             683-1460
OR, Hood River          503                             386-4405
OR, Klamath Falls       503                             882-6282
OR, Medford             503                             779-6343
OR, Portland            503                             295-3028
OR, Salem               503                             378-7712
PA, Allentown           215                             435-3330
PA, Altoona             814                             949-0310
PA, Carlisle            717                             249-9311
PA, Danville            717                             271-0102
PA, Erie                814                             899-2241
PA, Harrisburg          717                             236-6882
PA, Johnstown           814                             535-7576
PA, King Of Prussia     215                             337-4300
PA, Lancaster           717                             295-5405
PA, Philadelphia        215                             574-9462
PA, Pittsburgh          412                             288-9950
PA, Reading             215                             376-8750
PA, Scranton            717                             961-5321
PA, State College       814                             231-1510
PA, Wilkes-Barre        717                             829-3108
PA, Williamsport        717                             494-1796
PA, York                717                             846-6550
RI, Providence          401                             751-7910
SC, Charleston          803                             722-4303
SC, Columbia            803                             254-0695
SC, Greenville          803                             233-3486
SC, Spartenburg         803                             585-1637
SC, Pierre              605                             224-0481
SC, Rapid City          605                             348-2621
SC, Sioux Falls         605                             336-8593
TN, Bristol             615*                           968-1130
TN, Chattanooga         615*                            756-1161
TN, Clarksville         615                             552-0032
TN, Johnson City        615*                            282-6645
TN, Knoxville           615*                            525-5500
TN, Memphis             901                             521-0215
TN, Nashville           615                             244-3702
TN, Oak Ridge           615*                            481-3590

[* Note from "Chris": The area code for the telenet sites in East
Tennessee have changed from 615 to 423....
TN, Chattanooga
TN, Johnson City
TN, Knoxville
TN, Oak Ridge H.]

TX, Abilene             915                             676-9151
TX, Amarillo            806                             373-0458
TX, Athens              214                             677-1712
TX, Austin              512                             928-1130
TX, Brownsville         512                             542-0367
TX, Bryan               409                             822-0159
TX, Corpus Christi      512                             884-9030
TX, Dallas              214                             748-6371
TX, El Paso             915                             532-7907
TX, Ft. Worth           817                             332-4307
TX, Galveston           409                             762-4382
TX, Houston             713                             227-1018
TX, Laredo              512                             724-1791
TX, Longview            214                             236-4205
TX, Lubbock             806                             747-4121
TX, Mcallen             512                             686-5360
TX, Midland             915                             561-9811
TX, Nederland           409                             722-3720
TX, San Angelo          915                             944-7612
TX, San Antonio         512                             225-8004
TX, Sherman             214                             893-4995
TX, Temple              817                             773-9723
TX, Tyler               214                             597-8925
TX, Waco                817                             752-9743
TX, Wichita Falls       817                             322-3774
UT, Ogden               801                             627-1630
UT, Provo               801                             373-0542
UT, Salt Lake City      801                             359-0149
VT, Burlington          802                             864-0808
VT, Montpelier          802                             229-4966
VT, Rutland             802                             775-1676
VT, White River Jct.    802                             295-7631
VA, Blacksburg          703                             552-9181
VA, Charlottesville     804                             977-5330
VA, Covington           703                             962-2217
VA, Fredericksburg      703                             371-0188
VA, Harrisonburg        703                             434-7121
VA, Herndon             703                             435-1800
VA, Lynchburg           804                             845-0010
VA, Newport News        804                             596-6600
VA, Norfolk             804                             625-1186
VA, Richmond            804                             788-9902
VA, Roanoke             703                             344-2036
WA, Auburn              206                             939-9982
WA, Bellingham          206                             733-2720
WA, Everett             206                             775-9929
WA, Longview            206                             577-5835
WA, Olympia             206                             754-0460
WA, Richland            509                             943-0649
WA, Seattle             206                             625-9612
WA, Spokane             509                             455-4071
WA, Tacoma              206                             627-1791
WA, Vancouver           206                             693-6914
WA, Wenatchee           509                             663-6227
WA, Yakima              509                             575-1060
WV, Charleston          304                             343-6471
WV, Huntington          304                             523-2802
WV, Morgantown          304                             292-0104
WV, Wheeling            304                             233-7732
WI, Beloit              608                             362-5287
WI, Eau Claire          715                             836-9295
WI, Green Bay           414                             432-2815
WI, Kenosha             414                             552-9242
WI, La Crosse           608                             784-0560
WI, Madison             608                             257-5010
WI, Milwaukee           414                             271-3914
WI, Neenah              414                             722-7636
WI, Racine              414                             632-6166
WI, Sheboygan           414                             452-3995
WI, Wausau              715                             845-9584
WI, West Bend           414                             334-2206
WY, Casper              307                             265-5167
WY, Cheyenne            307                             638-4421
WY, Laramie             307                             721-5878

[From: darkcynthy
there are a few old area codes in the "g" section.  I have corrected the
ones I know about.
AL, Anniston            256                             236-9711
AL, Dothan              334                             793-5034
AL, Mobile              334                             432-1680
AL, Montgomery          334                             269-0090
FL, Pensacola           850                             432-1335
From: Justin McGregor
Here are a few others that I know of:
TN, Chattanooga         423
TN, Knoxville           423
TN, Oak Ridge           423
I know some of the other TN area codes are different, but I'm going to
have to find a better reference than what I have to find the rest.
You might also find a more recent list at

H. Telenet DNIC's

        Here is the list of all the Telenet DNIC's. These will be
defined and explained in the next section:

DNIC:                           NETWORK:

02041                           Datanet-1
02062                           DCS
02080                           Transpac
02284                           Telepac (Switzerland)
02322                           Datex-P (Austria)
02392                           Radaus
02342                           PSS
02382                           Datapak (Denmark)
02402                           Datapak (Sweden)
02405                           Telepak
02442                           Finpak
02624                           Datex-P (West Germany)
02704                           Luxpac
02724                           Eirpak
03020                           Datapac
03028                           Infogram
03103                           ITT/UDTS (U.S.A.)
03106                           Tymnet
03110                           Telenet
03340                           Telepac (Mexico)
03400                           UDTS (Curacau)
04251                           Isranet
04401                           DDX-P
04408                           Venus-P
04501                           Dacom-Net
04542                           Intelpak
05052                           Austpac
05053                           Midas
05252                           Telepac (Hong Kong)
05301                           Pacnet
06550                           Saponet
07240                           Interdata
07241                           Renpac
07421                           Dompac
09000                           Dialnet

I. Telenet NUA's

        Here is a list of a few Telenet NUA's and what type of system
they are. But first, this is how an NUA is put together:

                         \   /\ /  \ /
                           |   |    |
                         DNIC Area  NUA

        The DNIC says which network connected to Telenet you are using.
The area code is the area code for the area that the NUA is in.  And the
NUA is the address of the computer on Telenet.  Please note that an NUA
does NOT have to be in your area code for you to connect to it.
        There are two ways of finding useful NUA's.  The first way is to
get or write an NUA scanning program.  The second way is to get a copy
of the Legion Of Doom's Telenet Directory.( Volume 4 of the LOD
Technical Journals)
        Now, here is the list. Remember that these are only a few NUA's.
These are NOT all of the Telenet NUA's.  All of these NUA's DO accept
reverse charging.  Also, please note that all of these may not be
working by the time you read this and that network congestion frequently
makes an NUA inaccessible for a short period of time.

NUA:                                                    SYSTEM TYPE:

031102010022500                                 VAX
031102010015600                                 UNIX
031102010022000                                 VAX
031102010025900                                 UNIX
031102010046100                                 VAX
031102010025200                                 PRIME
031102010046100                                 VAX
031102010052200                                 VAX
031102020001000                                 PRIME
031102020013200                                 VAX
031102020014100                                 PRIME
031102020014200                                 PRIME
031102020015000                                 VAX
031102020016100                                 UNIX
031102020021400                                 PRIME
031102020024500                                 AOS
031102020030800                                 PRIME
031102020030900                                 PRIME
031102020031200                                 PRIME
031102020033600                                 VAX
031102020033700                                 VAX
031102020034300                                 PRIME
031102020036000                                 HP-3000
031102030007500                                 VAX
031102030002200                                 VM/370
031102030013600                                 PRIME
031102060003200                                 HP-3000
031102060044000                                 VAX
031102060044900                                 NOS
031102060044700                                 VM/370
031102120003900                                 NOS
031102120015200                                 PRIME
031102120026600                                 VAX
031102120026300                                 VAX
031102120026700                                 UNIX
031102120044900                                 UNIX
031102120053900                                 VOS
031102140024000                                 VAX

J. Basic UNIX hacking

[This is changing giving the number of intrusion detection programs
coming into the market place, so if possible, find out what
counterespionage polices the business has in place.  Perhaps a temp job
would be a good place to start.  Or you can look through the trash at 3a
in the morning. LIP]

        UNIX is probably the most commonly used operating system on
Telenet, and is the easiest to hack since it doesn't record bad login
attempts.  You know you've found a UNIX system when it gives you a
"Login" prompt, and then a "Password" prompt. To get in you should first
try the default logins.(Listed below.) If these don't work try some of
the passwords listed in Section M. If these don't work try to find
backdoors. These are passwords that may have been put in to allow the
programmer (or someone else who could be in a position to make a
backdoor) to get access into the system. These are usually not known
about by anyone but the individual who made it. Try doing some research
on the programmer and other people who helped to make the system. And,
if these don't work, just try guessing them. The Login (usually the
account holders name) has 1-8 characters and the Password is 6-8
characters. Both can be either letters or numbers, or a combination of
the two.
        Once you get in, you should get a "$" prompt, or some other
special character like it. You should only use lower case letters when
hacking UNIX, this seems to be standard format. If you type "man
[command]" at the prompt, it should list all of the commands for that
system. Anyway, here are the default Logins and Passwords:

Login:                          Password:

root                                    root
root                                    system
sys                                     sys
sys                                     system
daemon                          daemon
uucp                                    uucp
tty                                     tty
test                                    test
unix                                    unix
unix                                    test
bin                                     bin
adm                                     adm
adm                                     admin
admin                                   adm
admin                                   admin
sysman                          sysman
sysman                          sys
sysman                          system
sysadmin                                sysadmin
sysadmin                                sys
sysadmin                                system
sysadmin                                admin
sysadmin                                adm
who                                     who
learn                                   learn
uuhost                          uuhost
guest                                   guest
host                                    host
nuucp                                   nuucp
rje                                     rje
games                                   games
games                                   player
sysop                                   sysop
root                                    sysop
demo                                    demo

        Once you are in, the first thing that you need to do is save the
password file to your hard drive or to a disk. The password file
contains the Logins and Passwords. The passwords are encoded. To get the
UNIX password file, depending on what type of UNIX you are in, you can
type one of the following things:

cat /etc/passwd

[Of course, shadow password stuff get confusing, so check out a book
entitled Practical Unix Security for more information. LIP]

        The first one is the standard command, but there are other
commands as well, like the second one. [Actually, the first "command" is
just the location of the file. Use the second command to view it. H.]
Once you get the password file, it should look like this:

john:234abc56:9999:13:John Johnson:/home/dir/john:/bin/john

        Broken down, this is what the above password file states:

Username: john
Encrypted Password: 234abc56
User Number: 9999
Group Number: 13
Other Information: John Johnson
Home Directory: /home/dir/john
Shell: /bin/john

[Note: the password is encrypted.  That means you should understand what
crypto is being used, which means you need to know what type of UNIX box
you are connecting to.  Likewise, you should look at a book entitled
Applied Cryptography and his corresponding website:
http://www.counterpane.com for his pdf file entitled A Self-Study Course
in Cryptanalysis. LIP]

        If the password file does not show up under one of the above two
commands, then it is probably shadowed.
        The following definition of password shadowing was taken from
the alt.2600 hack faq:
        "Password shadowing is a security system where the encrypted
password field is replaced with a special token and the encrypted
password is stored in a seperate file which is not readable by normal
system users."
        If the password file is shadowed, you can find it in one of the
following places, depending on the type of UNIX you are using:

UNIX System Type:               Path:                         Token:

AIX 3                           /etc/security/passwd            !
or                              /tcb/auth/files/<first letter   #
                                of username>/<username>
A/UX 3.Os                       /tcb/files/auth/*
BSD4.3-Reno                     /etc/master.passwd              *
ConvexOS 10                     /etc/shadpw                     *
Convex0S 11                     /etc/shadow                     *
DG/UX                           /etc/tcb/aa/user                *
EP/IX                           /etc/shadow                     x
HP-UX                           /.secure/etc/passwd             *
IRIX 5                          /etc/shadow                     x
Linux 1.1                       /etc/shadow                     *
OSF/1                           /etc/passwd[.dir|.pag]          *
SCO UNIX #.2.x          /tcb/auth/files/<first letter of        *
SunOS 4.1+c2            /etc/security/passwd.adjunct           ##
SunOS 5.0                       /etc/shadow
System V 4.0                    /etc/shadow                     x
System V 4.2                    /etc/security/*         database

Ultrix 4                        /etc/auth[.dir|.pag]            *
UNICOS                          /etc/udb                        *

        Some passwords can only be used for a certain amount of time
without having to be changed, this is called password aging. In the
password file example below, the "C.a4" is the password aging data:

bob:123456,C.a4:6348:45:Bob Wilson:/home/dir/bob:/bin/bob

        The characters in the password aging data stand for the

1. Maximum number of weeks a password can be used without changing.
2. Minimum number of weeks a password must be used before being
3&4. Last time password was changed, in number of weeks since 1970.

        The password aging data can be decoded using the chart below:

Character:                      Number:

.                               0
/                               1
0                               2
1                               3
2                               4
3                               5
4                               6
5                               7
6                               8
7                               9
8                               10
9                               11
A                               12
B                               13
C                               14
D                               15
E                               16
F                               17
G                               18
H                               19
I                               20
J                               21
K                               22
L                               23
M                               24
N                               25
O                               26
P                               27
Q                               28
R                               29
S                               30
T                               31
U                               32
V                               33
W                               34
X                               35
Y                               36
Z                               37
a                               38
b                               39
c                               40
d                               41
e                               42
f                               43
g                               44
h                               45
i                               46
j                               47
k                               48
l                               49
m                               50
n                               51
o                               52
p                               53
q                               54
r                               55
s                               56
t                               57
u                               58
v                               59
w                               60
x                               61
y                               62
z                               63

        Now, explore the system freely, be careful, and have fun!

K. Basic VAX/VMS hacking

        The VAX system runs the VMS (Virtual Memory System) operating
system. You know that you have a VAX system when you get a "username"
prompt. Type in capital letters, this seems to be standard on VAX's.
Type "HELP" and it gives you all of the help that you could possibly
want. Here are the default usernames and passwords for VAX's:

Username:                               Password:

SYSTEM                          OPERATOR
SYSTEM                          MANAGER
SYSTEM                          SYSTEM
SYSTEM                          SYSLIB
OPERATOR                                OPERATOR
SYSTEST                         UETP
SYSTEST                         SYSTEST
SYSTEST                         TEST
SYSMAINT                                SYSMAINT
SYSMAINT                                SERVICE
SYSMAINT                                DIGITAL
FIELD                                   FIELD
FIELD                                   SERVICE
GUEST                                   GUEST
GUEST                                   unpassworded
DEMO                                    DEMO
DEMO                                    unpassworded
TEST                                    TEST
DECNET                          DECNET

        Here are some of the VAX/VMS commands:

Command:                                Function:

HELP (H)                                Gives help and list of
TYPE (T)                                View contents of a file.
RENAME (REN)                    Change name of a file.
PURGE (PU)                              Deletes old versions of a
PRINT (PR)                              Prints a file.
DIRECTORY (DIR)                 Shows list of files.
(DIF)                           Shows differences between files.
CREATE (CR)                             Creates a file.
DELETE (DEL)                    Deletes a file.
COPY (COP)                              Copy a file to another.
CONTINUE (C)                    Continues session.

        The password file on VAX's are available when you type in the


        The password file on most VAX's are usually not available to
normal system users, but try it anyway. If the default logins don't
work, use the same means of finding one as stated in Section J.
        Be VERY careful when hacking VAX's becuase they record every bad
login attempt. They are sometimes considered one of the most secure
systems. Because of this, I advise not to try hacking these until you
are more advanced.
        But, when you are an advanced hacker, or if you are already an
advanced hacker, I advise that you try a few passwords at a time and
then wait and try a few more the next day and so on, because when the
real user logs on it displays all of the bad login attempts.

L. Basic PRIME hacking

        PRIME computer systems greet you with "Primecon 18.23.05", or
something like it, when you connect. You should type in capital letters
on this system, too. Once you connect, it will usually just sit there.
If this happens, type "LOGIN <USERNAME>". It should then ask you for
your username and password. The default usernames and passwords are
listed below:

Username:                       Password:

PRIME                           PRIME
PRIME                           PRIMOS
PRIMOS                  PRIMOS
PRIMOS                  PRIME
PRIMOS_CS                       PRIME
PRIMOS_CS                       PRIMOS
PRIMENET                        PRIMENET
SYSTEM                  SYSTEM
SYSTEM                  PRIME
SYSTEM                  PRIMOS
NETLINK                 NETLINK
TEST                            TEST
GUEST                           GUEST
GUEST1                  GUEST

        When you are inside the system, type "NETLINK" and it ahould
give you alot of help. This system uses NUA's, too. I might print these
in the next volume.

M. Password List

        The password list was taken from A Novice's Guide To Hacking, by
The Legion Of Doom, and from some of my own discoveries. Here is the
list of commonly used passwords:

[Avoid password guessing whenever possible.  This is a sure fire way to
get caught.  And if you are hacking into a system, you better understand
how to move around the system once you are in.  This is rather obvious,
but because a lot of hackers don't write their own tools, they don't
learn the fundamentals first. LIP]



N. Connecting modems to different phone lines

        Ok, if you are really paranoid (or smart) and you don't want to
hack from your house for fear of getting caught, you can hook up your
modem to other peoples phone lines or to payphones.

[Of course, now you are committing a federal crime.  More jail time.
Think about it.  I don't think the judge is gonna buy that you just
wanted to learn about phones, or that you just wanted to learn about
computers. LIP]

        If you want to hook your modem to a payphone, do it late at
night and at a very secluded payphone. Look along either side of the
phone. You should see a small metal tube (which contains the telephone
wires) running along the wall. Somewhere along the tube it should widen
out into a small box. Pop off the boxes lid and there is a nice little
phone jack for ya'. Taking off the lid may be difficult because they are
usually pretty secure, but nothing is impossible, so keep trying. Of
course, you can only do this with a lap-top computer.
         Now, if you want to hook up the modem to someone's house or
appartment phone line, you need to get a pair of red and green alligator
clips, and an extra modem cord for your lap-top.
        After you get those parts, cut the plastic end off of your modem
cord and you will see a red wire, a green wire, and two other wires, but
you can ignore those. Attach the red alligator clip to the red wire, and
attach the green alligator clip to the green wire and you're all set.
Now all you need to do is go find a telephone pole or one of those small
green boxes that stick out of the ground.(They should have a Bell
Systems logo on them.)
        On a telephone pole open the little box that has a bunch of
wires going to and from it. On the right side of the box you should see
what look like two large screws.(These are called "terminals".) One
should have a red wire wrapped around it and the other should have a
green wire wrapped around it. Attach the red alligator clip the the red
wire and the green alligator clip to the green wire, and you're all set.
This should get you a dial tone. If it doesn't, make sure that the
alligator clips are not touching each other, and that the alligator
clips are attached to the exposed end of the wire.
        Now, on those green boxes you need to undo all of the screws and
shit holding the lid on, and open it up. Then you should find basically
the same setup as in the telephone pole. Attach the appropriate wires to
the appropriate terminals and you are all set.
        This process can also be used to hook up a Beige Box (Lineman's
Handset.) when phreaking.

O. Viruses, Trojans, and Worms

        Just in case some of you are interested, here are the
definitions for Viruses, Trojans, and Worms.  These definitions were
taken from the alt.2600 hack faq.

[Actually, learning to write viruses is a good thing.  This teaches you
about how the file system works and about how .exe and .com files are
made up.  Also, a lot of new viruses are attacking .dll files, so make a
point to learn more. Of course, you're gonna need to learn assembly to
read and understand the documentation you are gonna find. LIP]


        "Remember the Trojan Horse? Bad guys hid inside it until they
could get into the city to do their evil deed. A Trojan computer program
is similiar. It is a program which does an unauthorized function, hidden
inside an authorized program. It does something other than it claims to
do, usually something malicious (although not necessarily!), and it is
intended by the author to do whatever it does. If it is not intentional,
it is called a bug or, in some cases, a feature :) Some Virus scanning
programs detect some Trojans. Some scanning programs don't detect any
Trojans. No Virus scanners detect all Trojans."


        "A Virus is an independent program which reproduces itself. It
may attach itself to other programs, it may create copies of itself (as
in companion Viruses). It may damage or corrupt data, change data, or
degrade the performance of your system by utilizing resources such as
memory or disk space. Some Virus scanners detect some Viruses. No Virus
scanners detect all Viruses. No Virus scanner can protect against any
and all Viruses, known and unknown, now and forevermore."


        "Made famous by Robert Morris, Jr., Worms are programs which
reproduce by copying themselves over and over, system to system, using
up resources and sometimes slowing down the system. They are self
contained and use the networks to spread, in much the same way that
Viruses use files to spread. Some people say the solution to Viruses and
worms is to just not have any files or networks. They are probably
correct. We could include computers."

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